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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2775-2788, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438523

RESUMEN

Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) and to characterize the strains. Swab samples were collected from birds showing severe respiratory signs in five farms on the island of Trinidad. Samples were tested for the presence of IBV, as well as avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All samples from the five farms tested negative for AIV, NDV and aMPV; however, samples from clinically affected birds in all five of the farms tested positive for IBV. Genetic data revealed the presence of TCoV in chickens on two of the farms. Interestingly, these two farms had never reared turkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IBV S1 sequences formed two distinct clusters. Two sequences grouped with vaccine strains within the GI-1 lineage, whereas three sequences grouped together, but separately from other defined lineages, forming a likely new lineage of IBV. Pairwise comparison revealed that the three unique variant strains within the distinct lineage of IBV were significantly different in their S1 nucleotide coding regions from viruses in the closest lineage (16% difference) and locally used vaccine strains (>20% difference). Results also suggested that one of the samples was a recombinant virus, generated from a recombination event between a Trinidad virus of the GI-1 lineage and a Trinidad virus of the newly defined lineage. Many amino acid differences were also observed between the S1 coding regions of the circulating field and vaccine strains, indicating that the IBV vaccines may not be protective. Vaccine-challenge studies are however needed to prove this.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Pollos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Patos , Gansos , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/clasificación , Filogenia , Codorniz , ARN Viral , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/veterinaria , Trinidad y Tobago , Pavos , Vacunación/veterinaria
2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(3): 1341-1348, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817083

RESUMEN

Fowl adenovirus (FAdV), which causes the high-impact diseases such as inclusion body hepatitis and hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome, is of major concern to the poultry industry internationally. This study was carried out in direct response to mortality rates of up to 75% in commercial broiler flocks in Trinidad, West Indies. Symptoms in 3- to 8-week-old broilers and 13- to 18-week-old pullets pointed to infection with an immunosuppressive viral pathogen. The objectives of the study were to determine whether the infectious agent FAdV, along with other viral pathogens, was responsible for the clinical disease, and to obtain information on the serotypes of FAdV that were infecting the birds. Tissue samples from clinically affected birds from eight different farms were tested for chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for FAdV by conventional PCR. The birds tested positive for FAdV and CIAV, but negative for IBDV. The gene corresponding to the L1 loop of the hexon protein for FAdV was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of seven FAdV strains inferred that four serotypes were likely to be circulating in the chickens. Well supported genetic relatedness was observed for serotype 8a (97.8%), 8b (97.8%), 9 (95.8%) and 11 (98.8%-99.5%). This is the first published report from Trinidad and Tobago on the presence and circulation of pathogenic FAdV strains, in combination with CIAV, in poultry. The data demonstrate a possible need for the introduction of serotype-specific vaccines against FAdV, as well as vaccines against CIAV, in broilers in the region and emphasize the importance of maintaining high levels of biosecurity on farms to prevent the spread of these potentially devastating viruses between farms.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Adenoviridae/veterinaria , Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Anemia del Pollo/aislamiento & purificación , Pollos/virología , Infecciones por Circoviridae/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Adenoviridae/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Birnaviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Birnaviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Birnaviridae/virología , Virus de la Anemia del Pollo/genética , Virus de la Anemia del Pollo/inmunología , Infecciones por Circoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Circoviridae/virología , Coinfección/veterinaria , Femenino , Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa/genética , Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa/inmunología , Virus de la Enfermedad Infecciosa de la Bolsa/aislamiento & purificación , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Serogrupo , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología
3.
Vet Sci ; 5(2)2018 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751649

RESUMEN

Despite frequent reports of subfertility and abortion in dairy cattle in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T), little is known about the potential infectious and non-infectious causes. This study set out to investigate possible infectious causes of reproductive problems by measuring the seroprevalence of four of the most significant reproductive pathogens in dairy cattle worldwide: Brucella abortus (B. abortus); Neospora caninum (N. caninum), Bovine Viral Diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV). These four reproductive pathogens have been suspected to be present in dairy cattle in T&T for some time but, previously, studies have not been carried out to confirm their presence. Bulk milk samples were collected from 92 dairy farms across Trinidad, representing a total of 1177 dairy cattle. Four dairy farms were selected for individual milk sampling to assess in-farm seroprevalence levels. Milk samples were tested for antibodies to the four pathogens by commercial ELISA kits. The overall farm seroprevalence was 62% for N. caninium and 23% for IBRV, and no antibodies were detected in any of the bulk milk samples for B. abortus or BVDV. Mixed infections for IBRV and N. caninum were common. Seroprevalence levels were between 8% and 65% for N. caninum and between 3% and 53% IBRV on the four individual farms. These results reveal the presence of IBRV and N. caninum for the first time on the island of Trinidad and importantly reveal no evidence for the circulation of BVDV or B. abortus in dairy cattle in Trinidad.

4.
Vet Sci ; 5(2)2018 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747454

RESUMEN

Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV) and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection. The aim of this study was to trap, sample, and test as many wild bird species as possible to see whether they were actively infected or previously exposed to AIV. A total of 38 wild birds were trapped, sampled, and tested for IAV RNA, antibodies specific for influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) and antibodies that were specific for H5 and H7 subtypes. Five of the samples tested antibody positive for IAV, while three of these samples had positive titres (≥16) for the H5 subtype, indicating that they were likely to have been previously infected with an H5 IAV subtype. One of the samples tested positive for IAV (M gene) RNA. These results highlight the potential threat that is posed by wild birds to backyard and commercial poultry in T&T and emphasise the importance of maintaining high levels of biosecurity on poultry farms, ensuring that domestic and wild birds are not in direct or indirect contact. The results also underline the need to carry out routine surveillance for AIV in domestic and wild birds in T&T and the wider Caribbean region.

5.
Vet Sci ; 5(1)2018 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361703

RESUMEN

Backyard poultry farms in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) play a vital role in providing food and income for rural communities. There is currently no information on the presence and circulation of pathogens in backyard poultry farms in T&T, and little is known in relation to the potential risks of spread of these pathogens to the commercial poultry sector. In order to address this, serum samples were collected from 41 chickens on five backyard farms taken from selected locations in Trinidad. Samples were tested for antibodies to seven priority pathogens of poultry by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies were detected in 65% (CI 95%: 50-78%) of the sampled birds for Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), 67.5% (CI 95%: 52-80%) for Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), 10% (CI 95%: 4-23%) for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for Avian influenza virus (AIV), 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for West Nile virus (WNV), 31.7% (CI 95%: 20-47%) for Mycoplasm gallisepticum/synoviae and 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. These results reveal the presence and circulation of important pathogens of poultry in selected backyard farms in Trinidad. The results provide important information which should be taken into consideration when assessing the risks of pathogen transmission between commercial and backyard poultry farms, as well as between poultry and wild birds.

6.
Vet Sci ; 5(1)2018 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361806

RESUMEN

Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed to provide accurate and rapid identification of the seven known Eimeria species of chickens. The aim of this study was to use species-specific real-time PCR (qPCR) to identify which of the seven Eimeria species are present in Trinidad poultry. Seventeen pooled fecal samples were collected from 6 broiler farms (2-5 pens per farm) across Trinidad. Feces were also collected from birds showing clinical signs of coccidiosis in two live bird markets (pluck shops). qPCR revealed the presence of five species of Eimeria (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, and E. tenella), but not E. brunetti or E. praecox. Mixed infections were detected on all broiler farms, and DNA of two highly pathogenic Eimeria species (E. tenella and E.necatrix) was detected in feces taken from clinically sick birds sampled from the two pluck shops.

7.
Vet Sci ; 5(1)2018 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373488

RESUMEN

Viral pathogens cause devastating economic losses in poultry industries worldwide. The Caribbean region, which boasts some of the highest rates of poultry consumption in the world, is no exception. This review summarizes evidence for the circulation and spread of eight high-priority, economically important poultry viruses across the Caribbean region. Avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), fowl adenovirus group 1 (FADV Gp1), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) were selected for review. This review of serological, molecular, and phylogenetic studies across Caribbean countries reveals evidence for sporadic outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by notifiable viral pathogens (AIV, IBV, NDV, and ILTV), as well as outbreaks of diseases caused by immunosuppressive viral pathogens (IBDV and FADV Gp1). This review highlights the need to strengthen current levels of surveillance and reporting for poultry diseases in domestic and wild bird populations across the Caribbean, as well as the need to strengthen the diagnostic capacity and capability of Caribbean national veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

8.
Prev Vet Med ; 149: 75-81, 2018 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290303

RESUMEN

Viruses affecting poultry cause significant levels of disease leading to severe economic losses among poultry farmers worldwide. The Americas region continues to be vulnerable to the spread of poultry viruses across the continents and Caribbean island chains. In Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) there is limited information on the viruses circulating in poultry. Many flock are vulnerable to infection and there are occasional outbreaks of disease resulting in high levels of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to identify important viruses of poultry circulating in T&T through a broad-based surveillance approach. Serum samples from 29 layer farms in Trinidad and 14 layer farms in Tobago were collected from the eldest laying hens. Samples were tested from unvaccinated birds for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against Avian influenza virus (AIV), Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Avian pneumovirus (APV), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), Fowl adenovirus Gp1 (FADV) and Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV). In Trinidad, the estimated true seroprevalence levels of antibodies were 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for AIV, 100% (CI 95%: 97-100%) for IBV, 79.8% (CI 95%: 70.6-86.9%) for NDV, 1% (CI 95%: 0-2.6%) for ILTV, 67.55% (CI 95%: 62.3-72.4%) for APV, 94.93% (CI 95%: 88.0-98.6%) for IBDV, 100% (CI 95%: 99.7-100%) for FADV and 67.8% (CI 95%: 62.4-72.8%) for EDSV. In Tobago, seroprevalence levels were 0% (CI 95%: 0-0%) for AIV, 100% (CI 95%: 95.6-100%) for IBV, 80.5% (CI 95%: 70.1-88.5%) for NDV, 29.9% (CI 95%: 20.8-40.6%) for ILTV, 100% (CI 95%: 97.7-100%) for APV, 97.1% (CI95%: 89.9-100%) for IBDV, 100% (CI 95%: 97.5-100%) for FADV and 100% (CI 95%: 99-100%) for EDSV. The results reveal strong evidence for the circulation of IBV, NDV, APV, IBDV, FADV and EDSV in layer poultry on both islands, as well as ILTV in Tobago.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Virosis/veterinaria , Animales , Femenino , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/virología
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 49(6): 1117-1124, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523387

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and identify the strains of swine influenza virus (SwIV), as well as the seroprevalence of porcine parvovirus (PPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in pigs in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Blood samples (309) were randomly collected from pigs at farms throughout T&T. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to the aforementioned viruses using commercial ELISA kits, and the circulating strains of SwIV were identified by the hemagglutination inhibition test (HIT). Antibodies against SwIV were detected in 114 out of the 309 samples (37%). Out of a total of 26 farms, 14 tested positive for SwIV antibodies. HI testing revealed high titers against the A/sw/Minnesota/593/99 H3N2 strain and the pH1N1 2009 pandemic strain. Antibodies against PPV were detected in 87 out of the 309 samples (28%), with 11 out of 26 farms testing positive for PPV antibodies. Antibodies against PCV-2 were detected in 205 out of the 309 samples tested (66%), with 25 out of the 26 farms testing positive for PCV-2 antibodies. No antibodies were detected in any of the tested pigs to PRRSV, TGEV, PRCV, or CSFV.


Asunto(s)
Orthomyxoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Virosis/veterinaria , Animales , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinaria , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Trinidad y Tobago/epidemiología , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/virología
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