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1.
J Biomech ; 126: 110630, 2021 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303894

RESUMEN

Despite reconstruction surgery to repair a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), patients often still show signs of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) years following the procedure. The goal of this study was to document changes in the meniscus and subchondral bone due to closed-joint impact and surgical reconstruction in a lapine model. Animals received insult to the joint followed by surgical reconstruction of the ACL and partial meniscectomy. Following euthanasia of the animals at 1, 3, and 6-months post-impact, meniscal tissue was assessed for changes in morphology, mechanical properties and proteoglycan content. Femurs and tibias were scanned via micro-computed tomography to determine changes in bone quality, morphometry, and formation of osteophytes. Both the lateral and medial menisci showed severe degradation and tearing at all-time points, with higher degree of degeneration being observed at 6-months. Decreases in both the instantaneous and equilibrium modulus were documented in both menisci. Minimal changes were found in bone quality and morphometry, with most change documented in the tibia. Bones from the reconstructed limbs showed large volumes of osteophyte formations, with an increase in volume over time. The initial changes that were representative of PTOA may have been limited to the meniscus, but at later time points consistent changes due to the disease were seen in both tissues. This study, which builds on a previous study by this laboratory, suggests that the addition of surgical reconstruction of the ACL to our model was not sufficient to prevent the development of PTOA.

2.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2775-2788, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438523

RESUMEN

Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) and to characterize the strains. Swab samples were collected from birds showing severe respiratory signs in five farms on the island of Trinidad. Samples were tested for the presence of IBV, as well as avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). All samples from the five farms tested negative for AIV, NDV and aMPV; however, samples from clinically affected birds in all five of the farms tested positive for IBV. Genetic data revealed the presence of TCoV in chickens on two of the farms. Interestingly, these two farms had never reared turkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that IBV S1 sequences formed two distinct clusters. Two sequences grouped with vaccine strains within the GI-1 lineage, whereas three sequences grouped together, but separately from other defined lineages, forming a likely new lineage of IBV. Pairwise comparison revealed that the three unique variant strains within the distinct lineage of IBV were significantly different in their S1 nucleotide coding regions from viruses in the closest lineage (16% difference) and locally used vaccine strains (>20% difference). Results also suggested that one of the samples was a recombinant virus, generated from a recombination event between a Trinidad virus of the GI-1 lineage and a Trinidad virus of the newly defined lineage. Many amino acid differences were also observed between the S1 coding regions of the circulating field and vaccine strains, indicating that the IBV vaccines may not be protective. Vaccine-challenge studies are however needed to prove this.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Animales , Pollos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Patos , Gansos , Virus de la Bronquitis Infecciosa/clasificación , Filogenia , Codorniz , ARN Viral , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/veterinaria , Trinidad y Tobago , Pavos , Vacunación/veterinaria
3.
Saúde Soc ; 28(1): 75-91, jan.-mar. 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-991673

RESUMEN

Abstract Although research on ADHD has tended to ignore gender differentials, recent contributions produced mainly from epidemiology have revealed that this diagnostic category seems to be strongly related to gender. However, these contributions seem to limit their scope to the study of the symptoms as well as cognitive, affective and social functioning of children, leaving aside subjective aspects associated with the ADHD practices of diagnosis and treatment. Thus, this article aims to explore how the gender dimension crosses the subjective experience of children diagnosed with ADHD. Based on open interviews conducted with children between the ages of 7 and 13, we show general trends that articulate gender and characteristics associated with the ADHD diagnosis, while at the same time, with children's experiences that dislocate such trends. The findings were grouped according to four emerging axes: (1) locations, (2) abilities, (3) approches, (4) interactions. Thus, we will show how the experience of boys and girls is multiple in relation to the diagnosis and it is not possible to be reduced to a gender binary perspective.


Resumen Si bien las investigaciones sobre TDA-H han tendido a dejar los aspectos diferenciales de género en un lugar secundario, recientes contribuciones emanadas principalmente desde la epidemiología han revelado que esta categoría diagnóstica parece estar fuertemente relacionada con el reparto de los géneros. Sin embargo, dichas contribuciones parecen limitar sus alcances al estudio de la sintomatología y funcionamiento cognitivo, afectivo y social de los(as) niños(as), dejando de lado aspectos subjetivos asociados a las prácticas de diagnóstico y tratamiento de TDA-H. De este modo, el objetivo de este artículo es explorar cómo la dimensión de género configura la experiencia subjetiva de niños(as) diagnosticados(as) con TDA-H. A partir de la realización de entrevistas abiertas realizadas a niños entre 7 y 13 años, damos cuenta de tendencias generales que articulan género y características asociadas al diagnóstico de TDA-H, a la vez que, con experiencias infantiles que dislocan tales tendencias. Los resultados se agruparon en función de cuatro dimensiones emergentes del material producido en las entrevistas: (1) localizaciones; (2) habilidades; (3) abordajes; (4) interacciones. Así, mostraremos cómo la experiencia de niños y niñas es múltiple en relación al diagnóstico y no es posible reducirla a una perspectiva binaria en torno al género.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Chile , Identidad de Género
4.
Vet Sci ; 5(1)2018 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361806

RESUMEN

Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed to provide accurate and rapid identification of the seven known Eimeria species of chickens. The aim of this study was to use species-specific real-time PCR (qPCR) to identify which of the seven Eimeria species are present in Trinidad poultry. Seventeen pooled fecal samples were collected from 6 broiler farms (2-5 pens per farm) across Trinidad. Feces were also collected from birds showing clinical signs of coccidiosis in two live bird markets (pluck shops). qPCR revealed the presence of five species of Eimeria (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, and E. tenella), but not E. brunetti or E. praecox. Mixed infections were detected on all broiler farms, and DNA of two highly pathogenic Eimeria species (E. tenella and E.necatrix) was detected in feces taken from clinically sick birds sampled from the two pluck shops.

5.
Summa psicol. UST ; 11(2): 45-56, 2014. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: lil-783365

RESUMEN

El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir el estado actual de las publicaciones en revistas de Psicología a nivel nacional respecto del tema migratorio, particularmente de la salud mental en población infanto-juvenil inmigrante. Para ello se revisaron 1.094 artículos publicados en seis revistas de Psicología en Chile durante el periodo 2003-2013. Se encontraron 26 artículos referidos a temas migratorios, los que posteriormente fueron clasificados según: tipo de investigación, proyecto asociado, apoyo institucional, nivel de análisis, población objetivo, y contexto del estudio. Los resultados indican una baja tasa de publicación en temas migratorios, y la inexistencia de artículos sobre inmigración y salud mental infanto-juvenil. Finalmente, se enfatiza en la necesidad de publicaciones en Psicología que aborden la temática, contemplando dimensiones socioculturales en sus análisis...


This paper aims to describe the current state of the national publications in journals of Psychology respect to the subject of immigration, particularly mental health in infant-juvenile immigrant population. In order to do so, 1.094 articles published in six journals of Psychology in Chile during the period 2003-2013 were reviewed. Twenty-six articles on immigration were found, which were subsequently classified by: type of research, associated project, institutional support, level of analysis, targeted population, and context of study. The results indicate a low rate of publication on the subject of immigration issues, and the lack of articles on immigration and infant-juvenile mental health. Finally, it is emphasized the need for publications in Psychology to address immigration, considering socio-cultural dimensions in their analysis...


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Salud del Adolescente , Salud del Niño , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Salud Mental , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Actividades Cotidianas , Chile
7.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 21(10): 1269-77, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22056324

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) for cuff tear arthropathy improves shoulder function and reduces pain. Implant position and soft tissue balancing are important factors to optimize outcome. Tensioning the deltoid and increasing the deltoid moment arm by medializing the center of rotation are biomechanically advantageous. The purpose of this study was to correlate RSA functional outcomes with deltoid lengthening and center of rotation medialization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled 49 consecutive patients who underwent RSA for cuff tear arthropathy. Preoperative and serial postoperative physical examinations, radiographs, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Simple Shoulder Test scores were evaluated. Deltoid lengthening and medialization of the center of rotation were measured radiographically and correlated with functional outcome scores, range of motion, and complications. RESULTS: At final follow-up (average, 16 ± 10 months), 37 of 49 patients (76%) were available for analysis. Deltoid lengthening (average, 21 ± 10 mm) correlated significantly (P = .002) with superior active forward elevation (average, 144° ± 19°). Medialization of the center of rotation (average, 18 ± 8 mm) did not correlate with active forward elevation or subjective outcomes. Deltoid lengthening that achieved an acromion-greater tuberosity distance exceeding 38 mm had a 90% positive predictive value of obtaining 135° of active forward elevation. Two patients (4%) required revision surgery, and 68% of patients developed scapular notching (average grade, 1.3 ± 1.2) at final follow-up. CONCLUSION: Deltoid lengthening improves active forward elevation after RSA for cuff tear arthropathy.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo/métodos , Músculo Deltoides/cirugía , Prótesis Articulares , Recuperación de la Función , Lesiones del Manguito de los Rotadores , Articulación del Hombro/cirugía , Hombro/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Diseño de Prótesis , Rango del Movimiento Articular , Rotación , Manguito de los Rotadores/fisiopatología , Manguito de los Rotadores/cirugía , Rotura , Articulación del Hombro/lesiones , Articulación del Hombro/fisiopatología , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 43(1): 13-6, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20972706

RESUMEN

Brucellosis has been documented in domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) but published literature is limited despite the importance of this species in tropical agricultural systems. The objective of this study was to compare the virulence of Brucella abortus isolates recovered from cattle and water buffalo. Nineteen strains of B. abortus from cattle and domestic water buffalo in Trinidad were intraperitoneally inoculated into BALB/c mice. Spleens were cultured for B. abortus and histopathological severity scores were calculated based on lymphoid depletion, lymphoid necrosis, splenitis, and macrophage accumulation. A general linear model approach was used to estimate the effect of isolate source (cattle versus water buffalo) on virulence. Isolates of water buffalo origin were significantly less virulent in the mouse model based on recovered B. abortus from splenic tissues, spleen/weight ratio, and lymphoid necrosis but not overall histopathological severity scores. Further investigation of isolates recovered from water buffalo might provide the key to the development of procedures for brucellosis control in tropical environments.


Asunto(s)
Brucella abortus/patogenicidad , Brucelosis Bovina/microbiología , Búfalos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Animales , Brucelosis Bovina/patología , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/patología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Necrosis , Bazo/microbiología , Bazo/patología , Trinidad y Tobago , Clima Tropical , Virulencia
9.
J Orthop Trauma ; 24(3): 188-93, 2010 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20182256

RESUMEN

Posterior pilon fractures are injuries of the posterior tibial plafond that likely occur through a combined rotational and axial load mechanism and are often difficult to treat with standard surgical approaches to the ankle. We describe an alternative surgical approach to this injury using posteromedial, posterolateral, or combined approaches and present a series of patients with either radiographic or functional outcomes at a minimum of 1-year follow up that were treated by this method.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos del Tobillo/cirugía , Fijación Interna de Fracturas/métodos , Fracturas de la Tibia/cirugía , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Traumatismos del Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recuperación de la Función , Fracturas de la Tibia/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
Am J Sports Med ; 37(10): 2021-7, 2009 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19546481

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current techniques of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction vary with respect to methods of fixation on the femur and the patella. This article presents the outcomes of a surgical technique for reconstruction of the MPFL that uses a soft tissue graft with interference screw fixation on the femur and a docking technique for fixation on the patella. HYPOTHESIS: Patients with patellar instability who are treated with the docking technique for MPFL reconstruction will have improvements in knee symptoms and function, with a high percentage achieving good to excellent results at early follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with patellar instability underwent reconstruction of the MPFL. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively by physical and radiographic examination and subjectively with the IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee), Tegner, Kujala, and Lysholm questionnaires. Nineteen patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 31 months (range, 24-39). No recurrent episodes of dislocation or subluxation were reported. A firm endpoint to lateral patellar translation was noted in all patients at most recent follow-up. The IKDC subjective knee evaluation score improved from 42 preoperatively to 82 postoperatively (P < .001); Kujala, from 50 to 88 (P < .001); Lysholm, from 50 to 89 (P < .001); and Tegner, from 3.6 to 5.6 (P < .001). CONCLUSION: The docking technique for MPFL reconstruction is an effective surgical procedure for the treatment of patellar instability.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia/métodos , Inestabilidad de la Articulación/cirugía , Ligamentos Articulares/cirugía , Luxación de la Rótula/cirugía , Articulación Patelofemoral/cirugía , Adolescente , Adulto , Tornillos Óseos , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
11.
J Knee Surg ; 21(4): 328-32, 2008 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18979937

RESUMEN

Patellar instability is a common knee disorder encountered in young athletes. Patients with normal osseous anatomy and mechanical alignment of the lower extremity are candidates for soft-tissue reconstructive procedures. In skeletally immature patients, surgical techniques that address patellar instability must avoid disruption of open physes and therefore must rely on soft-tissue techniques. Biomechanical research demonstrates that the medial patellofemoral ligament is the primary soft-tissue restraint to lateral subluxation of the patella, and the medial patellotibial ligament is an important secondary stabilizer. We present a novel physeal-sparing surgical technique that anatomically reconstructs both the medial patellofemoral and medial patellotibial ligaments using semitendinosus autograft.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia/métodos , Inestabilidad de la Articulación/cirugía , Ligamento Colateral Medial de la Rodilla/cirugía , Luxación de la Rótula/cirugía , Ligamento Rotuliano/cirugía , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Inestabilidad de la Articulación/complicaciones , Masculino , Luxación de la Rótula/etiología , Luxación de la Rótula/prevención & control , Técnicas de Sutura , Transferencia Tendinosa/métodos
12.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 17(5): 722-8, 2008.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18558498

RESUMEN

This biomechanical study compared 2 repair techniques for high-grade, partial, articular-sided supraspinatus tendon tears of the rotator cuff: transtendon in situ repair and tear completion with repair. Standardized, 50% partial, articular-sided supraspinatus lesions were created in 10 pairs of matched fresh, frozen cadaveric shoulders: 10 underwent partial lesion repair with an in situ transtendon technique using 2 suture anchors. In the contralateral 10 shoulders, the partial lesion was converted to a full-thickness tear and repaired with a double-row technique, using 4 suture anchors. Cyclic loading to failure of the supraspinatus tendon was performed using a material testing machine. Gap formation was measured for each rotational position and each incremental load. The in situ transtendon repair had statistically significant less gapping (P = .0001) and higher mean ultimate failure strength (P = .0011) than the double-row repair. In situ transtendon repair was biomechanically superior to tear completion for partial, articular-sided supraspinatus tears.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Ortopédicos/métodos , Lesiones del Manguito de los Rotadores , Traumatismos de los Tendones/fisiopatología , Traumatismos de los Tendones/cirugía , Adulto , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Cadáver , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Manguito de los Rotadores/fisiopatología , Técnicas de Sutura
13.
Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ) ; 37(4): 191-7, 2008 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18535674

RESUMEN

Neurologic injuries are a potentially devastating complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Review of the literature reveals that these injuries are uncommon. The reported incidence ranges from 0.08% to 7.6%. The incidence in primary THA ranges from 0.09% to 3.7% and in revision THA from 0% to 7.6%. Reported etiologies include intraoperative direct nerve injury, significant leg lengthening, improper retractor placement, cement extravasation, cement-related thermal damage, patient positioning, manipulation, and postoperative hematoma. Risk factors include developmental dysplasia of the hip, the female sex, posttraumatic arthritis, and revision surgery. However, no single risk factor has been consistently reported to be significant, and many patients with no known risk factors incur neurologic injuries.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera/efectos adversos , Traumatismos de los Nervios Periféricos , Nalgas/lesiones , Nalgas/inervación , Nervio Femoral/lesiones , Neuropatía Femoral/epidemiología , Humanos , Complicaciones Intraoperatorias/epidemiología , Nervio Obturador/lesiones , Nervio Peroneo/lesiones , Pronóstico , Reoperación , Factores de Riesgo , Nervio Ciático/anatomía & histología
14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 23(4): 264-7, 2008 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18505607

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence and serovar identity of Salmonella, at the national level, in farmed Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) in Trinidad and Tobago, and to compare the relative benefits of bacterial culture to those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for use in the routine detection and surveillance of Salmonella in these ducks. METHODS: From March-September 2003, 110 fecal samples were collected from 82 farms across the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Salmonella was isolated from fresh and frozen samples and the serotype of each was determined through bacterial culture. An in-house, nested PCR that detects all pathogenic Salmonella species was utilized in analyzing the samples. RESULTS: Five samples were positive for Salmonella by bacterial culture, whereas 44 were positive by the nested PCR. Serovars isolated were Kiambu, Orion, Uganda, and two isolates from Group E1 whose H antigens could not be fully characterized. Of the samples, 87 (79%) gave equivalent PCR results for both enrichment broths-28 were positive for both and 59 were negative for both). However, 16 samples were positive for one broth, but not for the other, with the majority (14 of the 16) resulting positive for Selenite broth. PCR results for seven samples were inconclusive due to ambiguous band size or multiple bands near the expected band size. CONCLUSIONS: In Trinidad and Tobago, the Muscovy duck does not appear to be a significant source of S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis, but it does harbor other Salmonella species. In-house, nested PCR represents a simple, relatively inexpensive and potentially more sensitive method than bacterial culture for the routine surveillance of pathogenic Salmonella in the Muscovy duck.


Asunto(s)
Patos/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Heces/microbiología , Trinidad y Tobago
15.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 23(4): 264-267, abr. 2008. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-483143

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence and serovar identity of Salmonella, at the national level, in farmed Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) in Trinidad and Tobago, and to compare the relative benefits of bacterial culture to those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for use in the routine detection and surveillance of Salmonella in these ducks. METHODS: From March-September 2003, 110 fecal samples were collected from 82 farms across the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Salmonella was isolated from fresh and frozen samples and the serotype of each was determined through bacterial culture. An in-house, nested PCR that detects all pathogenic Salmonella species was utilized in analyzing the samples. RESULTS: Five samples were positive for Salmonella by bacterial culture, whereas 44 were positive by the nested PCR. Serovars isolated were Kiambu, Orion, Uganda, and two isolates from Group E1 whose H antigens could not be fully characterized. Of the samples, 87 (79 percent) gave equivalent PCR results for both enrichment broths-28 were positive for both and 59 were negative for both). However, 16 samples were positive for one broth, but not for the other, with the majority (14 of the 16) resulting positive for Selenite broth. PCR results for seven samples were inconclusive due to ambiguous band size or multiple bands near the expected band size. CONCLUSIONS: In Trinidad and Tobago, the Muscovy duck does not appear to be a significant source of S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis, but it does harbor other Salmonella species. In-house, nested PCR represents a simple, relatively inexpensive and potentially more sensitive method than bacterial culture for the routine surveillance of pathogenic Salmonella in the Muscovy duck.


OBJETIVOS: Investigar la presencia de Salmonella en patos criollos (Cairina moschata) criados en Trinidad y Tobago e identificar los serotipos circulantes en el país, así como comparar los beneficios relativos del cultivo bacteriano con respecto a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP) en la detección y la vigilancia cotidianas de la Salmonella en estos patos. MÉTODOS: Entre marzo y septiembre de 2003 se tomaron 110 muestras de heces fecales de 82 granjas distribuidas por las islas de Trinidad y Tobago. Se aisló Salmonella de muestras frescas y congeladas y se determinaron los serotipos mediante el cultivo bacteriano. Se utilizó un sistema autóctono de RCP anidada que detecta todas las especies patógenas de Salmonella en las muestras. RESULTADOS: Cinco muestras resultaron positivas para Salmonella mediante el cultivo bacteriano, mientras que 44 fueron positivas mediante la RCP anidada. Se asilaron los serotipos Kiambu, Orion, Uganda y dos aislamientos del grupo E1, cuyos antígenos H no se pudieron caracterizar totalmente. Hubo coincidencia en 87 (79 por ciento) de las muestras analizadas por RCP en ambos caldos de enriquecimiento (28 positivas y 59 negativas). Sin embargo, 16 muestras positivas en un caldo resultaron negativas en el otro; la mayoría de ellas (14 de 16) resultaron positivas en caldo selenito. Siete muestras resultaron indefinidas mediante la RCP debido a tallas ambiguas de las bandas o a múltiples bandas cerca de la talla esperada. CONCLUSIONES: El pato criollo no parece ser una fuente importante de infección por S. typhimurium y S. enteritidis en Trinidad y Tobago, aunque hospeda otras especies de Salmonella. El sistema autóctono de RCP anidada constituye un método simple, relativamente económico y posiblemente más sensible que el cultivo bacteriano en la vigilancia cotidiana de especies patógenas de Salmonella en el pato criollo.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Patos/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Heces/microbiología , Trinidad y Tobago
16.
Rev. panam. salud p£blica ; 23(4): 264-267, Apr. 2008. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: med-17460

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence and serovar identity of Salmonella, at the national level, in farmed Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) in Trinidad and Tobago, and to compare the relative benefits of bacterial culture to those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for use in the routine detection and surveillance of Salmonella in these ducks. METHODS: From March–September 2003, 110 fecal samples were collected from 82 farms across the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Salmonella was isolated from fresh and frozen samples and the serotype of each was determined through bacterial culture. An in-house, nested PCR that detects all pathogenic Salmonella species was utilized in analyzing the samples. RESULTS: Five samples were positive for Salmonella by bacterial culture, whereas 44 were positive by the nested PCR. Serovars isolated were Kiambu, Orion, Uganda, and two isolates from Group E1 whose H antigens could not be fully characterized. Of the samples, 87 (79 percent) gave equivalent PCR results for both enrichment broths—28 were positive for both and 59 were negative for both). However, 16 samples were positive for one broth, but not for the other, with the majority (14 of the 16) resulting positive for Selenite broth. PCR results for seven samples were inconclusive due to ambiguous band size or multiple bands near the expected band size. CONCLUSIONS: In Trinidad and Tobago, the Muscovy duck does not appear to be a significant source of S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis, but it does harbor other Salmonella species. In-house, nested PCR represents a simple, relatively inexpensive and potentially more sensitive method than bacterial culture for the routine surveillance of pathogenic Salmonella in the Muscovy duck


Asunto(s)
Animales , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Salmonella , Trinidad y Tobago
18.
West Indian veterinary journal ; 7(1): 1-7, July 2007. graf
Artículo en Inglés | MedCarib | ID: med-17365

RESUMEN

Retrospective data from 18 tunnel-ventilated and 41 conventional houses in Barbados were evaluated in order to compare the effects of the two types of housing using the following indices: feed conversion ratio at 1500 grammes (FCR1500), European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), and net income per bird (NIPB). The data obtained were from the records of 200 and 282 grow-outs for tunnel-ventilated and conventional houses respectively. The effects of season of placement and month of placement on the above performance variables were also evaluated. The analyses revealed that the performance variables NIPB, EPEF and FCR1500 were superior for tunnel-ventilated housing (P=0.02, 0.0001 and 0.0001, respectively); were less variable from month to month for tunnel-ventilated housing; and except for NIPB, were better when birds were placed during the dry season (P=0.08, 0.0005 and 0.007, respectively). Financial analysis also showed that the tunnel-ventilated house was a more profitable venture than the conventional house. The benefit:cost ratios were 1.18 for the tunnel-ventilated house and 1.04 for the conventional house. The net profit margin (15.38 vs 3.59 percent), net profit per kilogram, (0.51 vs 0.12 BDS $, (BDS $1.00 ~ US $0.50), and net profit per m2 (94.83 vs 13.13 BDS $) were also higher for the tunnel-ventilated house.


Asunto(s)
Aves de Corral , /economía , /métodos , /estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis Costo-Beneficio/métodos , Análisis Costo-Beneficio/estadística & datos numéricos , Barbados
19.
J Hand Surg Am ; 28(5): 739-43, 2003 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14507501

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine and quantify the relationship of osteoarthritis (OA) in the trapeziometacarpal, scaphotrapezial, and scaphotrapezoidal joints; to ascertain the dependability of radiographic assessment of trapeziometacarpal, scaphotrapezial, and scaphotrapezoidal OA; to determine the articular topography of the scaphotrapezio-trapezoidal (STT) joint (composed of the scaphotrapezial and scaphotrapezoidal articulations) using stereophotogrammetry; and to characterize the articular wear patterns of STT OA. METHODS: Sixty-nine fresh-frozen human cadaveric hands were staged radiographically and by gross visual examination for the presence of OA in the trapeziometacarpal and STT joints. Twenty randomly selected joints also were evaluated to determine the topography of the STT joint using stereophotogrammetry. RESULTS: Concomitant severe osteoarthritic degeneration was found in the trapeziometacarpal and STT joint in 60% of our specimens. A correlation was found in the severity of OA in the trapeziometacarpal and STT joints. Radiographic and gross visual evaluation of STT OA concurred in 39% of our specimens. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of concomitant trapeziometacarpal and STT OA, and the uncertainty of radiographic evaluation of STT OA, indicate the need to visualize the STT joint intraoperatively to determine the true degree of degenerative changes present.


Asunto(s)
Osteoartritis/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoartritis/patología , Articulación de la Muñeca/diagnóstico por imagen , Articulación de la Muñeca/patología , Huesos del Carpo/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fotogrametría , Radiografía
20.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 45(4): 193-5, 2003.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14502345

RESUMEN

Faecal samples were collected from fifty three freshly captured monkeys which were kept at the Barbados Primate Research Centre and Wildlife Reserve (BPRCWR). Examination of these samples for gastrointestinal helminths using the zinc sulphate floatation method revealed an overall infection rate of 88.7%. The parasites observed included Strongyloides (62.4%), Physaloptera (58.5%), Trichuris (52.8%), Hookworm (34.0%), Oesophagostomum (30.2%), Trichostrongylus (3.8%) and Ascaris (5.7%). No significant differences in overall prevalence were observed according to sex or age. Polyparasitism appeared to be common as it was observed in 92.5% of all monkeys examined. It is concluded that these monkeys could act as reservoirs of some of the parasites which can infect man.


Asunto(s)
Chlorocebus aethiops/parasitología , Helmintiasis Animal/parasitología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Monos/parasitología , Animales , Barbados/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Helmintos/clasificación , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Masculino , Enfermedades de los Monos/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Distribución por Sexo
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