Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 76
Filtrar
1.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124913, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711716

RESUMEN

This study investigated the tolerance, defensive response and methanogenic pathways of anaerobic granular slugde and anaerobic suspended sludge (AGS and ASS) exposed to different LCM concentrations. AGS presented a higher tolerance to LCM stress, accompanied with 20.8 ± 2.6% enhancement in methane production at 1000 mg/L LCM, which was likely attributed to the less cell deaths and extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) protection. In the acidification stage, acetate accumulation was stimulated and the activity of acetate kinase was promoted by LCM. In the methanogenesis stage, propionate and butyrate utilization for methane production were impaired after LCM addition. LCM also improved the activity of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and strengthened the process of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, likely by accelerating interspecies electron transfer mediated by hydrogen. ErmB and ermF were the dominate LCM resistance genes in AGS under LCM pressure conferring the resistance mechanism of ribosomal protection.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Lincomicina , Metano
2.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257469

RESUMEN

Current guidelines recommend angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) (sacubitril/valsartan) as a replacement for angiotensin-converting-enzymeinhibitor (ACE-I) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy. The effects of ARNIs have not previously been assessed in a systematic review. We searched for relevant trials until October 2019 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, BIOSIS, CNKI, VIP, WanFang and CBM. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and serious adverse events. We systematically assessed the risks of random errors and systematic errors. PROSPERO registration: CRD42019129336. 48 trials randomising 19 086 participants were included. The ARNI assessed in all trials was sacubitril/valsartan. ACE-I or ARB were used as control interventions. Trials randomising HFrEF participants (27 trials) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) participants (four trials) were analysed separately. In HFrEF participants, meta-analyses and Trial Sequential Analyses showed evidence of a beneficial effect of sacubitril/valsartan when assessing all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR), 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.94) and serious adverse events (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93); and the results did not differ between the guideline recommended target population and HFrEF participants in general. We found no evidence of an effect of sacubitril/valsartan in HFpEF participants. Sacubitril/valsartan compared with either ACE-I or ARB seems to have a beneficial effect in patients with HFrEF. Our results indicate that sacubitril/valsartan might be beneficial in a wider population of patients with heart failure than the guideline recommended target population. Sacubitril/valsartan does not seem to show evidence of a difference compared with valsartan in patients with HFpEF.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188385

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Nowadays, real-world data can be used to improve currently available dosing guidelines and to support regulatory approval of drugs for use in neonates by overcoming practical and ethical hurdles. This proof-of-concept study aimed to assess the population pharmacokinetics of azlocillin in neonates using real-world data, to make subsequent dose recommendations and to test these in neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS). METHODS: This prospective, open-label, investigator-initiated study of azlocillin in neonates with EOS was conducted using an adaptive two-step design. First, a maturational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of azlocillin was developed, using an empirical dosing regimen combined with opportunistic samples resulting from waste material. Second, a Phase II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03932123) of this newly developed model-based dosing regimen of azlocillin was conducted to assure optimized target attainment [free drug concentration above MIC during 70% of the dosing interval ('70% fT>MIC')] and to investigate the tolerance and safety in neonates. RESULTS: A one-compartment model with first-order elimination, using 167 azlocillin concentrations from 95 neonates (31.7-41.6 weeks postmenstrual age), incorporating current weight and renal maturation, fitted the data best. For the second step, 45 neonates (30.3-41.3 weeks postmenstrual age) were subsequently included to investigate target attainment, tolerance and safety of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model-based dose regimen (100 mg/kg q8h). Forty-three (95.6%) neonates reached their pharmacokinetic target and only two neonates experienced adverse events (feeding intolerance and abnormal liver function), possibly related to azlocillin. CONCLUSIONS: Target attainment, tolerance and safety of azlocillin was shown in neonates with EOS using a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model developed with real-world data.

4.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(5): 5584-5603, 2020 08 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120567

RESUMEN

In this paper, we propose an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM) method based on improved TOPSIS and Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA), in which the attribute values are interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. So that we can deal with imprecise information in fuzzy and rough form in MADM problems by using interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers Firstly, the concept of interval intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is introduced to calculate the entropy weight of attributes. And the combined weight is calculated by combining the entropy weight with the subjective weight. Secondly, the reverse order phenomenon in the traditional TOPSIS method is eliminated by constructing absolute Positive Ideal Solution (PIS) and absolute Negative Ideal Solution (NIS) in the form of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Furthermore, the improved TOPSIS method and grey correlation analysis method are combined to describe the degree of closeness for each alternative from the ideal solution, and then the ranking and selection of each alternative are made accordingly to this degree. Finally, the rationality and effectiveness of our method are verified by an example and its sensitivity analysis. The result shows that our method makes the solution of MADM problems more objective and reasonable.

5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081063

RESUMEN

There has been a growing interest in polymer applied for soil reinforcement in recent years. However, there little attention has been paid to the effects of polymer on soil cracking behavior, and cracks significantly change soil strength and hydraulic properties and alter reinforcement effectiveness. This study investigated the desiccation cracking behavior of polyurethane (PU) and polyacrylamide (PAM) admixed clayey soils with different polymer concentrations by performing desiccation cracking tests. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation was also carried out to obtain the internal structure of these soils. The results show that PU and PAM addition both prolonged the initial evaporation stage, accelerated later evaporation processes, and the effects were related to polymer concentration. Final cracks morphology analyses show that PAM addition slightly reduced the cracking and crushing degree and kept the soil relatively intact, while PU addition slightly enhanced the cracking and crushing degree of soil. In addition, PU and PAM addition both increased the width and length of cracks. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses show that the effects of polymer on soil evaporation and cracking could be concluded as: (1) storing water in voids, (2) influencing water immigration channel, (3) providing space for soil shrinkage, and (4) enhancing the connection between aggregates, which did not fully come into play because of the existence of hydrogel form. These achievements provide a certain basis for the research of desiccation cracking behavior of polymer treated soil and make significant sense for the safe and effective running of related projects.

6.
Neuropeptides ; 84: 102097, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059243

RESUMEN

Despite robust evidence on the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine via both central and peripheral actions, relatively less is known about how CGRP in the limbic system is involved in migraine progression. This study investigated whether CGRP production machinery exists in the two key limbic regions including hippocampus and amygdala using cortical spreading depression (CSD) as a model of migraine and whether such alteration by CSD is sensitive to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor regulation in rats. A single or repetitive CSD was induced by topical application of KCl and monitored using electrophysiological methods. The NR2A-containing NMDA receptor antagonist, NVP-AAM077, or its vehicle, was perfused into the contralateral cerebroventricular ventricle of rat. Quantitative PCR was used to measure CGRP mRNA levels in the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus and amygdala after CSD events and compared to respective sham treatments. The results showed that neither a single CSD nor repetitive CSD affected CGRP mRNA levels in both the contralateral and ipsilateral hippocampus at 24 h post CSD induction. Differently, significant elevation of CGRP gene expression was observed in the ipsilateral amygdala at 24 h post multiple CSD, but not contralateral side, and not post-single CSD. Further results showed that the CSD-induced CGRP gene expression in the amygdala was markedly reduced by NVP-AAM077 and this reduction corresponded to a reduced cortical susceptibility to CSD in rats. We conclude that repetitive CSD events induce CGRP gene expression in amygdala, which is sensitive to NR2A regulation.

7.
Complement Ther Med ; 52: 102504, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951752

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review assessed whether Tuina (therapeutic massage) is more effective and safer than no treatment or routine medical treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: Eleven databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of IBS diagnosed based on Manning or Rome criteria. Tuina with or without routine treatments (RTs) was tested against RTs. The Cochrane risk of bias was evaluated for each trial. RevMan 5.3 was used to conduct a meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 8 trials (5 IBS-diarrhea and 3 IBS-constipation) with 545 participants using 8 different manipulations were included. All trials were published in Chinese. For overall symptom improving rate (> 30 % improvement in overall symptom scores), it had not been shown that Tuina was significantly better than RTs (RR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.94-1.60, 197 participants, 3 studies, I2 = 65 %) for IBS-diarrhea, and Tuina combined with RTs showed more benefit than RTs alone (RR 1.29, 95 % CI 1.08-1.54, 115 participants, 3 studies) for IBS-diarrhea. All trials did not report adverse effect in relation to Tuina. Risk of bias was generally unclear across all domains. CONCLUSIONS: Tuina combined with RTs may be superior to RTs for improving overall symptom of IBS-diarrhea. Due to the existing methodological issues and the heterogeneity of Tuina manipulation, current findings need to be confirmed in large scale, multicenter, and robust randomized trials (especially on outcome assessing blinding and allocation concealment).

8.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964455

RESUMEN

Long-term disability after stroke is common but the mechanisms of post-stroke recovery remain unclear. Cerebral Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac) 1 contributes to functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice. As Rac1 plays divergent roles in individual cell types after central neural system injury, we herein examined the specific role of neuronal Rac1 in post-stroke recovery and axonal regeneration. Young male mice were subjected to 60-min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Inducible deletion of neuronal Rac1 by daily intraperitoneal injection of tamoxifen (2 mg/40 g) into Thy1-creER/Rac1-floxed mice day 7-11 after MCAO worsened cognitive (assayed by novel object recognition test) and sensorimotor (assayed by adhesive removal and pellet reaching tests) recovery day 14-28 accompanied with the reduction of neurofilament-L (NFL) and myelin basic protein (MBP) and the elevation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the peri-infarct zone assessed by immunostaining. Whereas the brain tissue loss was not altered assayed by cresyl violet staining. In another approach, delayed overexpression of neuronal Rac1 by injection of lentivirus encoding Rac1 with neuronal promotor into both the cortex and striatum (total 4 µl at 1 × 109 transducing units/mL) of stroke side in C57BL/6J mice day 7 promoted stroke outcome, NFL and MBP regrowth and alleviated GFAP invasion. Furthermore, neuronal Rac1 over-expression led to the activation of p21 activating kinases (PAK) 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and the elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) day 14 after stroke. Finally, we observed higher counts of neuronal Rac1 in the peri-infarct zone of subacute/old ischemic stroke subjects. This work identified a neuronal Rac1 signaling in improving functional recovery and axonal regeneration after stroke, suggesting a potential therapeutic target in the recovery stage of stroke.

9.
Cancer Cell Int ; 20: 463, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982585

RESUMEN

Background: Emerging studies have disclosed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as pivotal modulators in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Current research planned to figure out the involvement of lncRNA nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase antisense RNA 1 (NNT-AS1) in PCa. Methods: RNA expression was examined using RT-qPCR in PCa cells. Functional assays assessed the viability, proliferation, apoptosis and migration of PCa cells. RNA pull down and luciferase reporter experiments detected the interplay between miRNA and lncRNA or mRNA. Results: NNT-AS1 was apparently upregulated in PCa cells. NNT-AS1 deficiency abrogated PCa cell viability, proliferation and migration but promoted apoptosis. Besides, miR-496 could be sequestered by NNT-AS1 to elevate the expression of DNA damage inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) in PCa. Rescue assays indicated that overexpressed DDIT4 or restrained miR-496 could reverse the influence of NNT-AS1 depletion on malignant processes in PCa cells. Conclusion: NNT-AS1 contributes to the malignant phenotypes of PCa cells through targeting miR-496 to boost DDIT4 expression.

10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 128: 110352, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521456

RESUMEN

There are trillions and trillions of microorganisms in the human gut, and these microorganisms and their metabolites are closely related to human health. Recent studies have found that the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila is decreased in many diseases. Supplementation of A. muciniphila is used to treat many diseases, suggesting it as a probiotic. Herbal medicines are considered as valuable asset of traditional Chinese medicine. Recent studies have revealed traditional Chinese medicine as a potential prebiotic agent for the treatment of many diseases. Hence, in this review, we aimed to provide a plausible mechanistic basis for the interactions between herbal medicines and A. muciniphila, and therapeutic benefits on this interaction in various illnesses.

11.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 125, 2020 06 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546170

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: For a long time, the relationship between caffeine consumption and infertility in the general population is unclear, this study is aimed to systematically review the evidence from any type of controlled clinical studies to explore whether caffeine intake is a risk factor for human infertility. METHODS: Seven databases were searched from inception to May 2019. We included women/men without a history of infertility but were willing to have children in prospective studies and women/men who were diagnosed with infertility in retrospective studies. The observed exposure factor should be caffeine or caffeine containing beverage. Diagnosis of infertility or not for participants was the key outcome. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) or Cochrane risk of bias tool were used to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Meta-analysis was conducted if there were acceptable clinical and statistical heterogeneity among studies. The GRADE method was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. RESULTS: Four studies (one cohort study and three case-control studies) involving 12,912 participants were included. According NOS, the average score of case-control studies was 6, and the cohort study achieved 9. Meta-analysis and subgroup analysis were conducted. The results showed that low (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.78-1.16), medium (OR 1.14, 95%CI 0.69-1.86) and high doses (OR 1.86, 95%CI 0.28-12.22) of caffeine intake may not increase the risk of infertility. The quality of the current evidence bodies were all low. CONCLUSION: Our study provides low quality evidence that regardless of low, medium and high doses of caffeine intake do not appear increase the risk of infertility. But the conclusion should be treated with caution.


Asunto(s)
Cafeína/efectos adversos , Fertilidad/efectos de los fármacos , Infertilidad Femenina/inducido químicamente , Cafeína/administración & dosificación , Niño , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo
12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 466, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596242

RESUMEN

Autophagy is a major degradation process of cytoplasmic components in eukaryotes, and executes both bulk and selective degradation of targeted cargos. A set of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins participate in various stages of the autophagic process. Among ATGs, ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 plays a central role in autophagy. The ATG8 protein is conjugated to the membrane lipid phosphatidylethanolamine in a ubiquitin-like conjugation reaction that is essential for autophagosome formation. In addition, ATG8 interacts with various adaptor/receptor proteins to recruit specific cargos for degradation by selective autophagy. The ATG8-interacting proteins usually contain the ATG8-interacting motif (AIM) or the ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM) for ATG8 binding. Unlike a single ATG8 gene in yeast, multiple ATG8 orthologs have been identified in the plant kingdom. The large diversity within the ATG8 family may explain the various functions of selective autophagy in plants. Here, we discuss and summarize the current view of the structure and function of ATG8 proteins in plants.

13.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455626

RESUMEN

In this study, hydrogenotrophic methanogenic mixed cultures taken from 13 lab-scale ex-situ biogas upgrading systems under different temperature (20-70 °C), pH (6.0-8.5), and CO (0-10%, v/v) variables were systematically investigated. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to identify the microbial consortia, and statistical analyses were conducted to reveal the microbial diversity, the core functional microbes, and their correlative relationships with tested variables. Overall, bacterial community was more complex than the archaea community in all mixed cultures. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanothermobacter, Methanobacterium, and Methanomassiliicoccus, and putative syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacterium Coprothermobacter and Caldanaerobacter were found to predominate, but the core functional microbes varied under different conditions. Multivariable sensitivity analysis indicated that temperature (p < 0.01) was the crucial variable to determine the microbial consortium structures in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic mixed cultures. pH (0.01 < p < 0.05) significantly interfered with the relative abundance of dominant archaea. Although CO did not affect community (p > 0.1), some potential CO-utilizing syntrophic metabolisms might be enhanced. Understanding of microbial consortia in the hydrogenotrophic methanogenic mixed cultures related to environmental variables was a great advance to reveal the microbial ecology in microbial biogas upgrading process.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 14, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116695

RESUMEN

Objective: Cefepime is used to treat severe infections in neonates. Pharmacokinetic data have only been evaluated among preterm neonates and population pharmacokinetic model lacked external validation. Hence, our aim is to obtain the population pharmacokinetic parameters of cefepime with large sampling and optimize the cefepime dosage regimen for neonatal infection based on developmental pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics. Methods: Blood samples from neonates and young infants treated with cefepime were collected using the opportunistic sampling design. The concentration of cefepime was determined using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The population pharmacokinetic model was established using NONMEM software. Results: One hundred blood samples from eighty-five neonates were analyzed. The population pharmacokinetics of cefepime were described by a one-compartment model with first-order elimination. Covariate analysis indicated that serum creatinine concentration, postmenstrual age and current weight had significant impact on the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefepime. Monte Carlo simulation results showed that the current dosage regimen (30 mg/kg, q12 h) had a high risk of insufficient dose. For 70% of neonates to obtain a higher free drug concentration than the minimum inhibitory concentration during 70% of the dosing interval, 50 mg/kg q12 h was needed with a susceptibility breakpoint of 4 mg/l. For a minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 mg/l, 40 mg/kg q8 h was recommended for all neonates. Conclusion: A population pharmacokinetic model of cefepime in neonates and young infants was established. According to simulation results based on the developmental pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics, different dosage regimens should be given depending on pathogens and the postmenstrual age.

15.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 13: 28, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127915

RESUMEN

Background: Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates different types of inhibitors (e.g., furfural and acetic acid), which could remarkably inhibit subsequent ethanol fermentation. Here, biochar as an additive in the fermentation broth was first applied to enhance ethanol production by Z. mobilis wild-type strain ZM4 in the presence of typical inhibitors. Results: This study showed that the biochar-mediated tolerance to furfural and acetic acid for the strain Z. mobilis ZM4 was the highest reported level, resulting in much higher ethanol productivity under stress conditions than that in non-treated conditions. Further analysis showed that adsorptive detoxification was not the controlling factor for enhanced ethanol production under stress conditions, attributed to its low removal of furfural (< 20%) and incapability of acetic acid removal. When biochar was filtered from the biochar-treated inhibitor-containing broth, it still showed enhanced ethanol production. Furthermore, Z. mobilis immobilized on biochar was also observed. Thus, biochar extracts in the fermentation broth and cell immobilization on biochar might be the controlling factors for enhanced ethanol production under stress conditions. Conclusions: These results indicate that biochar-mediated enhanced ethanol fermentation (BMEEF) might be a promising strategy for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070042

RESUMEN

Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a propagating wave of depolarization followed by depression of cortical activity. CSD triggers neuroinflammation via the pannexin-1 (Panx1) channel opening, which may eventually cause migraine headaches. However, the regulatory mechanism of Panx1 is unknown. This study investigates whether sarcoma family kinases (SFK) are involved in transmitting CSD-induced Panx1 activation, which is mediated by the NR2A-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. CSD was induced by topical application of K+ to cerebral cortices of rats and mouse brain slices. SFK inhibitor, PP2, or NR2A-receptor antagonist, NVP-AAM077, was perfused into contralateral cerebral ventricles (i.c.v.) of rats prior to CSD induction. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot were used for detecting protein interactions, and histofluorescence for addressing Panx1 activation. The results demonstrated that PP2 attenuated CSD-induced Panx1 activation in rat ipsilateral cortices. Cortical susceptibility to CSD was reduced by PP2 in rats and by TAT-Panx308 that disrupts SFK-Panx1 interaction in mouse brain slices. Furthermore, CSD promoted activated SFK coupling with Panx1 in rat ipsilateral cortices. Moreover, inhibition of NR2A by NVP-AAM077 reduced elevation of ipsilateral SFK-Panx1 interaction, Panx1 activation induced by CSD and cortical susceptibility to CSD in rats. These data suggest NR2A-regulated, SFK-dependent Panx1 activity plays an important role in migraine aura pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Conexinas/genética , Trastornos Migrañosos/tratamiento farmacológico , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/genética , Fosfotransferasas/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Animales , Corteza Cerebral/efectos de los fármacos , Corteza Cerebral/patología , Conexinas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Depresión de Propagación Cortical/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Trastornos Migrañosos/genética , Trastornos Migrañosos/patología , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/antagonistas & inhibidores , Pirimidinas/farmacología , Quinoxalinas/farmacología , Ratas , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inhibidores
17.
Environ Technol ; : 1-14, 2020 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958258

RESUMEN

The effects of the composite flocculant, polyaluminium chloride and poly dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PACl-PDMDAAC) in comparison with PACl on coagulation efficiencies and membrane fouling in coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were analysed, which was conducted in the conditions of different basicity (B) values and the presence of Mg2+. Results showed that PACl-PDMDAAC enhanced the ability of charge neutralization and absorption bridging, and improved the coagulation efficiency. When B value was 1.5, the flocculant hydrolyzed to form more Alb morphology and effectively removed HA molecules. The presence of Mg2+ could improve the coagulation performance through bridging ability. The results of the ultrafiltration test showed that the flux reduction for PACl was 70%, while the flux reduction for PACl-PDMDAAC was 60% in C-UF process. PACl-PDMDAAC could effectively reduce membrane fouling mainly by reducing strongly attached cake/gel layer. When B value was 1.5, the Alb content of the flocculant was higher and the ability of adsorption charge neutralization was strong, resulting in forming a stable cake layer. Therefore, the membrane fouling was the lightest. In addition, the presence of Mg2+ in raw water reduced the membrane fouling.

18.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569683

RESUMEN

As renewable and environment-friendly materials, coir and sisal natural fibers can be used in soil reinforcement with minimum cost and other benefits. In this study, we focused on their improvements of unconfined compressive properties of polymer treated sand. In total, 36 groups of unconfined compressive strength tests, combined with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope investigations were performed. We had studied the effects of polymer and fiber contents, and fiber types on the reinforcement effectiveness. The results showed that both coir and sisal fiber can improve the mechanical properties and microstructure of treated sand. In terms of strength properties, sisal fiber inclusion was better than coir fiber, while both have a similar reinforcement benefit on soil ductile behaviors. The strength and compressive energy increased with an increment in polymer and fiber content. The reinforced sand can have up to 1 MPa compressive strength and 140 kPa compressive energy for coir fiber inclusion, while 1.2 MPa and 170 kPa, respectively, for sisal fiber. The axial stress-strain characteristics and failure patterns were also improved, and the brittle index decreased toward zero, which suggests an increasing ductile. The polymer membrane enwrapping and bonding sand grains, and the network structure built by fiber crossing and overlapping among sand grains, as well as the interfacial attachment conferred by polymer between sand grains and fiber, all contributed to the reinforcement of treated sand.

19.
Exp Neurol ; 322: 113059, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499064

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Long-term disability after stroke is common yet the mechanisms of post-stroke recovery are far from clear. It has been suggested that Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) contributes to functional recovery after ischemic stroke in mice. As Rac1 activation plays diverse roles in multiple cell types after central nervous system (CNS) injury, we herein examined the functional role of endothelial Rac1 in post-stroke recovery and angiogenesis. METHODS: Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in human brain endothelial cell line-5i (HEBC 5i) were performed to mimic ischemic stroke. Lentivirus vectors encoding Rac1 with GFP and endothelial promotor ENG were injected into the animal's brain after stroke to overexpress Rac1. After injection, stroke recovery was tested by multiple behavioral tests including novel object recognition, adhesive removal and single pellet reaching tests. Endothelial regeneration in the peri-infarct zone was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the vitro model, the effect of Rac1 and Pak1 inhibitors to cell proliferation and migration was examined by CCK-8 and wound healing assays after OGD. The cellular protein level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 were detected by western blots. RESULTS: Delayed overexpression of endothelial Rac1 after MCAO improved cognitive and sensorimotor recovery from day 14 to 21 after stroke, increased vascular density and the protein level of pericytes in the peri-infarct zone without altering tissue loss in mice. Consistently, inhibition of Rac1 prevented endothelial proliferation and migration after OGD. Pak1 inhibition exerted a similar effect on endothelial cells. However, co-incubation of Rac1 and Pak1 inhibitors with cells did not lead to additive effects when compared with either inhibitor alone. Moreover, individual inhibition of Rac1 or Pak1 suppressed OGD-induced activation of pro-regenerative molecules, including CREB, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2, as well as the production of BDNF in vitro. The level of these proteins did not further decrease if both Rac1 and Pak1 were simultaneously inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that activation of endothelial Rac1 improves functional recovery and angiogenesis after stroke, and this process is mediated by Pak1 signaling. This study provides novel insight for Rac1 in the mechanism of long-term stroke recovery.


Asunto(s)
Neovascularización Fisiológica/fisiología , Recuperación de la Función/fisiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/metabolismo , Quinasas p21 Activadas/metabolismo , Proteína de Unión al GTP rac1/metabolismo , Animales , Línea Celular , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 4264-4272, 2019 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175804

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the expression levels of family with sequence similarity 83, member A (FAM83A) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and investigate its clinical prognostic value. MATERIAL AND METHODS Bioinformatics mining methods were used to predict the differential expression levels of FAM83A mRNA in LUAD and normal lung tissues based on the TCGA and Oncomine databases. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to demonstrate the FAM83A protein expression levels in 83 cases of LUAD combined with paired normal lung tissues. The correlation between clinicopathologic factors and FAM83A differential expression levels in LUAD was explored by the chi-square test. Kaplan-Meier univariate and Cox multivariate survival analyses were performed to investigate the clinical prognostic value of FAM83A expression in LUAD patients. RESULTS Results from TCGA and Oncomine databases revealed that FAM83A mRNA expression level was significantly higher in LUAD than that in normal lung tissues (both P<0.05). Immunohistochemical findings demonstrated that the high positive rate of FAM83A in LUAD was 73.49% (61/83), while that of matched normal lung tissues was only 22.89% (19/83). Moreover, LUAD patients with FAM83A mRNA or high protein levels had dramatically lower OS times than those with FAM83A mRNA or low protein levels (All P<0.05). Lastly, Cox multivariate survival analysis showed that FAM83A differential expression level (low vs. high) was the only independent factor predicting the prognosis of LUAD patients (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS FAM83A was overexpressed in LUAD, and FAM83A overexpression could be used as an independent factor of poor prognosis in LUAD patients.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biosíntesis , Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón/genética , Adenocarcinoma del Pulmón/patología , Biología Computacional/métodos , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Pronóstico , ARN Mensajero/biosíntesis , ARN Mensajero/genética , Estudios Retrospectivos , Transcriptoma
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...