Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
1.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441447

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to estimate the percentage of European men who have sex with men (MSM) who may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), applying the three most widely used HIV risk indices for MSM (MSM Risk Index, Menza score, San Diego Early Test (SDET) score) and drawing on a large-scale multisite bio-behavioural survey (Sialon II). METHODS: The Sialon II study was a bio-behavioural survey among MSM implemented in 13 European cities using either time-location sampling or respondent-driven sampling. Biological and behavioural data from 4901 MSM were collected. Only behavioural data of HIV-negative individuals were considered. Three widely used risk indices to assess HIV acquisition risk among MSM were used to estimate individual HIV risk scores and PrEP eligibility criteria. RESULTS: 4219 HIV-negative MSM were considered. Regardless the HIV risk score used and the city, percentages of MSM eligible for PrEP were found to range between 5.19% and 73.84%. Overall, the MSM Risk Index and the Menza score yielded broadly similar percentages, whereas the SDET Index provided estimates constantly lower across all cities. Although all the three scores correlated positively (r>0.6), their concordance was highly variable (0.01

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e033290, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483434

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Portugal has the highest HIV incidence rate in Western Europe. The proportion assigned to sexual contact between men recently increased to more than 30% of all HIV infections. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are vulnerable to the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), increasing the per-contact risk of HIV infection. Building on syndemic theory, the aim of this analysis was to identify patterns of current sexual behaviour in MSM, and explore their relationship with self-reported current, past STI diagnoses and HIV positive serostatus. DESIGN: A cross-sectional behavioural survey was conducted in Portugal among MSM, using a community-based participatory research approach. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify patterns including behavioural and demographic factors. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in six clusters. Three clusters showed higher rates of current STI diagnosis (ranging from 11.7% to 17.1%), past STI diagnosis (ranging from 25.5% to 41.5%) and HIV positive serostatus (ranging from 13.0% to 16.7%). From the three clusters scoring lower on current and past STI and HIV diagnoses, one was characterised by a high number of sexual partners (62% had more than 12 partners in the last year), a high proportion (94.6%) of frequent visits to gay venues to meet sexual partners and high alcohol use (46.1%). The other two clusters scored lower on high risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: Factors other than sexual behaviour appear to reinforce the vulnerability to STIs and HIV of some MSM in this study, suggesting a syndemic of STIs, HIV and other adverse conditions. More research is needed to better understand the drivers of the STI/HIV epidemic in Portuguese MSM, using a concept that goes beyond risk behaviour, to develop effective combination prevention interventions.

3.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238297

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infertility affects 48.5 million couples worldwide with a prevalence estimated at 3.5-16.7% in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and as high as 30-40% in Sub-Saharan Africa. ART services are not accessible to the majority of these infertile couples due to the high cost of treatments in addition to cultural, religious and legal barriers. Infertility and childlessness, particularly in LMIC, have devastating consequences, which has resulted in considerable interest in developing affordable IVF procedures. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the safety, efficiency and ability to replicate techniques under different field conditions, and how to integrate more affordable ART options into existing infrastructures. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review was performed to investigate the current availability of IVF in LMIC and which other ART options are under development. This work will unfold the landscape of available and potential ART services in LMIC and is a key element in positioning infertility more broadly in the Global Public Health Agenda. SEARCH METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed of articles and gray literature on IVF and other ART options in LMIC published between January 2010 and January 2020. We selected studies on IVF and other ART treatments for infertile couples of reproductive age (18-44 years) from LMIC. The review was limited to articles published after 2010, based on the recent evolution in the field of ART practices in LMIC over the last decade. Citations from high-income countries, including data prior to 2010 and focusing on specialized ART procedures, were excluded. The literature search included PubMed, Popline, CINHAL, EMBASE and Global Index Medicus. No restrictions were applied with regard to study design or language. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, and extracted data. A search for gray literature was performed using the 'Google' search engine and specific databases (worldcat.org, greylit.org). In addition, the reference lists of included studies were assessed. OUTCOMES: The search of the electronic databases yielded 3769 citations. After review of the titles and abstracts, 283 studies were included. The full texts were reviewed and a further 199 articles were excluded. The gray literature search yielded 586 citations, most of which were excluded after screening the title, and the remaining documents were excluded after full-text assessment due to duplicate entries, not from LMIC, not relevant or no access to the full document. Eighty-four citations were included as part of the review and separated into regions. The majority of the studies were observational and qualitative studies. In general, ART services are available and described in several LMIC, ranging from advanced techniques in China to basic introduction of IVF in some African countries. Efforts to provide affordable ART treatments are described in feasibility studies and efficacy studies; however, most citations were of low to very low quality. We found no studies from LMIC reporting the implementation of low-cost ART that is effective, accessible and affordable to most of those in need of the services. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The World Health Organization is in a unique position to provide much needed guidance for infertility management in LMIC. This review provides insight into the landscape of ART in LMIC in various regions worldwide, which will guide efforts to improve the availability, quality, accessibility and acceptability of biomedical infertility care, including ART in these countries.

5.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423944

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To provide an in-depth systematic assessment of the global epidemiology of gonorrhoea infection in infertile populations. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted up to 29 April 2019 on international databases and WHO regional databases, and reported following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. All prevalence measures of gonorrhoea infection among infertile populations, based on primary data, qualified for inclusion. Infertile populations were broadly defined to encompass women/men undergoing infertility evaluation or treatment (infertility clinic attendees and partners). Pooled mean prevalence by relevant strata was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. Associations with prevalence and sources of heterogeneity were explored using metaregression. Risk of bias was assessed using four quality domains. FINDINGS: A total of 147 gonorrhoea prevalence studies were identified from 56 countries. The pooled mean prevalence of current gonorrhoea infection was estimated globally at 2.2% (95% CI 1.3% to 3.2%), with the highest prevalence in Africa at 5.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 9.3%). The mean prevalence was higher for populations with tubal factor infertility (3.6%, 95% CI 0.9%-7.7%) and mixed cause and unexplained infertility (3.6%, 95% CI 0.0% to 11.6%) compared with other diagnoses, such as ovarian and non-tubal infertility (0.1%, 95% CI 0.0% to 0.8%), and for secondary (2.5%, 95% CI 0.2% to 6.5%) compared with primary (0.5%, 95% CI 0.0% to 1.7%) infertility. Metaregression identified evidence of variations in prevalence by region and by infertility diagnosis, higher prevalence in women than men and a small-study effect. There was a trend of declining prevalence by about 3% per year over the last four decades (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea prevalence in infertile populations is several folds higher than that in the general population, with even higher prevalence in women with tubal factor infertility and in individuals with secondary infertility. These findings support the potential role of gonorrhoea in infertility and suggest that some infertility is possibly preventable by controlling gonorrhoea transmission. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102934.

6.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 342-347, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241905

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2016, WHO estimated 376 million new cases of the four main curable STIs: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Further, an estimated 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus. STIs may lead to severe reproductive health sequelae. Low-income and middle-income countries carry the highest global burden of STIs. A large proportion of urogenital and the vast majority of extragenital non-viral STI cases are asymptomatic. Screening key populations and early and accurate diagnosis are important to provide correct treatment and to control the spread of STIs. This article paints a picture of the state of technology of STI point-of-care testing (POCT) and its implications for health system integration. METHODS: The material for the STI POCT landscape was gathered from publicly available information, published and unpublished reports and prospectuses, and interviews with developers and manufacturers. RESULTS: The development of STI POCT is moving rapidly, and there are much more tests in the pipeline than in 2014, when the first STI POCT landscape analysis was published on the website of WHO. Several of the available tests need to be evaluated independently both in the laboratory and, of particular importance, in different points of care. CONCLUSION: This article reiterates the importance of accurate, rapid and affordable POCT to reach universal health coverage. While highlighting the rapid technical advances in this area, we argue that insufficient attention is being paid to health systems capacity and conditions to ensure the swift and rapid integration of current and future STI POCT. Unless the complexity of health systems, including context, institutions, adoption systems and problem perception, are recognised and mapped, simplistic approaches to policy design and programme implementation will result in poor realisation of intended outcomes and impact.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevención & control , Sífilis/transmisión , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/transmisión
7.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(3): e15569, 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual well-being is fundamental to physical and emotional health, and the ability to achieve it depends on access to comprehensive sexuality information and high-quality sexual health care from evidence-informed, nonjudgmental providers. Adequate and timely delivery of these components to individuals who are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and unintended pregnancies promotes sexual health and mitigates consequences arising from risky sexual behavior. Brief interventions that allow health care providers to improve the information available to clients and motivate and help them to develop risk-reduction skills are seen as efficient ways to improve knowledge, change client behavior, and reduce provider stigma regarding sexual health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate five aspects of feasibility (acceptability, willingness, safety, satisfaction, and process) of a brief sexuality-related communication (BSC) intervention based on motivational interviewing and behavior change techniques in primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: This protocol outlines a multisite, multiphase study of feasibility of a BSC intervention in primary health care settings in LMICs that will be examined across four phases of the study. Phases I through III involve the collection of formative, qualitative data to examine provider and client perceptions of the feasibility of the intervention, adaptation of the intervention guide, and training providers on how to implement the final version of the BSC intervention. During phase IV, the feasibility of the intervention will be tested in a nonrandomized pre-post test trial where providers and clients will be followed for 6 months and participate in multiphase data collection. RESULTS: Phase I is currently underway in Moldova, and phases I and II were completed in Peru in late 2019. Results are expected for the feasibility study in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This feasibility study will determine whether the implementation of brief intervention programs aimed at improving sexual health outcomes is possible in the constraints of LMIC health systems and will add to our understanding of factors shaping clinical practice among primary care providers. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/15569.

8.
J Homosex ; : 1-19, 2019 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483215

RESUMEN

Data for MSM continue to show a high risk of acquiring HIV-STIs. Within this population, outness seems to have an impact on both risk-taking and on health seeking behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic, behavioral characteristics, testing behaviors, and outness level among MSM using data from a multi-center bio-behavioral cross-sectional study carried out in 13 EU cities. A multilevel analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with being open ("out") versus not being open ("in"). A total of 4,901 MSM were enrolled in the study and were classified as "out" in 71% of the cases. MSM "out" were more likely to report HIV testing and being reached by HIV prevention programs compared to MSM who were "in." The results confirm the key role of outness in relation to different healthy and risky behavior, ranging from testing to party-drug use.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e025808, 2019 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122971

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A key target of the WHO's 'Global Health Sector Strategy on sexually transmitted infections, 2016-2021' is achieving 90% reduction in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea for short) incidence globally by 2030. Though untreated, gonorrhoea has been linked to infertility, the epidemiology of this infection in infertile populations remains poorly understood and somewhat a neglected area of reproductive health. Our proposed systematic review aims to fill this gap by characterising comprehensively gonorrhoea infection in infertile populations globally. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All available studies of gonorrhoea infection in infertile populations, including infertility clinic attendees, will be systematically reviewed informed by Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Findings will be reported following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Data sources will be searched using broad index terms exploded to cover all subheadings and free text terms with no language or year restriction. Any epidemiological measure in infertile populations based on primary data will be eligible for inclusion. Measures based on different assay types will be extracted as separate studies for different analyses. Only one biospecimen type per assay type will be considered based on a predefined priority order. Samples including fewer than 10 participants or assessing infection in the upper genital tract will be excluded. Quality assessments will be conducted for all measures included in the review. Meta-analyses will be implemented using DerSimonian-Laird random effect models to estimate the mean prevalence of gonorrhoea in infertile populations globally, and stratified by WHO region, assay type, sex, infertility type, infertility diagnosis, among other factors. Detailed heterogeneity assessment will be performed, and potential sources of between-study heterogeneity will be explored using meta-regression. Review will be conducted from 26 March 2018 to 28 July 2019. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: An institutional review board clearance is not required as all data are publicly available. The findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and international scientific meetings/workshops with key stakeholders. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102934.


Asunto(s)
Gonorrea/epidemiología , Infertilidad/epidemiología , Salud Global , Humanos , Incidencia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/aislamiento & purificación , Prevalencia , Proyectos de Investigación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
10.
APMIS ; 126(12): 907-912, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456870

RESUMEN

Effective tests for diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), used point of care to inform treatment and management decisions, are urgently needed. We evaluated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV tests, examining 339 samples spiked with phenotypically and/or genetically diverse strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis, and other related species that may cross-react. The APTIMA Combo 2 test and APTIMA TV test were used as reference tests. The analytical sensitivity for all three agents in the Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV tests was ≤102 genome equivalents/reaction. The analytical specificity of both tests was high. False-positive results were identified in the Xpert® TV test when challenging with high concentrations of Trichomonas tenax, Trichomonas gallinae, Trichomonas stableri, and Trichomonas aotus. However, the clinical relevance of these cross-reactions can likely be neglected, because these species have not been identified in urogenital samples from humans. In conclusion, the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the user-friendly Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV tests on the GeneXpert system were high. The results support the use of specimens from also extra-genital sites, for example, pharynx and rectum. However, appropriate clinical validations are additionally required.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Reacciones Cruzadas , Reacciones Falso Positivas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
11.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204088, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260991

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Behaviour-change interventions have been consistently considered an essential part of comprehensive HIV, STI and unintended pregnancy prevention. In 2015, the World Health Organization reviewed and assessed existing evidence on brief behavioural interventions, leading to the publication of Brief sexuality-related communication: recommendations for a public health approach. This guideline recommends the use of brief behaviour intervention and communication programmes to promote sexual health and to prevent HIV, STIs, and unintended pregnancies in primary health services, particularly sexual and reproductive health services. OBJECTIVE: With the purpose of informing the development of a brief behaviour intervention in sexual and reproductive health, we conducted a systematic review of brief intervention to prevent HIV, STI and unintended pregnancies, to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used in health care settings. METHODS: Participants from all ages and genders were included. Brief interventions delivered in ≤ 60 minutes were included. Data was extracted, and interventions were coded following the Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1) guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 6.687 articles identified, 355 were reviewed and 37 studies were included. In effective interventions, we identified 48 behaviour change techniques (BCTs). A core set of 8 frequently used behaviour change techniques was identified: "Problem solving", "Feedback on behaviour", "Social support (unspecified)", "Instructions on how to perform the behaviour", "Information about health consequences", "Information about social and environmental consequences", "Demonstration of the behaviour" and "Credible source". CONCLUSIONS: The technical content of brief behaviour interventions was identified in a reliable and standardized way providing preliminary indications on potentially effective techniques to achieve behaviour change.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Embarazo no Planeado/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Sesgo de Publicación , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Bull World Health Organ ; 96(1): 29-41L, 2018 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403098

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods: We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings: We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion: More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.


Asunto(s)
Disforia de Género/psicología , Identidad de Género , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Percepción , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
13.
Sex Transm Infect ; 93(S4): S51-S58, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223963

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe has recently increased. Rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for syphilis can improve access to screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of two syphilis POCTs compared with laboratory tests among MSM. METHODS: The study was undertaken in Verona, Italy. Asymptomatic MSM, potentially exposed to syphilis, were enrolled prospectively. The POCTs evaluated were SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0 and Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen & Confirm Assay on both serum and fingerprick blood. The results of the POCTs were read by the naked eye by two independent readers and their concordance assessed. RESULTS: A total of 289 MSM were enrolled in the study. Based on laboratory tests, 35 MSM (12.1%) were TPPA-positive alone and 16 (5.5%) were both Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test (TPPA) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR)-positive. The specificities of both POCTs were above 99% on both serum and fingerstick blood specimens, while sensitivities varied considerably. The sensitivity of the SD Bioline test was lower on fingerprick blood (51.4% and 54.3%, readers 1 and 2, respectively) compared with that on serum (80.0% and 82.9%). In contrast, the Chembio test exhibited similar sensitivity values for serum and fingerprick samples (57.7% and 64.0% on serum vs 65.4% and 69.2% on fingerprick for the treponemal component; 63.6% on both samples by both readers for the non-treponemal component). The positive predictive value ranged between 100% and 93.9% for the treponemal component of both syphilis POCTs, but was lower (76.3%-100%)%) for the non-treponemal component of the Chembio POCT. The negative predictive value surpassed 90% for both tests on both samples. The agreement between readers was very high (>99%). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic performance of the syphilis POCTs was lower than expected; however, considering the prevalence of syphilis among MSM, POCTs should be recommended to improve syphilis detection among MSM.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/análisis , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Sífilis/microbiología , Sífilis/transmisión
14.
Sex Transm Infect ; 93(S4): S69-S80, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223965

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Advancing the field of point-of-care testing (POCT) for STIs can rapidly and substantially improve STI control and prevention by providing targeted, essential STI services (case detection and screening). POCT enables definitive diagnosis and appropriate treatment in a single visit and home and community-based testing. METHODS: Since 2014, the WHO Department of Reproductive Health and Research, in collaboration with technical partners, has completed four landscape analyses of promising diagnostics for use at or near the point of patient care to detect syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and the human papillomavirus. The analyses comprised a literature review and interviews. Two International Technical Consultations on STI POCTs (2014 and 2015) resulted in the development of target product profiles (TPP). Experts in STI microbiology, laboratory diagnostics, clinical management, public health and epidemiology participated in the consultations with representation from all WHO regions. RESULTS: The landscape analysis identified diagnostic tests that are either available on the market, to be released in the near future or in the pipeline. The TPPs specify 28 analytical and operational characteristics of POCTs for use in different populations for surveillance, screening and case management. None of the tests that were identified in the landscape analysis met all of the targets of the TPPs. CONCLUSION: More efforts of the global health community are needed to accelerate access to affordable quality-assured STI POCTs, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, by supporting the development of new diagnostic platforms as well as strengthening the validation and implementation of existing diagnostics according to internationally endorsed standards and the best available evidence.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/tendencias , Salud Pública , Salud Reproductiva , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina , Femenino , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sífilis/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control
15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 93(S4): S81-S88, 2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223966

RESUMEN

WHO recognises the global impact of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on global public health and individual sexual and reproductive health and well-being. As a component of the WHO Global Health Sector Strategy for the control and prevention of STIs, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of integrating point-of-care tests (POCTs) into overall strategic planning. The process of integrating STI POCTs, in addition to providing a definitive diagnosis and appropriate treatment in a single visit, also includes innovative delivery options, such as on-site delivery, community-based testing (including screening), as well as self-testing at home after purchase of a test online or over-the-counter. WHO organised two technical consultations in May 2014 and July 2015. This article summarises the discussions of the meeting participants on advancing the use of POCTs to control and prevent STIs. The following priorities were identified: the need for pathogens' target discovery; encouragement of multiplexing, miniaturisation, simplification and connectivity; promotion of standardisation of evaluation of new diagnostic platforms across all stages of the evaluation pipeline; the need for an investment case, modelling and scenarios to ensure buy-in among key stakeholders, including developers and the private sector; the need for norms and standards, including guidelines, to support introduction of STI POCTs in programmes; anticipating potential tensions between different parties at the implementation level; and leveraging on the global initiative, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)/global health sector STI strategy, to sustain investment in STI POCT programmes. There is a rich pipeline of diagnostic products, but some have stalled in development. An approach to accelerate the evaluation of new diagnostics is to set up a competent network of evaluation sites ahead of time, harmonise regulatory approval processes with development of models to estimate cost-effectiveness, informed by better STI data. This should result in accelerating policy development. Although it may be some time before good POCTs can be widely implemented in low resource settings, it is important to be a catalyst for continued development and use of these essential tools as an integral part of both the WHO Global Health Sector Strategy and the agenda for 2030.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/tendencias , Salud Reproductiva , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Prioridades en Salud , Humanos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 15: 16, 2016 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26800682

RESUMEN

Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) include individuals with a wide range of sexual orientations, physical characteristics, and gender identities and expressions. Data suggest that people in this group face a significant and poorly understood set of additional health risks and bear a higher burden of some diseases compared to the general population. A large amount of data is available on HIV/AIDS, but far less on other health problems. In this review we aimed to synthesize the knowledge on the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, mental health conditions and violence experienced by SGM, based on available systematic reviews. We conducted a global review of systematic reviews, including searching the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaboration libraries, as well as PubMed, using a range of search terms describing the populations of interest, without time or language restrictions. Google Scholar was also scanned for unpublished literature, and references of all selected reviews were checked to identify further relevant articles. We found 30 systematic reviews, all originally written in English. Nine reviews provided data on HIV, 12 on other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 4 on cancer, 4 on violence and 3 on mental health and substance use. A quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. The findings are presented in a narrative format. Our review primarily showed that there is a high burden of disease for certain subpopulations of SGM in HIV, STIs, STI-related cancers and mental health conditions, and that they also face high rates of violence. Secondly, our review revealed many knowledge gaps. Those gaps partly stem from a lack of original research, but there is an equally urgent need to conduct systematic and literature reviews to assess what we already know on the disease burden in SGM. Additional reviews are needed on the non-biological factors that could contribute to the higher disease burden. In addition, to provide universal access to health-care for all, more information is needed on the barriers that SGM face in accessing health services, including the attitudes of health-care providers. Understanding these barriers and the additional health risks they impose is crucial to improving the health status of SGM.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Salud de las Minorías/normas , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Violencia/psicología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA