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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597565

RESUMEN

AIMS: Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Different therapeutics strategies have been proposed to control blood pressure (BP), but their independent impact on cardiac function remains undetermined. In patients with resistant hypertension, we compared the changes in cardiac parameters between two strategies based on sequential nephron blockade (NBD) with a combination of diuretics or sequential renin-angiotensin system blockade (RASB). METHODS AND RESULTS: After a 4-week period where all patients received Irbesartan 300 mg/day + hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg/day + amlodipine 5 mg/day, 140 resistant hypertension patients (54.8 ± 11.1 years, 76% men, mean duration with hypertension: 13.1 ± 10.5 years, no previous history of heart failure or current symptoms of congestive heart failure) were randomized 1:1 to the NBD regimen or to the RASB regimen at week 0 (W0, baseline). Treatment intensity was increased at week 4, 8, or 10 if home BP was ≥135/85 mmHg, by sequentially adding 25 mg spironolactone, 20-40 mg furosemide, and 5 mg amiloride (NBD group) or 5-10 mg ramipril and 5-10 mg bisoprolol (RASB group). No other antihypertensive drug was allowed during the study. BP, BNP levels, and echocardiographic parameters were assessed at weeks 0 and 12. The baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, and plasma hormones (BNP, renin, and aldosterone) and cardiac echocardiographic parameters did not significantly differ between the NBD and the RASB groups. Over 12 weeks, BNP levels significantly decreased in NBD but increased in RASB (mean [CI 95%] change in log-transformed BNP levels: -43% [-67%; -23%] vs. +55% [46%; 62%] in NBD vs. RASB, respectively, P < 0.0001). Similarly, the proportion of patients presenting ≥2 echocardiographic criteria of diastolic dysfunction decreased between baseline and W12 from 31% to 3% in NBD but increased from 19% to 32% in RASB (P = 0.0048). As compared with RASB, NBD induced greater decrease in ambulatory systolic BP (P < 0.0001), pulse pressure (P < 0.0001), and systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.005). In multivariable linear regression analyses, NBD treatment was significantly associated with decreased BNP levels (adjusted ß: -46.41 ± 6.99, P < 0.0001) independent of age, gender, renal function, and changes in BPs or heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with resistant hypertension, nephron blockade with a combination of diuretics significantly improves cardiac markers of diastolic dysfunction independently of BP lowering.

2.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e19787, 2020 06 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501803

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the context of home confinement during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, objective, real-time data are needed to assess populations' adherence to home confinement to adapt policies and control measures accordingly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether wearable activity trackers could provide information regarding users' adherence to home confinement policies because of their capacity for seamless and continuous monitoring of individuals' natural activity patterns regardless of their location. METHODS: We analyzed big data from individuals using activity trackers (Withings) that count the wearer's average daily number of steps in a number of representative nations that adopted different modalities of restriction of citizens' activities. RESULTS: Data on the number of steps per day from over 740,000 individuals around the world were analyzed. We demonstrate the physical activity patterns in several representative countries with total, partial, or no home confinement. The decrease in steps per day in regions with strict total home confinement ranged from 25% to 54%. Partial lockdown (characterized by social distancing measures such as school closures, bar and restaurant closures, and cancellation of public meetings but without strict home confinement) does not appear to have a significant impact on people's activity compared to the pre-pandemic period. The absolute level of physical activity under total home confinement in European countries is around twofold that in China. In some countries, such as France and Spain, physical activity started to gradually decrease even before official commitment to lockdown as a result of initial less stringent restriction orders or self-quarantine. However, physical activity began to increase again in the last 2 weeks, suggesting a decrease in compliance with confinement orders. CONCLUSIONS: Aggregate analysis of activity tracker data with the potential for daily updates can provide information regarding adherence to home confinement policies.

3.
J Hypertens ; 38(6): 1103-1109, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371800

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension, blood pressure (BP) variability, and arterial stiffness are three markers of cardiovascular risk beyond the average BP. However, the relationships between these three parameters are not well known. AIM: To examine the relationships between orthostatic hypotension, BP variability, and arterial stiffness. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Three-City study, a sample of 1151 elderly participants (mean age = 80 ±â€Š3 years) was screened for orthostatic hypotension, undertook home BP and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements. We performed logistic regression analyses to look at the associations between orthostatic hypotension and both day-to-day (D-to-D) BP variability quartiles and PWV quartiles. Orthostatic hypotension was detected in 210 participants who were more likely to be hypertensive, exhibit higher BP variability and have increased arterial stiffness. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the frequency of orthostatic hypotension increased by 20% with every quartile of D-to-D SBP variability and by 20% with every quartile of PWV. PWV and D-to-D BP variability were not associated. In stratified analysis, the use of beta-blocker changes these relationships: orthostatic hypotension was not associated to PWV anymore but its association with D-to-D SBP variability was apparently stronger. CONCLUSION: In this large sample of elderly individuals, orthostatic hypotension was independently associated with both BP variability and PWV. BP variability being more indicative of a baroreflex dysfunction and PWV being a marker of vascular ageing, these two components would participate to the orthostatic hypotension mechanisms.

5.
Angiology ; : 3319720918509, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292048

RESUMEN

Current guidelines state that systemic inflammation, together with endothelial dysfunction, calcification, and hypercoagulability, predispose to premature atherosclerosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed whether IBD can affect aortic stiffness, a well-recognized vascular biomarker and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) in several populations. Recent studies reported that aortic stiffness is increased in adults with IBD compared with matched controls. This association is dependent on inflammatory burden and disease duration, and is reduced by antitumor necrosis factor therapy. Considered together, current findings suggest that increased aortic stiffness is an extraintestinal manifestation of IBD. This is clinically relevant since measuring aortic stiffness in patients with IBD could improve risk assessment, especially in those without established CVD. Moreover, effective control of inflammation could lower CV risk in patients with IBD by reducing aortic stiffness. Further longitudinal studies are needed to better clarify (i) the relationship between disease duration and irreversible changes of the arterial wall, (ii) the clinical characteristics of patients with IBD that have an increased arterial stiffness at least in part reversible, and (iii) whether arterial stiffness is useful to evaluate the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy.

6.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329188

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Hearing impairment (HI) is a leading impairment worldwide, and identifying modifiable risk factors of HI may have major public health implications. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and HI. DESIGN: Observational longitudinal study (the Paris Prospective Study 3). SETTING: Population-based. PARTICIPANTS: Volunteers aged 50-75 years and consulting at a preventive medical centre were included between 2008 and 2012. 6797 participants were included in the present analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Audiometry testing was performed in both ears in all participants, and HI was defined by a pure-tone average (PTA) >25 decibels (dB) hearing level in the better ear. RESULTS: Obstructive sleep apnoea (estimated by the Berlin questionnaire) was present in 18.6% (n = 1267) and HI in 13.9% (n = 947) of the participants. Mean age was 59.5 years (SD 6.2) and 63.5% were male (n = 4317). In multiple logistic regression modelling, OSA was significantly associated with a 1.21-increased odds of HI (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.44). Several sensitivity analyses supported this finding. CONCLUSION: Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with a 21% increased odds of HI. These results support active screening of HI in subjects with OSA, and future studies should evaluate whether the treatment of OSA can delay the onset of HI.

7.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(6): 505-513, 2020 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115655

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) is associated with target organ damage such as cardiac, vascular, and kidney injury. Several studies have investigated circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, but few have examined them as biomarker of target organ damage in HTN. We aimed to identify circulating miRNAs that could serve as biomarkers of HTN-induced target organ damage using an unbiased approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen normotensive subjects, 16 patients with HTN, 15 with HTN associated with other features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 16 with HTN or chronic kidney disease (CKD) were studied. Circulating RNA extracted from platelet-poor plasma was used for small RNA sequencing. Differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified with a threshold of false discovery rate <0.1. DE miRNAs were identified uniquely associated with HTN, MetS, or CKD. However, only 2 downregulated DE miRNAs (let-7g-5p and miR-191-5p) could be validated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Let-7g-5p was associated with large vessel stiffening, miR-191-5p with MetS, and both miRNAs with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and neutrophil and lymphocyte fraction or number and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Using the whole population, stepwise multiple linear regression generated a model showing that let-7g-5p, miR-191-5p, and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio predicted eGFR with an adjusted R2 of 0.46 (P = 8.5e-7). CONCLUSIONS: We identified decreased circulating let-7g-5p and miR-191-5p as independent biomarkers of CKD among patients with HTN, which could have pathophysiological and therapeutic implications.

9.
Therapie ; 75(2): 175-181, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127191

RESUMEN

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (OMIM 130050, 1/150,000 birth) is caused by mutations in collagen 3A1 gene. It is associated with severe phenotype associating early arterial dissection and rupture, digestive and uterine perforations, and skin and joints fragility. Until recently, no treatment was available. Celiprolol, a beta1 antagonist with beta2 partial antagonist properties betablocker was tested in a randomized, controlled trial. We could show that this compound was associated with a 3-fold decrease in major events related to the disease. This effect was similar in molecular-proven patients. Administration of celiprolol in a cohort of patients followed routinely in France was accompanied to similar benefit. Celiprolol is unavailable in the USA. The ACER Therapeutics company applied for new drug application (NDA) to the Food and Drug Administration.

10.
Prev Med ; 135: 106050, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156564

RESUMEN

Anemia is known to be associated with depression both in community and clinical populations. However, it is still unknown if this association depends or not on antidepressant intake. We investigated the respective association of depression and antidepressant intake with low hemoglobin level in a large community-based cohort. In 8640 volunteers aged 50 to 75 recruited between June 2008 and June 2012 in Paris (France), we assessed hemoglobin levels (g/dl), depressive symptoms and antidepressant intake. We examined the association of both depression and antidepressant intake with hemoglobin level, adjusting for numerous socio-demographic and health variables. We also assessed the association with specific antidepressant classes. Depression and antidepressant intake were independently associated with lower hemoglobin level (ß = -0.074; p = .05 and ß = -0.100; p = .02 respectively in the fully-adjusted model). Regarding antidepressant classes, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) intake were associated with lower hemoglobin level (ß = -0.11; p = .01). To conclude, both depression and antidepressant intake were associated with lower hemoglobin level. In particular, as SSRI or SNRIs intake was also related to lower hemoglobin level, these classes should be used with caution in depressed individuals at risk for anemia.

11.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
12.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(5): 1420-1428, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188272

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Impaired baroreflex function is an early indicator of cardiovascular autonomic imbalance. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have decreased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), however, whether the neural BRS (nBRS) and mechanical component of the BRS is altered in those with high metabolic risk (HMR, impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome) or with overt T2D, is unknown. We examined this in a community-based observational study, the Paris Prospective Study III (PPS3). Approach and Results: In 7626 adults aged 50 to 75 years, resting nBRS (estimated by low-frequency gain, from carotid distension rate and RR [time elapsed between two successive R waves] intervals) and mechanical BRS were measured by high-precision carotid echotracking. The associations between overt T2D or HMR as compared with subjects with normal glucose metabolism and nBRS or mechanical BRS were quantified using multivariable linear regression analysis. There were 319 subjects with T2D (61±6 years, 77% male), 1450 subjects with HMR (60±6 years, 72% male), and 5857 subjects with normal glucose metabolism (59±6 years, 57% male). Compared with normal glucose metabolism, nBRS was significantly lower in HMR subjects (ß=-0.07 [95% CI, -0.12 to -0.01]; P=0.029) and in subjects with T2D (ß=-0.18 [95% CI, -0.29 to -0.07]; P=0.002) after adjustment for confounding and mediating factors. Subgroup analysis suggests significant and independent alteration in mechanical BRS only among HMR patients who had both impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based study of individuals aged 50 to 75, a graded decrease in nBRS was observed in HMR subjects and patients with overt T2D as compared with normal glucose metabolism subjects.

14.
Clin Nutr ; 39(5): 1440-1446, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235417

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To study the association between chewing capacity-a prerequisite for eating- and the level of cardiovascular health (CVH). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis conducted on 5430 study participants from the Paris Prospective Study 3 that were subjected to an oral examination by trained dentists at study recruitment between 2008 and 2012. Chewing capacity was determined by the number of functional tooth units (FTUs), and ≥ 5FTUs defined adequate chewing capacity. Subjects were categorized into poor, intermediate, or ideal CVH for the 4 behavioural (smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, diet) and the 3 biological (total cholesterol, fasting glycemia, and blood pressure) factors according to the American Heart Association Life's Simple 7. Multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the association between the number of FTUs (exposure) and ideal or intermediate vs. poor CVH (main outcome). RESULTS: 10.31% of the study participants had an ideal CVH and 7% presented an impaired chewing capacity (<5 FTUs). Subjects with at least 5 FTUs (OR = 2.37; 95% CI: 1.37-4.12) were more likely to have an ideal global CVH, after adjustment for age, sex, marital status, education, deprivation, depressive status, and dental plaque. This association existed for the behavioural but not the biological CVH, with the strongest association being observed with the diet metric. CONCLUSION: This is the first study suggesting that adults with a preserved chewing capacity have an increased likelihood to be at an ideal behavioural CVH.

15.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMEN

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

16.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 118-126, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568055

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the aortic arch is usually estimated by using 2D phase contrast in MRI. Thanks to 4D flow MRI, segmental PWV of the ascending and descending aorta, as well as PWV of the entire thoracic aorta can now be estimated within the same examination. Our objective is to compare PWVs obtained by 2D and 4D PC, through their relationships with carotid-femoral PWV (cf-PWV), age and left ventricular remodelling. BASIC METHODS: MRI examinations were performed at 3 Tesla, including 2D PC acquisitions with through-plane velocity encoding and sagittal 4D phase contrast acquisitions covering the thoracic aorta volume. PWVs were calculated after estimating aortic lengths and flow transit times between the ascending aorta and descending aorta in 2D and between valve, isthmus and diaphragm in 4D resulting in 2D-PWV, 4D-TA-PWV; 4D-AA-PWV, 4D-DA-PWV. MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-seven healthy volunteers (25 men, age 51 years ±â€Š17) were studied. All MRI-PWVs were correlated with cf-PWV (r = 0.67; r = 0.63: r = 0.47; r = 0.61 for 2D-PWV, 4D-TA-PWV; 4D-AA-PWV, 4D-DA-PWV, respectively, P < 0.001). 2D-PWV and 4D-TA-PWV were strongly related with age (r = 0.76 and r = 0.77, respectively). The highest correlation, between left ventricular thickness or LV mass/end diastolic volume (EDV) ratio and segmental PWVs of the thoracic aorta was found with 4D-AA-PWV (r = 0.43, P < 0.01 and r = 0.48, P < 0.01). PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: Global and segmental PWV analysis of the thoracic aorta can be accurately assessed using 4D flow MRI. 4D-PWVs were highly correlated with ageing and cf-PWV. The strong association between the ascending aorta stiffness and the left ventricular remodelling in healthy volunteers is encouraging to better estimate left ventricular afterload.

17.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMEN

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

18.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1476-1483, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679418

RESUMEN

Physical activity (PA) is a preventative behavior for noncommunicable disease. However, little consideration is given as to whether different domains of PA have differing associations with health outcomes. We sought to determine the association between occupational, sport, leisure, and total PA with baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), distinguishing between neural (nBRS) and mechanical (mBRS) BRS. In a cross-sectional analysis of 8649 adults aged 50 to 75 years, resting nBRS (estimated by low-frequency gain, from carotid distension rate and heart rate) and mBRS (carotid stiffness) were measured by high-precision carotid echo-tracking. PA was self-reported using the validated Baecke questionnaire. The associations between PA and nBRS and mBRS were quantified using multivariate linear regression analysis, separately in the working and nonworking population. In working adults (n=5039), occupational PA was associated with worse nBRS (unstandardized ß=-0.02; [95% CI, -0.04 to -0.003]; P=0.022) whereas sport PA was associated with better nBRS (ß=0.04; [95% CI, 0.02-0.07]; P=0.003) and mBRS (ß=-0.05; [95% CI, -0.09 to -0.00001]; P=0.049). Neither leisure PA nor total PA was associated with nBRS or mBRS. In nonworking adults (n=3610), sport PA and total PA were associated with better mBRS (ß=-0.08; [95% CI, -0.15 to 0.02]; P=0.012 and ß=-0.05; [95% CI, -0.10 to 0.009]; P=0.018) but not nBRS. These findings suggest differential associations between domains of PA and BRS and may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the association between occupational PA and cardiovascular disease.

19.
Am J Med ; 132(12): 1441-1449.e4, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247178

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the potential association between hearing impairment and incident depressive symptoms. METHODS: Using a prospective community-based cohort study in France (the Paris Prospective Study III), participants aged 50-75 years were recruited between 2008 and 2012 and thereafter followed up every 2 years up to 2018. Hearing impairment, measured at study recruitment by audiometry testing, was defined as a pure tone average >25 decibels in the better ear. Incident depressive symptoms, measured using the validated 13-item Questionnaire of Depression 2nd version, was assessed during follow-up. Multivariate generalized estimating equations were used to compute odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Among 7591 participants free of depressive symptoms at baseline (mean age 59.8 years, 63% of men), 14.3% had hearing impairment. Over 6 years of follow-up, 479 subjects (6.3%) had incident depressive symptoms. The OR for incident depressive symptoms was 1.36 for subjects with baseline hearing impairment (95% CI, 1.06-1.73). A pooled analysis of 4 published prospective studies yielded a multivariable relative risk of baseline hearing impairment for incident depressive symptoms of 1.29 (95% CI, 1.09-1.53). CONCLUSIONS: In this community-based prospective cohort study of participants aged 50 to 75 years, baseline hearing impairment was associated with a 36% increased odds of incident depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Pérdida Auditiva/diagnóstico , Pérdida Auditiva/epidemiología , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Intervalos de Confianza , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Distribución por Sexo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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