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1.
Brain Sci ; 11(12)2021 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942855

RESUMEN

The last decades have seen a proliferation of music and brain studies, with a major focus on plastic changes as the outcome of continuous and prolonged engagement with music. Thanks to the advent of neuroaesthetics, research on music cognition has broadened its scope by considering the multifarious phenomenon of listening in all its forms, including incidental listening up to the skillful attentive listening of experts, and all its possible effects. These latter range from objective and sensorial effects directly linked to the acoustic features of the music to the subjectively affective and even transformational effects for the listener. Of special importance is the finding that neural activity in the reward circuit of the brain is a key component of a conscious listening experience. We propose that the connection between music and the reward system makes music listening a gate towards not only hedonia but also eudaimonia, namely a life well lived, full of meaning that aims at realizing one's own "daimon" or true nature. It is argued, further, that music listening, even when conceptualized in this aesthetic and eudaimonic framework, remains a learnable skill that changes the way brain structures respond to sounds and how they interact with each other.

2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e107, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588018

RESUMEN

The argument by Mehr et al. that music emerged and evolved culturally as a credible signal is convincing, but it lacks one essential ingredient: a model of signaling behavior that supports the main hypothesis theoretically and empirically. We argue that signaling games can help us explain how musical structures emerge as population-level phenomena, through sender-receiver signaling interactions.


Asunto(s)
Música , Humanos
3.
Brain Res ; 1773: 147664, 2021 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560052

RESUMEN

Predictive models in the brain rely on the continuous extraction of regularities from the environment. These models are thought to be updated by novel information, as reflected in prediction error responses such as the mismatch negativity (MMN). However, although in real life individuals often face situations in which uncertainty prevails, it remains unclear whether and how predictive models emerge in high-uncertainty contexts. Recent research suggests that uncertainty affects the magnitude of MMN responses in the context of music listening. However, musical predictions are typically studied with MMN stimulation paradigms based on Western tonal music, which are characterized by relatively high predictability. Hence, we developed an MMN paradigm to investigate how the high uncertainty of atonal music modulates predictive processes as indexed by the MMN and behavior. Using MEG in a group of 20 subjects without musical training, we demonstrate that the magnetic MMN in response to pitch, intensity, timbre, and location deviants is evoked in both tonal and atonal melodies, with no significant differences between conditions. In contrast, in a separate behavioral experiment involving 39 non-musicians, participants detected pitch deviants more accurately and rated confidence higher in the tonal than in the atonal musical context. These results indicate that contextual tonal uncertainty modulates processing stages in which conscious awareness is involved, although deviants robustly elicit low-level pre-attentive responses such as the MMN. The achievement of robust MMN responses, despite high tonal uncertainty, is relevant for future studies comparing groups of listeners' MMN responses to increasingly ecological music stimuli.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Música , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Magnetoencefalografía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción de la Altura Tonal/fisiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(17): 5595-5608, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459062

RESUMEN

When listening to music, pitch deviations are more salient and elicit stronger prediction error responses when the melodic context is predictable and when the listener is a musician. Yet, the neuronal dynamics and changes in connectivity underlying such effects remain unclear. Here, we employed dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate whether the magnetic mismatch negativity response (MMNm)-and its modulation by context predictability and musical expertise-are associated with enhanced neural gain of auditory areas, as a plausible mechanism for encoding precision-weighted prediction errors. Using Bayesian model comparison, we asked whether models with intrinsic connections within primary auditory cortex (A1) and superior temporal gyrus (STG)-typically related to gain control-or extrinsic connections between A1 and STG-typically related to propagation of prediction and error signals-better explained magnetoencephalography responses. We found that, compared to regular sounds, out-of-tune pitch deviations were associated with lower intrinsic (inhibitory) connectivity in A1 and STG, and lower backward (inhibitory) connectivity from STG to A1, consistent with disinhibition and enhanced neural gain in these auditory areas. More predictable melodies were associated with disinhibition in right A1, while musicianship was associated with disinhibition in left A1 and reduced connectivity from STG to left A1. These results indicate that musicianship and melodic predictability, as well as pitch deviations themselves, enhance neural gain in auditory cortex during deviance detection. Our findings are consistent with predictive processing theories suggesting that precise and informative error signals are selected by the brain for subsequent hierarchical processing.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Neuroimagen Funcional , Magnetoencefalografía , Música , Percepción de la Altura Tonal/fisiología , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto Joven
5.
Brain Res ; 1754: 147248, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417893

RESUMEN

Evoked cortical responses (ERs) have mainly been studied in controlled experiments using simplified stimuli. Though, an outstanding question is how the human cortex responds to the complex stimuli encountered in realistic situations. Few electroencephalography (EEG) studies have used Music Information Retrieval (MIR) tools to extract cortical P1/N1/P2 to acoustical changes in real music. However, less than ten events per music piece could be detected leading to ERs due to limitations in automatic detection of sound onsets. Also, the factors influencing a successful extraction of the ERs have not been identified. Finally, previous studies did not localize the sources of the cortical generators. This study is based on an EEG/MEG dataset from 48 healthy normal hearing participants listening to three real music pieces. Acoustic features were computed from the audio signal of the music with the MIR Toolbox. To overcome limits in automatic methods, sound onsets were also manually detected. The chance of obtaining detectable ERs based on ten randomly picked onset points was less than 1:10,000. For the first time, we show that naturalistic P1/N1/P2 ERs can be reliably measured across 100 manually identified sound onsets, substantially improving the signal-to-noise level compared to <10 trials. More ERs were measurable in musical sections with slow event rates (0.2 Hz-2.5 Hz) than with fast event rates (>2.5 Hz). Furthermore, during monophonic sections of the music only P1/P2 were measurable, and during polyphonic sections only N1. Finally, MEG source analysis revealed that naturalistic P2 is located in core areas of the auditory cortex.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos/fisiología , Música , Sonido , Acústica , Adulto , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477654

RESUMEN

Motor exercise, such as sport or musical activities, helps with a plethora of diseases by modulating brain functions in neocortical and subcortical regions, resulting in behavioural changes related to mood regulation, well-being, memory, and even cognitive preservation in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Although evidence is accumulating on the systemic neural mechanisms mediating these brain effects, the specific mechanisms by which exercise acts upon the cellular level are still under investigation. This is particularly the case for music training, a much less studied instance of motor exercise than sport. With regards to sport, consistent neurobiological research has focused on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an essential player in the central nervous system. BDNF stimulates the growth and differentiation of neurons and synapses. It thrives in the hippocampus, the cortex, and the basal forebrain, which are the areas vital for memory, learning, and higher cognitive functions. Animal models and neurocognitive experiments on human athletes converge in demonstrating that physical exercise reliably boosts BDNF levels. In this review, we highlight comparable early findings obtained with animal models and elderly humans exposed to musical stimulation, showing how perceptual exposure to music might affect BDNF release, similar to what has been observed for sport. We subsequently propose a novel hypothesis that relates the neuroplastic changes in the human brains after musical training to genetically- and exercise-driven BDNF levels.


Asunto(s)
Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognición/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Memoria/fisiología , Envejecimiento/metabolismo , Animales , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Humanos , Condicionamiento Físico Animal
7.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 16(1-2): 19-30, 2021 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337586

RESUMEN

Interpersonal coordination is a core part of human interaction, and its underlying mechanisms have been extensively studied using social paradigms such as joint finger-tapping. Here, individual and dyadic differences have been found to yield a range of dyadic synchronization strategies, such as mutual adaptation, leading-leading, and leading-following behaviour, but the brain mechanisms that underlie these strategies remain poorly understood. To identify individual brain mechanisms underlying emergence of these minimal social interaction strategies, we contrasted EEG-recorded brain activity in two groups of musicians exhibiting the mutual adaptation and leading-leading strategies. We found that the individuals coordinating via mutual adaptation exhibited a more frequent occurrence of phase-locked activity within a transient action-perception-related brain network in the alpha range, as compared to the leading-leading group. Furthermore, we identified parietal and temporal brain regions that changed significantly in the directionality of their within-network information flow. Our results suggest that the stronger weight on extrinsic coupling observed in computational models of mutual adaptation as compared to leading-leading might be facilitated by a higher degree of action-perception network coupling in the brain.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Mapeo Encefálico , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Masculino , Música
8.
Neuroscience ; 441: 102-116, 2020 08 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569807

RESUMEN

Human behavior is inherently multimodal and relies on sensorimotor integration. This is evident when pianists exhibit activity in motor and premotor cortices, as part of a dorsal pathway, while listening to a familiar piece of music, or when naïve participants learn to play simple patterns on the piano. Here we investigated the interaction between multimodal learning and dorsal-stream activity over the course of four weeks in ten skilled pianists by adopting a naturalistic data-driven analysis approach. We presented the pianists with audio-only, video-only and audiovisual recordings of a piano sonata during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after they had learned to play the sonata by heart for a total of four weeks. We followed the learning process and its outcome with questionnaires administered to the pianists, one piano instructor following their training, and seven external expert judges. The similarity of the pianists' brain activity during stimulus presentations was examined before and after learning by means of inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis. After learning, an increased ISC was found in the pianists while watching the audiovisual performance, particularly in motor and premotor regions of the dorsal stream. While these brain structures have previously been associated with learning simple audio-motor sequences, our findings are the first to suggest their involvement in learning a complex and demanding audiovisual-motor task. Moreover, the most motivated learners and the best performers of the sonata showed ISC in the dorsal stream and in the reward brain network.


Asunto(s)
Música , Acetamidas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Neuroimagen , Desempeño Psicomotor , Pirimidinas
9.
J Neurosci Methods ; 340: 108743, 2020 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in measuring neural evoked responses (ERs) is challenged by overlapping neural sources. This lack of accuracy is a severe limitation to the application of ERs to clinical diagnostics. NEW METHOD: We here introduce a theory of stochastic neuronal spike timing probability densities for describing the large-scale spiking activity in neural assemblies, and a spike density component analysis (SCA) method for isolating specific neural sources. The method is tested in three empirical studies with 564 cases of ERs to auditory stimuli from 94 humans, each measured with 60 EEG electrodes and 306 MEG sensors, and a simulation study with 12,300 ERs. RESULTS: The first study showed that neural sources (but not non-encephalic artifacts) in individual averaged MEG/EEG waveforms are modelled accurately with temporal Gaussian probability density functions (median 99.7 %-99.9 % variance explained). The following studies confirmed that SCA can isolate an ER, namely the mismatch negativity (MMN), and that SCA reveals inter-individual variation in MMN amplitude. Finally, SCA reduced errors by suppressing interfering sources in simulated cases. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We found that gamma and sine functions fail to adequately describe individual MEG/EEG waveforms. Also, we observed that principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) does not consistently suppress interference from overlapping brain activity in neither empirical nor simulated cases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the overlapping neural sources in single-subject or patient data can be more accurately separated by applying SCA in comparison to PCA and ICA.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía , Magnetoencefalografía , Artefactos , Mapeo Encefálico , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Análisis de Componente Principal
10.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 2, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038152

RESUMEN

Cochlear implants (CIs) allow good perception of speech while music listening is unsatisfactory, leading to reduced music enjoyment. Hence, a number of ongoing efforts aim to improve music perception with a CI. Regardless of the nature of these efforts, effect measurements must be valid and reliable. While auditory skills are typically examined by behavioral methods, recording of the mismatch negativity (MMN) response, using electroencephalography (EEG), has recently been applied successfully as a supplementary objective measure. Eleven adult CI users and 14 normally hearing (NH) controls took part in the present study. To measure their detailed discrimination of fundamental features of music we applied a new multifeature MMN-paradigm which presented four music deviants at four levels of magnitude, incorporating a novel "no-standard" approach to be tested with CI users for the first time. A supplementary test measured behavioral discrimination of the same deviants and levels. The MMN-paradigm elicited significant MMN responses to all levels of deviants in both groups. Furthermore, the CI-users' MMN amplitudes and latencies were not significantly different from those of NH controls. Both groups showed MMN strength that was in overall alignment with the deviation magnitude. In CI users, however, discrimination of pitch levels remained undifferentiated. On average, CI users' behavioral performance was significantly below that of the NH group, mainly due to poor pitch discrimination. Although no significant effects were found, CI users' behavioral results tended to be in accordance with deviation magnitude, most prominently manifested in discrimination of the rhythm deviant. In summary, the study indicates that CI users may be able to discriminate subtle changes in basic musical features both in terms of automatic neural responses and of attended behavioral detection. Despite high complexity, the new CI MuMuFe paradigm and the "no-standard" approach provided reliable results, suggesting that it may serve as a relevant tool in future CI research. For clinical use, future studies should investigate the possibility of applying the paradigm with the purpose of assessing discrimination skills not only at the group level but also at the individual level.

11.
Eur J Neurosci ; 51(11): 2250-2269, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891423

RESUMEN

Auditory prediction error responses elicited by surprising sounds can be reliably recorded with musical stimuli that are more complex and realistic than those typically employed in EEG or MEG oddball paradigms. However, these responses are reduced as the predictive uncertainty of the stimuli increases. In this study, we investigate whether this effect is modulated by musical expertise. Magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) responses were recorded from 26 musicians and 24 non-musicians while they listened to low- and high-uncertainty melodic sequences in a musical multi-feature paradigm that included pitch, slide, intensity and timbre deviants. When compared to non-musicians, musically trained participants had significantly larger pitch and slide MMNm responses. However, both groups showed comparable reductions in pitch and slide MMNm amplitudes in the high-uncertainty condition compared with the low-uncertainty condition. In a separate, behavioural deviance detection experiment, musicians were more accurate and confident about their responses than non-musicians, but deviance detection in both groups was similarly affected by the uncertainty of the melodies. In both experiments, the interaction between uncertainty and expertise was not significant, suggesting that the effect is comparable in both groups. Consequently, our results replicate the modulatory effect of predictive uncertainty on prediction error; show that it is present across different types of listeners; and suggest that expertise-related and stimulus-driven modulations of predictive precision are dissociable and independent.


Asunto(s)
Música , Estimulación Acústica , Percepción Auditiva , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos , Humanos , Percepción de la Altura Tonal , Incertidumbre
12.
Neuroimage ; 216: 116191, 2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525500

RESUMEN

Keeping time is fundamental for our everyday existence. Various isochronous activities, such as locomotion, require us to use internal timekeeping. This phenomenon comes into play also in other human pursuits such as dance and music. When listening to music, we spontaneously perceive and predict its beat. The process of beat perception comprises both beat inference and beat maintenance, their relative importance depending on the salience of beat in the music. To study functional connectivity associated with these processes in a naturalistic situation, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain responses of participants while they were listening to a piece of music containing strong contrasts in beat salience. Subsequently, we utilized dynamic graph analysis and psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis in connection with computational modelling of beat salience to investigate how functional connectivity manifests these processes. As the main effect, correlation analyses between the obtained dynamic graph measures and the beat salience measure revealed increased centrality in auditory-motor cortices, cerebellum, and extrastriate visual areas during low beat salience, whereas regions of the default mode- and central executive networks displayed high centrality during high beat salience. PPI analyses revealed partial dissociation of functional networks belonging to this pathway indicating complementary neural mechanisms crucial in beat inference and maintenance, processes pivotal for extracting and predicting temporal regularities in our environment.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Cerebelo/fisiología , Conectoma/psicología , Corteza Motora/fisiología , Música/psicología , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Corteza Auditiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagen , Conectoma/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Corteza Motora/diagnóstico por imagen , Periodicidad , Adulto Joven
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15486, 2019 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664132

RESUMEN

Listening to self-chosen, pleasant and relaxing music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic centralized pain condition. However, the neural correlates of this effect are fairly unknown. In our study, we wished to investigate the neural correlates of music-induced analgesia (MIA) in FM patients. To do this, we studied 20 FM patients and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) acquiring rs-fMRI with a 3T MRI scanner, and pain data before and after two 5-min auditory conditions: music and noise. We performed resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) seed-based correlation analyses (SCA) using pain and analgesia-related ROIs to determine the effects before and after the music intervention in FM and HC, and its correlation with pain reports. We found significant differences in baseline rs-FC between FM and HC. Both groups showed changes in rs-FC after the music condition. FM patients reported MIA that was significantly correlated with rs-FC decrease between the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and rs-FC increase between amygdala and middle frontal gyrus. These areas are related to autobiographical and limbic processes, and auditory attention, suggesting MIA may arise as a consequence of top-down modulation, probably originated by distraction, relaxation, positive emotion, or a combination of these mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia , Fibromialgia/fisiopatología , Música , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Mapeo Encefálico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
14.
Elife ; 82019 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658945

RESUMEN

Music producers, whether original composers or performers, vary in their ability to acquire and faithfully transmit music. This form of variation may serve as a mechanism for the emergence of new traits in musical systems. In this study, we aim to investigate whether individual differences in the social learning and transmission of music relate to intrinsic neural dynamics of auditory processing systems. We combined auditory and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an interactive laboratory model of cultural transmission, the signaling game, in an experiment with a large cohort of participants (N=51). We found that the degree of interhemispheric rs-FC within fronto-temporal auditory networks predicts-weeks after scanning-learning, transmission, and structural modification of an artificial tone system. Our study introduces neuroimaging in cultural transmission research and points to specific neural auditory processing mechanisms that constrain and drive variation in the cultural transmission and regularization of musical systems.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Auditiva/anatomía & histología , Corteza Auditiva/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva , Red Nerviosa/anatomía & histología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Vías Nerviosas/anatomía & histología , Vías Nerviosas/fisiología , Adulto , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Música , Adulto Joven
15.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1704, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417454

RESUMEN

Converging evidence has demonstrated that musical training is associated with improved perceptual and cognitive skills, including executive functions and general intelligence, particularly in childhood. In contrast, in adults the relationship between cognitive performance and musicianship is less clear and seems to be modulated by a number of background factors, such as personality and socio-economic status. Aiming to shed new light on this topic, we administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III), the Wechsler Memory Scale III (WMS-III), and the Stroop Test to 101 Finnish healthy adults grouped according to their musical expertise (non-musicians, amateurs, and musicians). After being matched for socio-economic status, personality traits and other demographic variables, adult musicians exhibited higher cognitive performance than non-musicians in all the mentioned measures. Moreover, linear regression models showed significant positive relationships between executive functions (working memory and attention) and the duration of musical practice, even after controlling for intelligence and background variables, such as personality traits. Hence, our study offers further support for the association between cognitive abilities and musical training, even in adulthood. HIGHLIGHTS: - Musicians show higher general intelligence (FSIQ), verbal intelligence (VIQ), working memory (WMI) and attention skills than non-musicians. Amateurs score in between.- Significant positive correlations between years of musical playing and cognitive abilities support the hypothesis that long-term musical practice is associated with intelligence and executive functions.

16.
Cortex ; 120: 181-200, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323458

RESUMEN

Theories of predictive processing propose that prediction error responses are modulated by the certainty of the predictive model or precision. While there is some evidence for this phenomenon in the visual and, to a lesser extent, the auditory modality, little is known about whether it operates in the complex auditory contexts of daily life. Here, we examined how prediction error responses behave in a more complex and ecologically valid auditory context than those typically studied. We created musical tone sequences with different degrees of pitch uncertainty to manipulate the precision of participants' auditory expectations. Magnetoencephalography was used to measure the magnetic counterpart of the mismatch negativity (MMNm) as a neural marker of prediction error in a multi-feature paradigm. Pitch, slide, intensity and timbre deviants were included. We compared high-entropy stimuli, consisting of a set of non-repetitive melodies, with low-entropy stimuli consisting of a simple, repetitive pitch pattern. Pitch entropy was quantitatively assessed with an information-theoretic model of auditory expectation. We found a reduction in pitch and slide MMNm amplitudes in the high-entropy as compared to the low-entropy context. No significant differences were found for intensity and timbre MMNm amplitudes. Furthermore, in a separate behavioral experiment investigating the detection of pitch deviants, similar decreases were found for accuracy measures in response to more fine-grained increases in pitch entropy. Our results are consistent with a precision modulation of auditory prediction error in a musical context, and suggest that this effect is specific to features that depend on the manipulated dimension-pitch information, in this case.


Asunto(s)
Música/psicología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Incertidumbre , Estimulación Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Entropía , Potenciales Evocados Auditivos , Femenino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografía , Masculino , Percepción de la Altura Tonal/fisiología , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216499, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051008

RESUMEN

Learning, attention and action play a crucial role in determining how stimulus predictions are formed, stored, and updated. Years-long experience with the specific repertoires of sounds of one or more musical styles is what characterizes professional musicians. Here we contrasted active experience with sounds, namely long-lasting motor practice, theoretical study and engaged listening to the acoustic features characterizing a musical style of choice in professional musicians with mainly passive experience of sounds in laypersons. We hypothesized that long-term active experience of sounds would influence the neural predictions of the stylistic features in professional musicians in a distinct way from the mainly passive experience of sounds in laypersons. Participants with different musical backgrounds were recruited: professional jazz and classical musicians, amateur musicians and non-musicians. They were presented with a musical multi-feature paradigm eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN), a prediction error signal to changes in six sound features for only 12 minutes of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings. We observed a generally larger MMN amplitudes-indicative of stronger automatic neural signals to violated priors-in jazz musicians (but not in classical musicians) as compared to non-musicians and amateurs. The specific MMN enhancements were found for spectral features (timbre, pitch, slide) and sound intensity. In participants who were not musicians, the higher preference for jazz music was associated with reduced MMN to pitch slide (a feature common in jazz music style). Our results suggest that long-lasting, active experience of a musical style is associated with accurate neural priors for the sound features of the preferred style, in contrast to passive listening.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Percepción Sonora/fisiología , Percepción de la Altura Tonal/fisiología , Adulto , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografía , Masculino , Música , Adulto Joven
18.
Front Psychol ; 10: 750, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001182

RESUMEN

Survey studies have shown that participating in music groups produces several benefits, such as discipline, cooperation and responsibility. Accordingly, recent longitudinal studies showed that orchestral music training has a positive impact on inhibitory control in school-age children. However, most of these studies examined long periods of training not always feasible for all families and institutions and focused on children's measures ignoring the viewpoint of the teachers. Considering the crucial role of inhibitory control on hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, we wanted to explore if short orchestral music training would promote a reduction of these impulsive behaviors in children. This study involved 113 Italian children from 8 to 10 years of age. 55 of them attended 3 months of orchestral music training. The training included a 2-hour lesson per week at school and a final concert. The 58 children in the control group did not have any orchestral music training. All children were administered tests and questionnaires measuring inhibitory control and hyperactivity near the beginning and end of the 3-month training period. We also collected information regarding the levels of hyperactivity of the children as perceived by the teachers at both time points. Children in the music group showed a significant improvement in inhibitory control. Moreover, in the second measurement the control group showed an increase in self-reported hyperactivity that was not found in the group undergoing the music training program. This change was not noticed by the teachers, implying a discrepancy between self-reported and observed behavior at school. Our results suggest that even an intense and brief period of orchestral music training is sufficient to facilitate the development of inhibitory control by modulating the levels of self-reported hyperactivity. This research has implications for music pedagogy and education especially in children with high hyperactivity. Future investigations will test whether the findings can be extended to children diagnosed with ADHD.

19.
Cogn Neurosci ; 10(3): 166-168, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859899

RESUMEN

In his Discussion paper, Ward brakes important ground for the development of a framework for understanding the mechanisms underlying individual differences in sensory sensitivities across sensory domains. In this commentary, we would like to elaborate and highlight the role of interoception in sensory sensitivities focusing on the latest neuroimaging evidence drawn from research on sensitivities to auditory stimulation.


Asunto(s)
Interocepción , Estimulación Acústica , Humanos , Individualidad
20.
Eur J Neurosci ; 49(12): 1597-1609, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589481

RESUMEN

The human brain's ability to extract and encode temporal regularities and to predict the timing of upcoming events is critical for music and speech perception. This work addresses how these mechanisms deal with different levels of temporal complexity, here the number of distinct durations in rhythmic patterns. We use electroencephalography (EEG) to relate the mismatch negativity (MMN), a proxy of neural prediction error, to a measure of information content of rhythmic sequences, the Shannon entropy. Within each of three conditions, participants listened to repeatedly presented standard rhythms of five tones (four inter-onset intervals) and of a given level of entropy: zero (isochronous), medium entropy (two distinct interval durations), or high entropy (four distinct interval durations). Occasionally, the fourth tone was moved forward in time that is it occurred 100 ms (small deviation) or 300 ms early (large deviation). According to the predictive coding framework, high-entropy stimuli are more difficult to model for the brain, resulting in less confident predictions and yielding smaller prediction errors for deviant sounds. Our results support this hypothesis, showing a gradual decrease in MMN amplitude as a function of entropy, but only for small timing deviants. For large timing deviants, in contrast, a modulation of activity in the opposite direction was observed for the earlier N1 component, known to also be sensitive to sudden changes in directed attention. Our results suggest the existence of a fine-grained neural mechanism that weights neural prediction error to the complexity of rhythms and that mostly manifests in the absence of directed attention.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Percepción del Tiempo/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Adulto , Electroencefalografía , Potenciales Evocados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Periodicidad , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
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