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1.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 218, 2018 11 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477484

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale spp. and P. malariae cause illness in endemic regions and returning travellers. Far less is known about these species than P. falciparum and P. vivax. METHODS: The UK national surveillance data, collected 1987 to 2015, were collated with the International Passenger Survey and climatic data to determine geographical, temporal and seasonal trends of imported P. ovale spp. and P. malariae infection. RESULTS: Of 52,242 notified cases of malaria, 6.04% (3157) were caused by P. ovale spp. and 1.61% (841) by P. malariae; mortality was 0.03% (1) and 0.12% (1), respectively. Almost all travellers acquired infection in West or East Africa. Infection rate per travel episode fell fivefold during the study period. The median latency of P. malariae and P. ovale spp. was 18 and 76 days, respectively; delayed presentation occurred with both species. The latency of P. ovale spp. infection imported from West Africa was significantly shorter in those arriving in the UK during the West African peak malarial season compared to those arriving outside it (44 days vs 94 days, p < 0.0001), implying that relapse synchronises with the period of high malarial transmission. This trend was not seen in P. ovale spp. imported from East Africa nor in P. malariae. CONCLUSION: In West Africa, where malaria transmission is highly seasonal, P. ovale spp. may have evolved to relapse during the malarial high transmission season. This has public health implications. Deaths are very rare, supporting current guidelines emphasising outpatient treatment. However, late presentations do occur.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Plasmodium malariae , Plasmodium ovale , Viaje , Reino Unido/epidemiología
2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 17: 35-42, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28456684

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We describe trends of malaria in London (2000-2014) in order to identify preventive opportunities and we estimated the cost of malaria admissions (2009/2010-2014/2015). METHODS: We identified all cases of malaria, resident in London, reported to the reference laboratory and obtained hospital admissions from Hospital Episode Statistics. RESULTS: The rate of malaria decreased (19.4[2001]-9.1[2014] per 100,000). Males were over-represented (62%). Cases in older age groups increased overtime. The rate was highest amongst people of Black African ethnicity followed by Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi ethnicities combined (103.3 and 5.5 per 100,000, respectively). The primary reason for travel was visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in their country of origin (69%), mostly sub-Saharan Africa (92%). The proportion of cases in VFRs increased (32%[2000]-50%[2014]) and those taking chemoprophylaxis decreased (36%[2000]-14%[2014]). The overall case fatality rate was 0.3%. We estimated the average healthcare cost of malaria admissions to be just over £1 million per year. CONCLUSION: Our study highlighted that people of Black African ethnicity, travelling to sub-Saharan Africa to visit friends and relatives in their country of origin remain the most affected with also a decline in chemoprophylaxis use. Malaria awareness should focus on this group in order to have the biggest impact but may require new approaches.


Asunto(s)
Malaria , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/etnología , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Quimioprevención/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Londres/epidemiología , Malaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Malaria/economía , Malaria/epidemiología , Malaria/etnología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(10): e0004068, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26485258

RESUMEN

Plasmodium malariae is widely distributed across the tropics, causing symptomatic malaria in humans with a 72-hour fever periodicity, and may present after latency periods lasting up to many decades. Delayed occurrence of symptoms is observed in humans using chemoprophylaxis, or patients having received therapies targeting P. falciparum intraerythrocytic asexual stages, but few investigators have addressed the biological basis of the ability of P. malariae to persist in the human host. To investigate these interesting features of P. malariae epidemiology, we assembled, here, an extensive case series of P. malariae malaria patients presenting in non-endemic China, Sweden, and the UK who returned from travel in endemic countries, mainly in Africa. Out of 378 evaluable P. malariae cases, 100 (26.2%) reported using at least partial chemoprophylaxis, resembling the pattern seen with the relapsing parasites P. ovale spp. and P. vivax. In contrast, for only 7.5% of imported UK cases of non-relapsing P. falciparum was any chemoprophylaxis use reported. Genotyping of parasites from six patients reporting use of atovaquone-proguanil chemoprophylaxis did not reveal mutations at codon 268 of the cytb locus of the P. malariae mitochondrial genome. While travellers with P. malariae malaria are significantly more likely to report prophylaxis use during endemic country travel than are those with P. falciparum infections, atovaquone-proguanil prophylaxis breakthrough was not associated with pmcytb mutations. These preliminary studies, together with consistent observations of the remarkable longevity of P. malariae, lead us to propose re-examination of the dogma that this species is not a relapsing parasite. Further studies are needed to investigate our favoured hypothesis, namely that P. malariae can initiate a latent hypnozoite developmental programme in the human hepatocyte: if validated this will explain the consistent observations of remarkable longevity of parasitism, even in the presence of antimalarial prophylaxis or treatment.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/farmacología , Atovacuona/farmacología , Citocromos b/genética , Mutación , Plasmodium malariae/efectos de los fármacos , Proguanil/farmacología , Codón , Combinación de Medicamentos , Plasmodium malariae/genética
4.
BMJ ; 350: h1703, 2015 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25882309

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal and geographical trends, risk factors, and seasonality of imported vivax malaria in the United Kingdom to inform clinical advice and policy. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: National surveillance data from the UK Public Health England Malaria Reference Laboratory, data from the International Passenger Survey, and international climactic data. PARTICIPANTS: All confirmed and notified cases of malaria in the UK (n=50,187) from 1987 to 2013, focusing on 12,769 cases of vivax malaria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality, sociodemographic details (age, UK region, country of birth and residence, and purpose of travel), destination, and latency (time between arrival in the UK and onset of symptoms). RESULTS: Of the malaria cases notified, 25.4% (n=12,769) were due to Plasmodium vivax, of which 78.6% were imported from India and Pakistan. Most affected patients (53.5%) had travelled to visit friends and relatives, and 11.1% occurred in tourists. Imported P vivax is concentrated in areas with large communities of south Asian heritage. Overall mortality was 7/12,725 (0.05%), but with no deaths in 9927 patients aged under 50 years. Restricting the analysis to those aged more than 50 years, mortality was 7/2798 (0.25%), increasing to 4/526 (0.76%) (adjusted odds ratio 32.0, 95% confidence interval 7.1 to 144.0, P<0.001) in those aged 70 years or older. Annual notifications decreased sharply over the period, while traveller numbers between the UK and South Asia increased. The risk of acquiring P vivax from South Asia was year round but was twice as high from June to September (40 per 100,000 trips) compared with the rest of the year. There was strong seasonality in the latency from arrival in the UK to presentation, significantly longer in those arriving in the UK from South Asia from October to March (median 143 days) versus those arriving from April to September (37 days, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Travellers visiting friends and family in India and Pakistan are most at risk of acquiring P vivax, and older patients (especially those >70 years) are most at risk of dying; these groups should be targeted for advice before travelling. The risk of acquiring vivax malaria is year round but higher during summer monsoons, masked by latency. The latency of time to clinical presentation of imported vivax malaria in the UK is highly seasonal; seasonal latency has implications for pretravel advice but also for the control of malaria in India and Pakistan. A reduced incidence of vivax malaria in travellers may mean further areas of South Asia can be considered not to need malaria chemoprophylaxis.


Asunto(s)
Malaria Vivax/etiología , Viaje , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria Vivax/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 11(4): 205-9, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23735685

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Malaria Reference Laboratory (MRL) provides a specialist advisory service for complex queries from healthcare professionals. This study was conducted to examine the types of queries that general practitioners and nurses ask around malaria prophylaxis, to identify issues which are not obvious from existing easily available sources. METHODS: We reviewed all the faxed requests received over a period of 6 months at the MRL. RESULTS: There were a total of 608 queries (104 concerning children) relating to 450 travellers. 98% of requests were from general practice (GP or practice nurse). The most common enquiries were about travellers to multiple destinations (95/529, 17.96%), prolonged duration of travel (70/529, 13.23%), the immunosuppressed (38/529, 7.18%), potential drug interactions (69/529, 13.04%), pregnancy and conception (36, 6.81%). 79/529 queries related to patients with multiple conditions requiring expert advice from the MRL. 27% of the enquiries could have been answered by consulting the UK malaria prophylaxis guidelines available on the MRL site. CONCLUSION: Most queries where practitioners requested help were not easily answered with existing guidelines. Pregnancy and epilepsy are areas where guidance needs strengthening. Difficulties for practitioners were multifactorial, it would be difficult to address all scenarios in guidelines without making them unwieldy.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Malaria/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Medicina General , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Salud Pública , Estudios Retrospectivos , Viaje , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
BMJ Open ; 2(6)2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23148346

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To quantify geographical concentration of falciparum malaria cases in the UK at a hospital level. To assess potential delay-to-treatment associated with hub-and-spoke distribution of artesunate in severe cases. DESIGN: Observational study using national and hospital data. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 3520 patients notified to the Malaria Reference Laboratory 2008-2010, 34 patients treated with intravenous artesunate from a tropical diseases centre 2002-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Geographical location of falciparum cases notified in the UK. Diagnosis-to-treatment times for intravenous artesunate. RESULTS: Eight centres accounted for 43.9% of the UK's total cases; notifications from 107 centres accounted for 10.2% of cases; 51.5% of hospitals seeing malaria notified 5 or fewer cases in 3 years. Centres that saw <10 cases/year treat 26.3% of malaria cases; 6.1% of cases are treated in hospitals seeing <2 cases/year. Concentration of falciparum malaria was highest in Greater London (1925, 54.7%), South East (515, 14.6%), East of England (402, 11.4%) and North West (192, 5.4%). The North East and Northern Ireland each notified 5 or fewer cases per year. Median diagnosis-to-treatment time was 1 h (range 0.5-5) for patients receiving artesunate in the specialist centre; 7.5 h (range 4-26) for patients receiving it in referring hospitals via the hub-and-spoke system (p=0.02); 25 h (range 9-45) for patients receiving it on transfer to the regional centre from a referring hospital (p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Most UK hospitals see few cases of falciparum malaria and geographical distances are significant. Over 25% of cases are seen in hospitals where malaria is rare, although 60% are seen in hospitals seeing over 50 cases over 3 years. A hub-and-spoke system minimises drug wastage and ensures availability in centres seeing most cases but is associated with treatment delays elsewhere. As with all observational studies, there are limitations, which are discussed.

7.
BMJ ; 344: e2116, 2012 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22454091

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine which travellers with malaria are at greatest risk of dying, highlighting factors which can be used to target health messages to travellers. DESIGN: Observational study based on 20 years of UK national data. SETTING: National register of malaria cases. PARTICIPANTS: 25,054 patients notified with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, of whom 184 died, between 1987 and 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison between those with falciparum malaria who died and non-fatal cases, including age, reason for travel, country of birth, time of year diagnosed, malaria prophylaxis used. RESULTS: Mortality increased steadily with age, with a case fatality of 25/548 (4.6%) in people aged >65 years, adjusted odds ratio 10.68 (95% confidence interval 6.4 to 17.8), P<0.001 compared with 18-35 year olds. There were no deaths in the ≤ 5 year age group. Case fatality was 3.0% (81/2740 cases) in tourists compared with 0.32% (26/8077) in travellers visiting friends and relatives (adjusted odds ratio 8.2 (5.1 to 13.3), P<0.001). Those born in African countries with endemic malaria had a case fatality of 0.4% (36/8937) compared with 2.4% (142/5849) in others (adjusted odds ratio 4.6 (3.1 to 9.9), P<0.001). Case fatality was particularly high from the Gambia. There was an inverse correlation in mortality between region of presentation and number of cases seen in the region (R(2) = 0.72, P<0.001). Most delay in fatal cases was in seeking care. CONCLUSIONS: Most travellers acquiring malaria are of African heritage visiting friends and relatives. In contrast the risks of dying from malaria once acquired are highest in the elderly, tourists, and those presenting in areas in which malaria is seldom seen. Doctors often do not think of these as high risk groups for malaria; for this reason they are important groups to target in pre-travel advice.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración , Malaria Falciparum/mortalidad , Viaje , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnología , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria Falciparum/etnología , Malaria Falciparum/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
J Infect Dis ; 201(10): 1544-50, 2010 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20380562

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria in humans is caused by apicomplexan parasites belonging to 5 species of the genus Plasmodium. Infections with Plasmodium ovale are widely distributed but rarely investigated, and the resulting burden of disease is not known. Dimorphism in defined genes has led to P. ovale parasites being divided into classic and variant types. We hypothesized that these dimorphs represent distinct parasite species. METHODS: Multilocus sequence analysis of 6 genetic characters was carried out among 55 isolates from 12 African and 3 Asia-Pacific countries. RESULTS: Each genetic character displayed complete dimorphism and segregated perfectly between the 2 types. Both types were identified in samples from Ghana, Nigeria, São Tomé, Sierra Leone, and Uganda and have been described previously in Myanmar. Splitting of the 2 lineages is estimated to have occurred between 1.0 and 3.5 million years ago in hominid hosts. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that P. ovale comprises 2 nonrecombining species that are sympatric in Africa and Asia. We speculate on possible scenarios that could have led to this speciation. Furthermore, the relatively high frequency of imported cases of symptomatic P. ovale infection in the United Kingdom suggests that the morbidity caused by ovale malaria has been underestimated.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/parasitología , Plasmodium ovale/genética , Animales , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Salud Global , Humanos , Malaria/epidemiología , Filogenia , Plasmodium ovale/clasificación , ARN Ribosómico/genética
9.
BMJ ; 337: a120, 2008 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18599471

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal, geographic, and sociodemographic trends in case reporting and case fatality of malaria in the United Kingdom. SETTING: National malaria reference laboratory surveillance data in the UK. DESIGN: Observational study using prospectively gathered surveillance data and data on destinations from the international passenger survey. PARTICIPANTS: 39,300 cases of proved malaria in the UK between 1987 and 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasmodium species; sociodemographic details (including age, sex, and country of birth and residence); mortality; destination, duration, and purpose of international travel; and use of chemoprophylaxis. RESULTS: Reported cases of imported malaria increased significantly over the 20 years of the study; an increasing proportion was attributable to Plasmodium falciparum (P falciparum/P vivax reporting ratio 1.3:1 in 1987-91 and 5.4:1 in 2002-6). P vivax reports declined from 3954 in 1987-91 to 1244 in 2002-6. Case fatality of reported P falciparum malaria did not change over this period (7.4 deaths per 1000 reported cases). Travellers visiting friends and relatives, usually in a country in Africa or Asia from which members of their family migrated, accounted for 13 215/20 488 (64.5%) of all malaria reported, and reports were geographically concentrated in areas where migrants from Africa and South Asia to the UK have settled. People travelling for this purpose were at significantly higher risk of malaria than other travellers and were less likely to report the use of any chemoprophylaxis (odds ratio of reported chemoprophylaxis use 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.21 to 0.25). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of highly effective preventive measures, the preventable burden from falciparum malaria has steadily increased in the UK while vivax malaria has decreased. Provision of targeted and appropriately delivered preventive messages and services for travellers from migrant families visiting friends and relatives should be a priority.


Asunto(s)
Malaria/mortalidad , Viaje , Adulto , África/etnología , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Asia/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Malaria/prevención & control , Malaria Falciparum/mortalidad , Malaria Falciparum/prevención & control , Malaria Vivax/mortalidad , Malaria Vivax/prevención & control , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Características de la Residencia , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
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