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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 634-647, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591722

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Unlike in developed countries, where the main source of vitamin A comes from meat, the diet of poor populations in SSA is largely plant based. It is thus important to identify local / popular plants with higher vitamin A content for combating VAD. Banana (including plantains) is an important staple food crop in this region. The identification and promotion of vitamin A-rich banana cultivars could contribute significantly to the alleviation of VAD in areas heavily dependent on the crop. We assessed pro-vitamin A carotenoid (pVACs) content in the fruit pulp of 48 local plantains from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, to identify cultivars that could help reduce VAD, especially among young children and women of reproductive age. RESULTS: Mean pVACs content varied from 175-1756 µg/100 gfw in ripe fruits. Significant increases (P < 0.001) in total pVACs content occurred after ripening in all cultivars except 'UCG II'. Retinol activity equivalents (RAE) in ripe fruits ranged from 12-113 µg/100 gfw. Fifteen plantain cultivars, including 'Adili II', 'Nzirabahima', 'Mayayi', 'Buembe', and 'Sanza Tatu' (associated with RAE values of 44 µg/100 gfw and above) can be considered as good sources of pVACs. Modest consumption (250 or 500 gfw) of the fruit pulp of the five best plantain cultivars at ripening stage 5 meets between 39-71% and 44-81% of vitamin A dietary reference intake (DRI) respectively, for children below 5 years old and women of reproductive age. CONCLUSION: The 15 best plantain cultivars (especially the top 5) could potentially be introduced / promoted as alternative sources of pro-vitamin A in banana-dependent communities, and help to reduce cases of VAD substantially. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Carotenoides/análisis , Musa/química , Vitamina A/análisis , Adolescente , Adulto , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Preescolar , República Democrática del Congo , Femenino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Musa/clasificación , Musa/metabolismo , Provitaminas/análisis , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/dietoterapia , Deficiencia de Vitamina A/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213691, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939129

RESUMEN

Banana production landscapes in the African Great Lakes Region (AGLR) have been under immense pressure from Xanthomonas wilt (XW) disease over the past two decades. XW, first reported on banana in central Uganda and eastern DR Congo in 2001, has since spread to the entire AGLR. XW is currently spreading westwards from hot spots in eastern DR Congo highlands, putting the plantain (Musa AAB genome) belt of central and west Africa at risk. In-depth understanding of the key variables responsible for disease spread, current hotspots, and vulnerable landscapes is crucial for disease early warning and management. We mapped aggregated disease distribution and hotspots in the AGLR and identified vulnerable landscapes across African banana production zones. Available data on disease prevalence collected over 11 years was regressed against environmental and expert developed covariates to develop the AGLR XW hotspots map. For the Africa-wide risk map, precipitation, distance to hotspots, degree of trade in fresh banana products, production zone interconnectedness and banana genotype composition were used as covariates. In the AGLR, XW was mainly correlated to precipitation and disease/banana management. Altitude and temperature had unexpectedly low effects, possibly due to an overriding impact of tool-mediated spread which is part of the management covariate. In the AGLR, the eastern part of DR Congo was a large hotspot with highest vulnerability. Apart from endemic zones in the AGLR and Ethiopia, northern Mozambique was perceived as a moderate risk zone mainly due to the predominance of 'Bluggoe' (Musa ABB type) which is highly susceptible to insect-vectored transmission. Presence of XW hotspots (e.g. eastern DR Congo) and vulnerable areas with low (e.g. north-western Tanzania) or no disease (e.g. Congo basin, western DR Congo and northern Mozambique) pressure suggest key areas where proactive measures e.g. quarantines and information sharing on XW diagnosis, epidemiology, and control could be beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Musa/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Xanthomonas/patogenicidad , África Occidental , Congo , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Etiopía , Great Lakes Region , Mozambique , Musa/genética , Musa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Tanzanía , Uganda , Xanthomonas/genética
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708958

RESUMEN

Misuse and poor handling of chemical pesticides in agriculture is hazardous to the health of farmers, consumers, and to the environment. We studied the pest and disease management practices and the type of pesticides used in four root, tuber, and banana (RTB) crops in Rwanda and Burundi through in-depth interviews with a total of 811 smallholder farmers. No chemical pesticides were used in banana in either Rwanda and Burundi, whereas the use of insecticides and fungicides in potato was quite frequent. Nearly all insecticides and about one third of the fungicides used are moderately hazardous. Personal protective equipment was used by less than a half of the interviewed farmers in both countries. Reported cases of death due to self- or accidental-poisoning among humans and domestic animals in the previous 12 months were substantial in both countries. Training of farmers and agrochemical retailers in safe use of pesticide and handling and, use of integrated pest management approaches to reduce pest and disease damage is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Plaguicidas/efectos adversos , Burundi , Humanos , Salud Laboral/educación , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Control de Plagas/métodos , Control de Plagas/estadística & datos numéricos , Plaguicidas/envenenamiento , Rwanda
4.
Ann Bot ; 123(5): 747-766, 2019 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enset (Ensete ventricosum, Musaceae) is an African crop that currently provides the staple food for approx. 20 million Ethiopians. Whilst wild enset grows over much of East and Southern Africa and the genus extends across Asia to China, it has only ever been domesticated in the Ethiopian Highlands. Here, smallholder farmers cultivate hundreds of landraces across diverse climatic and agroecological systems. SCOPE: Enset has several important food security traits. It grows over a relatively wide range of conditions, is somewhat drought-tolerant, and can be harvested at any time of the year, over several years. It provides an important dietary starch source, as well as fibres, medicines, animal fodder, roofing and packaging. It stabilizes soils and microclimates and has significant cultural importance. In contrast to the other cultivated species in the family Musaceae (banana), enset has received relatively little research attention. Here, we review and critically evaluate existing research, outline available genomic and germplasm resources, aspects of pathology, and explore avenues for crop development. CONCLUSION: Enset is an underexploited starch crop with significant potential in Ethiopia and beyond. Research is lacking in several key areas: empirical studies on the efficacy of current agronomic practices, the genetic diversity of landraces, approaches to systematic breeding, characterization of existing and emerging diseases, adaptability to new ranges and land-use change, the projected impact of climate change, conservation of crop wild relatives, by-products or co-products or non-starch uses, and the enset microbiome. We also highlight the limited availability of enset germplasm in living collections and seedbanks, and the lack of knowledge of reproductive and germination biology needed to underpin future breeding. By reviewing the current state of the art in enset research and identifying gaps and opportunities, we hope to catalyse the development and sustainable exploitation of this neglected starch crop.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1471, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364243

RESUMEN

Alternative host plants are important in the survival and perpetuation of several crop pathogens and have been suspected to play a role in the survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) and perpetuation of Xanthomonas wilt (XW) disease of banana and enset. This study determined the potential risk posed by two weeds (Canna spp. and wild sorghum) and common banana intercrops (maize, millet, sorghum, taro, and sugarcane) as alternative hosts to Xcm. The study employed screenhouse experiments, laboratory procedures and diagnosis of banana fields in XW-affected landscapes. Typical XW symptoms were only observed in artificially inoculated Canna sp., with an incidence of 96%. Leaf lesions characteristic of xanthomonads occurred on millet (50%) and sorghum (35%), though the plants recovered. No symptoms occurred in maize, sugarcane, taro or wild sorghum. However, Xcm was recovered from all these plant species, with higher recoveries in Canna sp. (47%), millet (27%), sugarcane (27%), and wild sorghum (25%). Only isolates recovered from Canna sp., millet, sorghum and wild sorghum caused disease in banana plantlets. The presence and incidence of XW on-farm was positively associated with the presence of susceptible ABB Musa genotypes and negatively with number of banana cultivars on farm and household access to training on XW management. Only 0.02% of field sampled Canna spp. plants had Xcm. Risk posed by Canna spp. on-farm could be limited to tool transmission as it has persistent floral bracts that prevent insect-mediated infections. Given the high susceptibility, perennial nature and propagation through rhizomes of Canna sp., it could pose a moderate-high risk, thus warranting some attention in the management of XW disease. Sugarcane could offer a low-moderate risk due to its perennial nature and propagation through rhizomes while risk from maize, millet, and sorghum was deemed zero-low due to their annual nature, wind-mediated mode of pollination and propagation through seed. Understanding the interactions of a crop pathogen with other plants is thus important when diversifying agroecosystems. The study findings also suggest other factors such as cultivar composition and management of the disease at farm and landscape level to be important in the perpetuation of XW disease.

6.
Plant Dis ; 102(3): 552-560, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673475

RESUMEN

Banana Fusarium wilt is a major production constraint globally and a significant threat to the livelihoods of millions of people in East and Central Africa (ECA). A proper understanding of the diversity and population dynamics of the causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), could be useful for the development of sustainable disease management strategies for the pathogen. The current study investigated the diversity of Foc in ECA using vegetative compatibility group (VCG) analysis, PCR-RFLPs of the ribosomal DNA's intergenic spacer region, as well as phylogenetic analysis of the elongation factor-1α gene. Six VCGs (0124, 0125, 0128, 01212, 01220, and 01222), which all belong to one lineage (Foc lineage VI), were widely distributed throughout the region. VCGs 0128 and 01220 are reported for the first time in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, while VCG 01212 is reported in the DRC and Rwanda. Isolates that did not belong to any of the known VCGs were identified as Foc lineage VI members by phylogenetic analysis and may represent novel VCGs. CAV 2734, a banana pathogen collected in Rwanda, clustered with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolates in lineage VIII. Results from this study will contribute significantly toward the implementation of banana Fusarium wilt disease management practices in the region, such as the restricted movement of infected planting material and the selective planting of resistant banana varieties.


Asunto(s)
Fusarium/genética , Variación Genética , Musa/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , África Central , África Oriental , Fusarium/clasificación , Fusarium/aislamiento & purificación , Fusarium/patogenicidad , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1290, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785275

RESUMEN

Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1) Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis); (2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

8.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 12(1): 34, 2016 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27586388

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) belongs to the order sctaminae, the family musaceae. The Musaceae family is subdivided into the genera Musa and Ensete. Enset is an important staple crop for about 20 million people in the country. Recent publications on enset ethnobotany are insignificant when compared to the diverse ethnolingustic communities in the country. Hence, this paper try to identify and document wealth of indigenous knowledge associated with the distribution, diversity, and management of enset in the country. METHODS: The study was conducted in eight ethnic groups in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State. In order to identify and document wealth of indigenous knowledge, the data was collected mainly through individual interviews and direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 320 farm households, key informant interviews. Relevant secondary data, literature and inter-personal data were collected from unpublished progress report from National Enset Research Project, elderly people and senior experts. RESULTS: Enset-based farming system is one of a major agricultural system in Ethiopia that serves as a backbone for at least » of country's population. Farmers used three morphological characters, two growth attributes, disease resistance and five use values traits in folk classification and characterization of enset. A total of 312 folk landraces have been identified. The number of landraces cultivated on individual farms ranged from one to twenty eight (mean of 8.08 ± 0.93). All ethnic groups in the study area use five use categories in order of importance: kocho yield and quality, bulla quality, amicho use, fiber quality and medicinal/ritual value. Of the 312 landraces 245 landraces having more than two use types. Management and maintenance of on-farm enset diversity is influenced by systematic propagation of the landraces, exchange of planting material and selective pressure. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the existing farmers' knowledge on naming, classification and diversity should be complemented with maintenance of the creative dynamics of traditional knowledge and transmission of the knowledge are crucial for constructing sustainable management.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Conocimiento , Biodiversidad , Etiopía , Humanos , Musaceae
9.
Virus Evol ; 1(1): vev009, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27774281

RESUMEN

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV; family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) is a multi-component single-stranded DNA virus, which infects banana plants in many regions of the world, often resulting in large-scale crop losses. We analyzed 171 banana leaf samples from fourteen countries and recovered, cloned, and sequenced 855 complete BBTV components including ninety-four full genomes. Importantly, full genomes were determined from eight countries, where previously no full genomes were available (Samoa, Burundi, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, and the USA [HI]). Accounting for recombination and genome component reassortment, we examined the geographic structuring of global BBTV populations to reveal that BBTV likely originated in Southeast Asia, that the current global hotspots of BBTV diversity are Southeast Asia/Far East and India, and that BBTV populations circulating elsewhere in the world have all potentially originated from infrequent introductions. Most importantly, we find that rather than the current global BBTV distribution being due to increases in human-mediated movements of bananas over the past few decades, it is more consistent with a pattern of infrequent introductions of the virus to different parts of the world over the past 1,000 years.

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