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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of Mucorales associated infections, now termed COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), have been reported. Despite an increase in fatality reports, no cases of rhino-orbital CAM complicated with gangrenous bone necrosis have been described in the literature to date. CASE: A 56-year-old male with a recent COVID-19 diagnosis developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis after 22 days of treatment with dexamethasone. Cultures and histopathological assessment of tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient survived after treatment with amphotericin B. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection affecting mostly immunocompromised patients. Along with the COVID-19 pandemic, the inappropriate use of steroids, in addition to concurrent risk factors, such as diabetes, has led to an increase in the occurrence of these devastating mycoses, leading to the development of severe presentations and complications, as observed in many cases. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial in order to avoid dissemination and fatal outcomes.

2.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 250-267, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406913

RESUMEN

COVID-19 pandemic is essentially a zoonotic disease. In this context, early in 2020, transmission from humans to certain animals began reporting; the number of studies has grown since. To estimate the pooled prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection in animals and to determine differences in prevalence between countries, years, animal types and diagnostic methods (RT-PCR or serological tests). A systematic literature review with meta-analysis using eight databases. Observational studies were included but analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for prevalence studies and case series. After the screening, 65 reports were selected for full-text assessment and included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. A total of 24 reports assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR, combining a total of 321,785 animals, yielding a pooled prevalence of 12.3% (95% CI 11.6%-13.0%). Also, a total of 17 studies additionally assessed serological response against SARS-CoV-2, including nine by ELISA, four by PRTN, one by MIA, one by immunochromatography (rest, two studies, the method was not specified), combining a total of 5319 animals, yielding a pooled prevalence of 29.4% (95% CI 22.9%-35.9%). A considerable proportion of animals resulted infected by SARS-CoV-2, ranking minks among the highest value, followed by dogs and cats. Further studies in other animals are required to define the extent and importance of natural infection due to SARS-CoV-2. These findings have multiple implications for public human and animal health. One Health approach in this context is critical for prevention and control.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de COVID-19/veterinaria , COVID-19/veterinaria , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonosis Virales/diagnóstico , Zoonosis Virales/epidemiología , Animales , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , Prevalencia
3.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 43: 102132, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186213

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Before the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) arrival and its pandemic, dengue was already a significant cause of epidemics in South East Asia and Latin America. In 2020 with their cocirculation, coinfections began to be observed and reported in different countries. As expected, this syndemic is evident in different areas and deserves proper characterisation and studies in Peru. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the clinical, epidemiological, diagnostic characteristics and outcomes in a Social Security Hospital of Chiclayo, Lambayeque, Peru, of patients that were diagnosed simultaneously with COVID-19 and dengue during May-August 2020. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients with COVID-19/dengue coinfection were identified. Of them, 60% presented thrombocytopenia, and 52% fever, among other findings. The case fatality rate in this group was 28%, being higher in those patients initially classified as severe dengue (100%), as well as in females (55%) than males (21%) (OR = 4.65; 95%CI 1.18-18.45). DISCUSSION: Co-occurrence of COVID-19/Dengue is growing as a consequence of the syndemic of these viral diseases in endemic areas, such as Latin America, and as both conditions may evolve to severe disease, their epidemiological but clinical interaction in terms of outcomes need further assessment in future studies in the region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Virus del Dengue , Dengue , Coinfección/epidemiología , Dengue/complicaciones , Dengue/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Perú/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 181-190, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061782

RESUMEN

In recent years, and now especially with the arrival of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increased interest in understanding the role of bats in the dynamics of transmission and origin of this pandemic agent. To date, no systematic reviews have been published on this topic. This systematic review aimed to summarize and highlight the frequency of bat infections reported in currently available observational studies for coronavirus. The purpose of this study was also to examine the differences between the pool prevalence by technique and country. We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess coronavirus (CoV) infection in bats and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We carried out random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In all, 824 articles were retrieved (1960-2021). After screening by abstract/title, 43 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of these, 33 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From the total of studies, the pool prevalence by RT-PCR (n=14,295 bats) for CoV was 9.8% (95% CI 8.7-10.9%); Italy reported the highest pooled prevalence (44.9%, 95% CI 31.6-58.1%), followed by the Philippines (29.6%). Regarding the ELISA, the pool prevalence for coronavirus from 15 studies, including 359 bats, was 30.2% (95% CI 14.7-45.6%). The results for coronaviruses with the MIF were significantly lower, 2.6% (95% CI 1.5-3.7%). A considerable proportion of infected bats tested positive, particularly by molecular tests. This essential condition highlights the relevance of bats and the need for future studies to detail their role as potential reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2. In this meta-analysis, bats were positive in almost 10% by RT-PCR, suggesting their relevance and the need to understand their potential participation in maintaining wild zoonotic transmission.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/veterinaria , Quirópteros/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , SARS-CoV-2 , Animales , Sesgo , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Intervalos de Confianza , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
5.
Infez Med ; 29(2): 199-208, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061784

RESUMEN

Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans in different tropical and subtropical regions and even beyond, with variable prevalence among infected hosts. To date, there have been no systematic reviews on human visceral leishmaniasis prevalence in Latin America. We therefore performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using six databases to assess prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in human patients in Latin American countries. Observational studies were included but analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). In all, 10,435 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1950-2019). After initial screening, 120 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 97 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Overall, VL pooled prevalence was estimated at 38.8% (95% CI 33.8-43.8%), derived from 97 studies, including 44,986 individuals. Many aspects of the transmission dynamics of Leishmania and the exact burden of this parasitosis on public health remain largely unknown. Although the elimination of zoonotic VL in the Americas appears an unrealistic goal, additional efforts need to be put in place to achieve better diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VL.


Asunto(s)
Leishmaniasis Visceral , Zoonosis , Animales , América Latina/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Zoonosis/epidemiología
8.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 181-201, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892621

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously 2019-nCoV) is suspected of having originated in 2019 in China from a coronavirus infected bat of the genus Rhinolophus. Following the initial emergence, possibly facilitated by a mammalian bridge host, SARS-CoV-2 is currently transmitted across the globe via efficient human-to-human transmission. Results obtained from experimental studies indicate that animal species such as cats, ferrets, raccoon dogs, cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, white-tailed deer, rabbits, Egyptian fruit bats, and Syrian hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that cat-to-cat and ferret-to-ferret transmission can take place via contact and air. However, natural infections of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported only in pet dogs and cats, tigers, lions, snow leopards, pumas, and gorillas at zoos, and farmed mink and ferrets. Even though human-to-animal spillover has been reported at several instances, SARS-CoV-2 transmission from animals-to-humans has only been reported from mink-to-humans in mink farms. Following the rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the mink population, a new mink-associated SARS-CoV-2 variant emerged that was identified in both humans and mink. The increasing reports of SARS-CoV-2 in carnivores indicate the higher susceptibility of animal species belonging to this order. The sporadic reports of SARS-CoV-2 infection in domestic and wild animal species require further investigation to determine if SARS-CoV-2 or related Betacoronaviruses can get established in kept, feral or wild animal populations, which may eventually act as viral reservoirs. This review analyzes the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 natural infection in domestic and wild animal species and their possible implications on public health.


Asunto(s)
Animales Domésticos , Animales Salvajes , COVID-19/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Animales , Animales de Zoológico , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , Humanos
10.
Infez Med ; 29(1): 10-19, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664169

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneezing, and talking. During such activities and some medical procedures, aerosols and droplets contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 particles are formed. Depending on their sizes and the environmental conditions, such particles stay viable in the air for varying time periods and can cause infection in a susceptible host. Very few studies have been conducted to establish the mechanism or the aerodynamics of virus-loaded particles and droplets in causing infection. In this review we discuss the various forms in which SARS-CoV-2 virus particles can be transmitted in air and cause infections.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Aire , COVID-19/transmisión , SARS-CoV-2 , Número Básico de Reproducción/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Tos/virología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Máscaras , Estornudo
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 87-96, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829048

RESUMEN

Bats have populated earth for approximately 52 million years, serving as natural reservoirs for a variety of viruses through the course of evolution. Transmission of highly pathogenic viruses from bats has been suspected or linked to a spectrum of potential emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals worldwide. Examples of such viruses include Marburg, Ebolavirus, Nipah, Hendra, Influenza A, Dengue, Equine Encephalitis viruses, Lyssaviruses, Madariaga and Coronaviruses, involving the now pandemic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we provide a narrative review focused in selected emerging viral infectious diseases that have been reported from bats.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/transmisión , Quirópteros/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Ecosistema , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/transmisión , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/veterinaria , Humanos
15.
Infez Med ; 28(4): 475-485, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257621

RESUMEN

While the world is focused on attending, controlling, and mitigating the current pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, other viral threats are possibly emerging and reemerging especially in Asia, posing a risk for the spread in that region and beyond. A predictable threat is the avian influenza virus, especially H5N6, which has recently led to significant outbreaks in China and the Philippines, deserving more attention and control. In the current review, we assess the history of this highly pathogenic reemerging virus, as well as the contemporary implications of poultry outbreaks occurring in some Asian countries. We also look at outbreaks due to other strains not only in Asia but also across Europe and Africa, according to recent reports from the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Virus de la Influenza A/clasificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Animales , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Humanos , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Gripe Humana/virología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/transmisión , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Aves de Corral/virología , Zoonosis Virales/epidemiología , Zoonosis Virales/transmisión , Zoonosis Virales/virología
16.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 22: 100469, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308726

RESUMEN

There are over 25.6 million cattle heads in Colombia being the fourth-highest herd in Latin America. This study aimed to describe the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in cattle from 25 rural farms at Pereira municipality, Risaralda Department, which has a total bovine population of 43,508 animals. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in beef and dairy herds during 2017-2018. A total of 325 animals in 25 herds, with 13 animals per herd, were sampled. A commercial competitive ELISA (cELISA) kit was used to detect N. caninum antibodies. Associated risk factors were analyzed in two different levels: individual animals and herds. For all the independent variables, chi-square (χ2) and Fisher tests were used to assess associations and significance. The overall estimated seropositivity was 20.6% (95%CI 16.2%-25.0%). The seroprevalence by herds was 92.0% ranging from 0.0% to 46.2%. Noteworthy, beef herds had significantly (p = 0.0107) higher seropositivity (50% of them above 35% of seropositivity) compared with those for milk purposes (4.8%) (OR = 20.0; 95%CI 1.2-331.0). Other risk factors were not significantly (p ≥ 0.05) associated with N. caninum seropositivity. Bovine neosporosis may be associated with abortions in both beef and dairy Colombian farms. More studies about the epidemiology, associated factors and consequences, as well as on tools for better diagnosis of bovine abortion, including histopathology and other ancillary tests, should be performed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Neospora/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Coccidiosis/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/parasitología , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 3011-3022, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156739

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Beyond there being no available antiviral therapy, stimulating protective immunity by vaccines is the best option for managing future infections. Development of a vaccine for a novel virus is a challenging effort that may take several years to accomplish. This mini-review summarizes the immunopathological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and discusses advances in the development of vaccines and immunotherapeutics for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/inmunología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Inmunidad Celular/inmunología , Factores Inmunológicos/inmunología , Inmunoterapia/tendencias , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Inmunidad Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Factores Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Inmunoterapia/métodos
19.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 373-383, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920573

RESUMEN

Tick-borne pathogens are etiological agents of some zoonotic diseases, causing important consequences in animal and human health. These are emerging around the world, especially in tropical countries including Colombia. Domestic dogs play an essential role in the epidemiology of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. We performed the detection of bacteria from Anaplasmataceae family and parasites from the Piroplasmida order, in 85 domestic dogs from Soledad municipality, Atlantico, Colombia. Peripheral blood smears, detection by duplex PCR assay (ss rRNA 16S, from bacteria and the ITS-1, of ribosomal DNA from parasites), and DNA sequencing by Sanger method were done. Taxonomic identification was made by phylogenetics analysis of the DNA sequences. The gene sequences analysis showed that 12.9% of the dogs were infected with Anaplasma spp. Infection was higher in young dogs (OR=4.72, 95%CI 1.267-17.584). Besides that, 3.5% of them showed inclusions (morulae) compatible with bacteria from the order Rickettsiales. A coinfection with Babesia spp. and a Rickettsiales bacterial pathogens was found. The frequency of Anaplasma spp. detected in domestic dogs in Soledad highlights the need to improve diagnosis and control measures, to prevent the risk of transmission of these pathogens among ticks, dogs and humans exposed in the area.

20.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 19(1): 40, 2020 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878641

RESUMEN

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), causing an emerging coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which has taken a catastrophic turn with high toll rates in China and subsequently spreading across the globe. The rapid spread of this virus to more than 210 countries while affecting more than 25 million people and causing more than 843,000 human deaths, it has resulted in a pandemic situation in the world. The SARS-CoV-2 virus belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, all of which originated in bats. It is highly contagious, causing symptoms like fever, dyspnea, asthenia and pneumonia, thrombocytopenia, and the severely infected patients succumb to the disease. Coronaviruses (CoVs) among all known RNA viruses have the largest genomes ranging from 26 to 32 kb in length. Extensive research has been conducted to understand the molecular basis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and evolution, develop effective therapeutics, antiviral drugs, and vaccines, and to design rapid and confirmatory viral diagnostics as well as adopt appropriate prevention and control strategies. To date, August 30, 2020, no effective, proven therapeutic antibodies or specific drugs, and vaccines have turned up. In this review article, we describe the underlying molecular organization and phylogenetic analysis of the coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-2, and recent advances in diagnosis and vaccine development in brief and focusing mainly on developing potential therapeutic options that can be explored to manage this pandemic virus infection, which would help in valid countering of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus/inmunología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/tratamiento farmacológico , Vacunas/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología
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