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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1249-1254, 2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499628

RESUMEN

Although COVID-19 generally results in milder disease in children and adolescents than in adults, severe illness from COVID-19 can occur in children and adolescents and might require hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) support (1-3). It is not known whether the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant,* which has been the predominant variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) in the United States since late June 2021,† causes different clinical outcomes in children and adolescents compared with variants that circulated earlier. To assess trends among children and adolescents, CDC analyzed new COVID-19 cases, emergency department (ED) visits with a COVID-19 diagnosis code, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 among persons aged 0-17 years during August 1, 2020-August 27, 2021. Since July 2021, after Delta had become the predominant circulating variant, the rate of new COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-related ED visits increased for persons aged 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 increased for persons aged 0-17 years. Among persons aged 0-17 years during the most recent 2-week period (August 14-27, 2021), COVID-19-related ED visits and hospital admissions in the states with the lowest vaccination coverage were 3.4 and 3.7 times that in the states with the highest vaccination coverage, respectively. At selected hospitals, the proportion of COVID-19 patients aged 0-17 years who were admitted to an ICU ranged from 10% to 25% during August 2020-June 2021 and was 20% and 18% during July and August 2021, respectively. Broad, community-wide vaccination of all eligible persons is a critical component of mitigation strategies to protect pediatric populations from SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 illness.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/tendencias , Hospitalización/tendencias , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1228-1232, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473684

RESUMEN

Viral infections are a common cause of myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium) that can result in hospitalization, heart failure, and sudden death (1). Emerging data suggest an association between COVID-19 and myocarditis (2-5). CDC assessed this association using a large, U.S. hospital-based administrative database of health care encounters from >900 hospitals. Myocarditis inpatient encounters were 42.3% higher in 2020 than in 2019. During March 2020-January 2021, the period that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk for myocarditis was 0.146% among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during an inpatient or hospital-based outpatient encounter and 0.009% among patients who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, patients with COVID-19 during March 2020-January 2021 had, on average, 15.7 times the risk for myocarditis compared with those without COVID-19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.1-17.2); by age, risk ratios ranged from approximately 7.0 for patients aged 16-39 years to >30.0 for patients aged <16 years or ≥75 years. Overall, myocarditis was uncommon among persons with and without COVID-19; however, COVID-19 was significantly associated with an increased risk for myocarditis, with risk varying by age group. These findings underscore the importance of implementing evidence-based COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination, to reduce the public health impact of COVID-19 and its associated complications.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Miocarditis/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miocarditis/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(9): 1240-1251, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224257

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several U.S. hospitals had surges in COVID-19 caseload, but their effect on COVID-19 survival rates remains unclear, especially independent of temporal changes in survival. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between hospitals' severity-weighted COVID-19 caseload and COVID-19 mortality risk and identify effect modifiers of this relationship. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04688372). SETTING: 558 U.S. hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database. PARTICIPANTS: Adult COVID-19-coded inpatients admitted from March to August 2020 with discharge dispositions by October 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Each hospital-month was stratified by percentile rank on a surge index (a severity-weighted measure of COVID-19 caseload relative to pre-COVID-19 bed capacity). The effect of surge index on risk-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of in-hospital mortality or discharge to hospice was calculated using hierarchical modeling; interaction by surge attributes was assessed. RESULTS: Of 144 116 inpatients with COVID-19 at 558 U.S. hospitals, 78 144 (54.2%) were admitted to hospitals in the top surge index decile. Overall, 25 344 (17.6%) died; crude COVID-19 mortality decreased over time across all surge index strata. However, compared with nonsurging (<50th surge index percentile) hospital-months, aORs in the 50th to 75th, 75th to 90th, 90th to 95th, 95th to 99th, and greater than 99th percentiles were 1.11 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23), 1.24 (CI, 1.12 to 1.38), 1.42 (CI, 1.27 to 1.60), 1.59 (CI, 1.41 to 1.80), and 2.00 (CI, 1.69 to 2.38), respectively. The surge index was associated with mortality across ward, intensive care unit, and intubated patients. The surge-mortality relationship was stronger in June to August than in March to May (slope difference, 0.10 [CI, 0.033 to 0.16]) despite greater corticosteroid use and more judicious intubation during later and higher-surging months. Nearly 1 in 4 COVID-19 deaths (5868 [CI, 3584 to 8171]; 23.2%) was potentially attributable to hospitals strained by surging caseload. LIMITATION: Residual confounding. CONCLUSION: Despite improvements in COVID-19 survival between March and August 2020, surges in hospital COVID-19 caseload remained detrimental to survival and potentially eroded benefits gained from emerging treatments. Bolstering preventive measures and supporting surging hospitals will save many lives. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the National Cancer Institute.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Adulto , COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Capacidad de Camas en Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Respiración Artificial , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Tasa de Supervivencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197283

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones de la Diabetes , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Multimorbilidad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Obesidad , Trastornos Fóbicos , Factores de Edad , Anciano , COVID-19/mortalidad , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbilidad , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Trastornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Fóbicos/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111182, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097050

RESUMEN

Importance: Information on underlying conditions and severe COVID-19 illness among children is limited. Objective: To examine the risk of severe COVID-19 illness among children associated with underlying medical conditions and medical complexity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included patients aged 18 years and younger with International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code U07.1 (COVID-19) or B97.29 (other coronavirus) during an emergency department or inpatient encounter from March 2020 through January 2021. Data were collected from the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, which included data from more than 800 US hospitals. Multivariable generalized linear models, controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, were used to estimate adjusted risk of severe COVID-19 illness associated with underlying medical conditions and medical complexity. Exposures: Underlying medical conditions and medical complexity (ie, presence of complex or noncomplex chronic disease). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospitalization and severe illness when hospitalized (ie, combined outcome of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death). Results: Among 43 465 patients with COVID-19 aged 18 years or younger, the median (interquartile range) age was 12 (4-16) years, 22 943 (52.8%) were female patients, and 12 491 (28.7%) had underlying medical conditions. The most common diagnosed conditions were asthma (4416 [10.2%]), neurodevelopmental disorders (1690 [3.9%]), anxiety and fear-related disorders (1374 [3.2%]), depressive disorders (1209 [2.8%]), and obesity (1071 [2.5%]). The strongest risk factors for hospitalization were type 1 diabetes (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 4.60; 95% CI, 3.91-5.42) and obesity (aRR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.66-3.54), and the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness were type 1 diabetes (aRR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.06-2.76) and cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies (aRR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.48-1.99). Prematurity was a risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness among children younger than 2 years (aRR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.47-2.29). Chronic and complex chronic disease were risk factors for hospitalization, with aRRs of 2.91 (95% CI, 2.63-3.23) and 7.86 (95% CI, 6.91-8.95), respectively, as well as for severe COVID-19 illness, with aRRs of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.69-2.26) and 2.86 (95% CI, 2.47-3.32), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found a higher risk of severe COVID-19 illness among children with medical complexity and certain underlying conditions, such as type 1 diabetes, cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies, and obesity. Health care practitioners could consider the potential need for close observation and cautious clinical management of children with these conditions and COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiología , Anomalías Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Salud del Niño , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adolescente , COVID-19/mortalidad , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedad Crónica , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Pandemias , Nacimiento Prematuro , Respiración Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S84-S91, 2021 07 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956123

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a result of the continuing surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many patients have delayed or missed routine screening and preventive services. Medical conditions, such as coronary heart disease, mental health issues, and substance use disorder, may be identified later, leading to increases in patient morbidity and mortality. METHODS: National Emergency Medical Services Information System data were used to assess 911 emergency medical services (EMS) activations during 2018-2020. For specific activation types, the percentage of total activations was calculated per week, and Joinpoint analysis was used to identify changes over time. RESULTS: Since March 2020, the number of 911 EMS activations has decreased, while the percentages of on-scene death, cardiac arrest, and opioid use/overdose EMS activations were higher than prepandemic levels. During the early pandemic period, percentages of total EMS activations increased for on-scene death (from 1.3% to 2.4% during weeks 11-15), cardiac arrest (from 1.3% to 2.2% during weeks 11-15), and opioid use/overdose (from 0.6% to 1.1% during weeks 8-18). The percentages then declined but remained above prepandemic levels through calendar week 52. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has indirect consequences, such as relative increases in EMS activations for cardiac events and opioid use/overdose, possibly linked to disruptions is healthcare access and health-seeking behaviors. Increasing telehealth visits and other opportunities for patient-provider touch points for chronic disease and substance use disorders that emphasize counseling, preventive care, and expanded access to medications can disrupt delayed care-seeking during the pandemic and potentially prevent premature death.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sobredosis de Droga , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Sobredosis de Droga/tratamiento farmacológico , Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 560-565, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857068

RESUMEN

Persons from racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, including experiencing increased risk for infection (1), hospitalization (2,3), and death (4,5). Using administrative discharge data, CDC assessed monthly trends in the proportion of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among racial and ethnic groups in the United States during March-December 2020 by U.S. Census region. Cumulative and monthly age-adjusted COVID-19 proportionate hospitalization ratios (aPHRs) were calculated for racial and ethnic minority patients relative to non-Hispanic White patients. Within each of the four U.S. Census regions, the cumulative aPHR was highest for Hispanic or Latino patients (range = 2.7-3.9). Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization were largest during May-July 2020; the peak monthly aPHR among Hispanic or Latino patients was >9.0 in the West and Midwest, >6.0 in the South, and >3.0 in the Northeast. The aPHRs declined for most racial and ethnic groups during July-November 2020 but increased for some racial and ethnic groups in some regions during December. Disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization by race/ethnicity varied by region and became less pronounced over the course of the pandemic, as COVID-19 hospitalizations increased among non-Hispanic White persons. Identification of specific social determinants of health that contribute to geographic and temporal differences in racial and ethnic disparities at the local level can help guide tailored public health prevention strategies and equitable allocation of resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to address COVID-19-related health disparities and can inform approaches to achieve greater health equity during future public health threats.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/etnología , COVID-19/terapia , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hospitalización/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Geografía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 523-527, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830982

RESUMEN

Approximately 375,000 deaths during 2020 were attributed to COVID-19 on death certificates reported to CDC (1). Concerns have been raised that some deaths are being improperly attributed to COVID-19 (2). Analysis of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnoses on official death certificates might provide an expedient and efficient method to demonstrate whether reported COVID-19 deaths are being overestimated. CDC assessed documentation of diagnoses co-occurring with an ICD-10 code for COVID-19 (U07.1) on U.S. death certificates from 2020 that had been reported to CDC as of February 22, 2021. Among 378,048 death certificates listing U07.1, a total of 357,133 (94.5%) had at least one other ICD-10 code; 20,915 (5.5%) had only U07.1. Overall, 97.3% of 357,133 death certificates with at least one other diagnosis (91.9% of all 378,048 death certificates) were noted to have a co-occurring diagnosis that was a plausible chain-of-event condition (e.g., pneumonia or respiratory failure), a significant contributing condition (e.g., hypertension or diabetes), or both. Overall, 70%-80% of death certificates had both a chain-of-event condition and a significant contributing condition or a chain-of-event condition only; this was noted for adults aged 18-84 years, both males and females, persons of all races and ethnicities, those who died in inpatient and outpatient or emergency department settings, and those whose manner of death was listed as natural. These findings support the accuracy of COVID-19 mortality surveillance in the United States using official death certificates. High-quality documentation of co-occurring diagnoses on the death certificate is essential for a comprehensive and authoritative public record. Continued messaging and training (3) for professionals who complete death certificates remains important as the pandemic progresses. Accurate mortality surveillance is critical for understanding the impact of variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and of COVID-19 vaccination and for guiding public health action.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Certificado de Defunción , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(10): 355-361, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705371

RESUMEN

Obesity* is a recognized risk factor for severe COVID-19 (1,2), possibly related to chronic inflammation that disrupts immune and thrombogenic responses to pathogens (3) as well as to impaired lung function from excess weight (4). Obesity is a common metabolic disease, affecting 42.4% of U.S. adults (5), and is a risk factor for other chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and some cancers.† The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices considers obesity to be a high-risk medical condition for COVID-19 vaccine prioritization (6). Using data from the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR),§ CDC assessed the association between body mass index (BMI) and risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (i.e., hospitalization, intensive care unit [ICU] or stepdown unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death). Among 148,494 adults who received a COVID-19 diagnosis during an emergency department (ED) or inpatient visit at 238 U.S. hospitals during March-December 2020, 28.3% had overweight and 50.8% had obesity. Overweight and obesity were risk factors for invasive mechanical ventilation, and obesity was a risk factor for hospitalization and death, particularly among adults aged <65 years. Risks for hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were lowest among patients with BMIs of 24.2 kg/m2, 25.9 kg/m2, and 23.7 kg/m2, respectively, and then increased sharply with higher BMIs. Risk for invasive mechanical ventilation increased over the full range of BMIs, from 15 kg/m2 to 60 kg/m2. As clinicians develop care plans for COVID-19 patients, they should consider the risk for severe outcomes in patients with higher BMIs, especially for those with severe obesity. These findings highlight the clinical and public health implications of higher BMIs, including the need for intensive COVID-19 illness management as obesity severity increases, promotion of COVID-19 prevention strategies including continued vaccine prioritization (6) and masking, and policies to ensure community access to nutrition and physical activities that promote and support a healthy BMI.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/mortalidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1695-1699, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180754

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a complex clinical illness with potential complications that might require ongoing clinical care (1-3). Few studies have investigated discharge patterns and hospital readmissions among large groups of patients after an initial COVID-19 hospitalization (4-7). Using electronic health record and administrative data from the Premier Healthcare Database,* CDC assessed patterns of hospital discharge, readmission, and demographic and clinical characteristics associated with hospital readmission after a patient's initial COVID-19 hospitalization (index hospitalization). Among 126,137 unique patients with an index COVID-19 admission during March-July 2020, 15% died during the index hospitalization. Among the 106,543 (85%) surviving patients, 9% (9,504) were readmitted to the same hospital within 2 months of discharge through August 2020. More than a single readmission occurred among 1.6% of patients discharged after the index hospitalization. Readmissions occurred more often among patients discharged to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) (15%) or those needing home health care (12%) than among patients discharged to home or self-care (7%). The odds of hospital readmission increased with age among persons aged ≥65 years, presence of certain chronic conditions, hospitalization within the 3 months preceding the index hospitalization, and if discharge from the index hospitalization was to a SNF or to home with health care assistance. These results support recent analyses that found chronic conditions to be significantly associated with hospital readmission (6,7) and could be explained by the complications of underlying conditions in the presence of COVID-19 (8), COVID-19 sequelae (3), or indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic (9). Understanding the frequency of, and risk factors for, readmission can inform clinical practice, discharge disposition decisions, and public health priorities such as health care planning to ensure availability of resources needed for acute and follow-up care of COVID-19 patients. With the recent increases in cases nationwide, hospital planning can account for these increasing numbers along with the potential for at least 9% of patients to be readmitted, requiring additional beds and resources.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1419-1424, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006586

RESUMEN

Although children and young adults are reportedly at lower risk for severe disease and death from infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), than are persons in other age groups (1), younger persons can experience infection and subsequently transmit infection to those at higher risk for severe illness (2-4). Although at lower risk for severe disease, some young adults experience serious illness, and asymptomatic or mild cases can result in sequelae such as myocardial inflammation (5). In the United States, approximately 45% of persons aged 18-22 years were enrolled in colleges and universities in 2019 (6). As these institutions reopen, opportunities for infection increase; therefore, mitigation efforts and monitoring reports of COVID-19 cases among young adults are important. During August 2-September 5, weekly incidence of COVID-19 among persons aged 18-22 years rose by 55.1% nationally; across U.S. Census regions,* increases were greatest in the Northeast, where incidence increased 144.0%, and Midwest, where incidence increased 123.4%. During the same period, changes in testing volume for SARS-CoV-2 in this age group ranged from a 6.2% decline in the West to a 170.6% increase in the Northeast. In addition, the proportion of cases in this age group among non-Hispanic White (White) persons increased from 33.8% to 77.3% during May 31-September 5. Mitigation and preventive measures targeted to young adults can likely reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission among their contacts and communities. As colleges and universities resume operations, taking steps to prevent the spread of COVID-19 among young adults is critical (7).


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , COVID-19 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1404-1409, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001872

RESUMEN

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in more than 6,800,000 reported U.S. cases and more than 199,000 associated deaths.* Early in the pandemic, COVID-19 incidence was highest among older adults (1). CDC examined the changing age distribution of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States during May-August by assessing three indicators: COVID-19-like illness-related emergency department (ED) visits, positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and confirmed COVID-19 cases. Nationwide, the median age of COVID-19 cases declined from 46 years in May to 37 years in July and 38 in August. Similar patterns were seen for COVID-19-like illness-related ED visits and positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results in all U.S. Census regions. During June-August, COVID-19 incidence was highest in persons aged 20-29 years, who accounted for >20% of all confirmed cases. The southern United States experienced regional outbreaks of COVID-19 in June. In these regions, increases in the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among adults aged 20-39 years preceded increases among adults aged ≥60 years by an average of 8.7 days (range = 4-15 days), suggesting that younger adults likely contributed to community transmission of COVID-19. Given the role of asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (2), strict adherence to community mitigation strategies and personal preventive behaviors by younger adults is needed to help reduce their risk for infection and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to persons at higher risk for severe illness.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19 , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1494-1496, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056949

RESUMEN

CDC works with other federal agencies to identify counties with increasing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence (hotspots) and offers support to state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Understanding whether increasing incidence in hotspot counties is predominantly occurring in specific age groups is important for identifying opportunities to prevent or reduce transmission. The percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results (percent positivity) is an important indicator of community transmission.* CDC analyzed temporal trends in percent positivity by age group in COVID-19 hotspot counties before and after their identification as hotspots. Among 767 hotspot counties identified during June and July 2020, early increases in the percent positivity among persons aged ≤24 years were followed by several weeks of increasing percent positivity in persons aged ≥25 years. Addressing transmission among young adults is an urgent public health priority.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , COVID-19 , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(23): 699-704, 2020 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525856

RESUMEN

On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As the number of persons hospitalized with COVID-19 increased, early reports from Austria (1), Hong Kong (2), Italy (3), and California (4) suggested sharp drops in the numbers of persons seeking emergency medical care for other reasons. To quantify the effect of COVID-19 on U.S. emergency department (ED) visits, CDC compared the volume of ED visits during four weeks early in the pandemic March 29-April 25, 2020 (weeks 14 to 17; the early pandemic period) to that during March 31-April 27, 2019 (the comparison period). During the early pandemic period, the total number of U.S. ED visits was 42% lower than during the same period a year earlier, with the largest declines in visits in persons aged ≤14 years, females, and the Northeast region. Health messages that reinforce the importance of immediately seeking care for symptoms of serious conditions, such as myocardial infarction, are needed. To minimize SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, transmission risk and address public concerns about visiting the ED during the pandemic, CDC recommends continued use of virtual visits and triage help lines and adherence to CDC infection control guidance.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de Guardia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19 , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 860-864, 2019 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581168

RESUMEN

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), also called vapes, e-hookas, vape pens, tank systems, mods, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), are electronic devices that produce an aerosol by heating a liquid typically containing nicotine, flavorings, and other additives; users inhale this aerosol into their lungs (1). E-cigarettes also can be used to deliver tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis (1). Use of e-cigarettes is commonly called vaping. Lung injury associated with e-cigarette use, or vaping, has recently been reported in most states (2-4). CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and others are investigating this outbreak. This report provides data on patterns of the outbreak and characteristics of patients, including sex, age, and selected substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products reported to CDC as part of this ongoing multistate investigation. As of September 24, 2019, 46 state health departments and one territorial health department had reported 805 patients with cases of lung injury associated with use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products to CDC. Sixty-nine percent of patients were males, and the median age was 23 years (range = 13-72 years). To date, 12 deaths have been confirmed in 10 states. Among 514 patients with information on substances used in e-cigarettes, or vaping products, in the 30 days preceding symptom onset, 76.9% reported using THC-containing products, and 56.8% reported using nicotine-containing products; 36.0% reported exclusive use of THC-containing products, and 16.0% reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products. The specific chemical exposure(s) causing the outbreak is currently unknown. While this investigation is ongoing, CDC recommends that persons consider refraining from using e-cigarette, or vaping, products, particularly those containing THC. CDC will continue to work in collaboration with FDA and state and local partners to investigate cases and advise and alert the public on the investigation as additional information becomes available.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Dronabinol/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Am J Prev Med ; 54(5): 679-687, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29551329

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Poor air quality affects respiratory and cardiovascular health. Information about health risks associated with outdoor air quality is communicated to the public using air quality alerts. This study was conducted to assess associations of existing respiratory and heart disease with three aspects of air quality awareness: awareness of air quality alerts, discussing with a health professional strategies to reduce air pollution exposure, and avoiding busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure when walking, biking, or exercising outdoors. METHODS: During 2014-2016, a total of 12,599 U.S. adults participated in summer waves of the ConsumerStyles surveys and self-reported asthma, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, and each aspect of air quality awareness. In 2017, associations between each health condition and air quality awareness were estimated using log binomial and multinomial regression. RESULTS: Overall, 49% of respondents were aware of air quality alerts, 3% discussed with a health professional strategies to reduce air pollution exposure, and 27% always/usually avoided busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure. Asthma was associated with increased prevalence of awareness of air quality alerts (prevalence ratio=1.11, 95% CI=1.04, 1.20), discussing with a health professional (prevalence ratio=4.88, 95% CI=3.74, 6.37), and always/usually avoiding busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure (prevalence ratio=1.13, 95% CI=1.01, 1.27). Heart disease was not associated with air quality awareness. CONCLUSIONS: Existing respiratory disease, but not heart disease, was associated with increased air quality awareness. These findings reveal important opportunities to raise awareness of air quality alerts and behavior changes aimed at reducing air pollution exposure among adults at risk of exacerbating respiratory and heart diseases.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Cardiopatías/prevención & control , Enfermedades Respiratorias/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Femenino , Cardiopatías/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Respiratorias/etiología , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
19.
J Transp Health ; 6: 530-537, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337155

RESUMEN

Transportation investments have the potential to improve health, but readily available data to guide transportation decisions that could promote health are limited. In October 2015, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the Transportation and Health Tool (THT). The tool is a resource to help transportation professionals in states and metropolitan areas access data about transportation and health in their jurisdictions and stimulate discussions on how to improve public health through transportation planning and policy. To develop the tool, a multidisciplinary team identified 190 possible data indicators. Using input from expert panel workshops and criteria that addressed data availability, geographic scale, timeliness, feasibility, validity, and topic area, the team selected 14 transportation and health indicators that covered the four priority topic areas of safety, active transportation, air quality, and connectivity. The THT contains the raw values for each indicator and a standardized score to enable comparisons. Additionally, the THT contains 25 evidence-based strategies that can help practitioners in states and metropolitan areas take action to improve health outcomes.

20.
Am J Prev Med ; 46(4): 413-22, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24650845

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Exposure to elevated concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants in the near-road environment is associated with numerous adverse human health effects, including childhood cancer, which has been increasing since 1975. Results of individual epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to examine the association between residential traffic exposure and childhood cancer. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Studies published between January 1980 and July 2011 were retrieved from a systematic search of 18 bibliographic databases. Nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Weighted summary ORs were calculated using a random effects model for outcomes with four or more studies. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Childhood leukemia was positively associated (summary OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.12, 2.10) with residential traffic exposure among seven studies using a postnatal exposure window (e.g., childhood period or diagnosis address) and there was no association (summary OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.78, 1.09) among four studies using a prenatal exposure window (e.g., pregnancy period or birth address). There were too few studies to analyze other childhood cancer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that childhood leukemia is associated with residential traffic exposure during the postnatal period, but not during the prenatal period. Additional well-designed epidemiologic studies that use complete residential history to estimate traffic exposure, examine leukemia subtypes, and control for potential confounding factors are needed to confirm these findings. As many people reside near busy roads, especially in urban areas, precautionary public health messages and interventions designed to reduce population exposure to traffic might be warranted.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Leucemia/epidemiología , Vehículos a Motor , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Lactante , Leucemia/inducido químicamente , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo
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