Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 224
Filtrar
1.
Protein Expr Purif ; : 105710, 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738442

RESUMEN

Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme, α-galactosidase A that induces the accumulation of the substrate globotriaosylceramide. Currently approved enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human α-galactosidase A improves patient symptoms but a majority of patients experience adverse events due to the multiple infusions required for full therapeutic efficacy. Our approach is to use medicinal chemistry and phylogenic comparisons to introduce mutations into the human enzyme to increase catalytic activity and/or stability to generate an improved therapeutic enzyme that may require fewer infusions. We designed mutations at three regions of the human α-galactosidase A: the active site, the dimer interface, and a site for glycosylation. The M208E mutation, adjacent to the Y207 active site residue, increased enzyme activity 3.01-fold. This mutation introduced a charged Glu residue that is adjacent to the Y207 active site residue and close to a site of N-glycosylation.. The W277C mutation, designed to promote dimer stability, introduced a strong thiol-aromatic interaction (Cys-Phe) at the dimer interface and increased activity 2.31-fold. The W277C and M208E mutations modify the structure of the enzyme into forms with enhanced thermal stability 3.7- and 3.9-fold, respectively and positive cooperativity resulting in increased Hill coefficient from 1.0 to 4.60 and 3.47, respectively. Enhanced thermal stability and positive cooperativity predict improved in vivo activity and superior therapeutic properties. Our results demonstrate the value of in vitro mutagenesis for α-galactosidase A and support future perspectives to validate these results in Fabry disease patients.

3.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), nocturnal hypertension, and non-dipping systolic blood pressure (BP) are each highly prevalent among African Americans. However, few data are available on the association between OSA and nighttime BP in this population. METHODS: We examined the association of OSA with nighttime BP among African Americans who completed 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring at Exam 1 (2000-2004) of the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) and subsequently participated in the JHS Sleep Study (2012-2016). Type 3 home sleep apnea testing was used to assess OSA measures, including respiratory event index (REI4%) and percent sleep time <90% oxygen saturation (nocturnal hypoxemia). Nocturnal hypertension was defined as mean asleep SBP ≥120 mm Hg or DBP ≥70 mm Hg. Multivariable linear regression models were fit to estimate the association between each OSA measure and nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). RESULTS: Among 206 participants who completed ABPM and participated in the Jackson Heart Sleep Study, 50.5% had nocturnal hypertension and 26.2% had moderate to severe OSA (REI4% ≥15 events/hour). After multivariable adjustment, each standard deviation (SD: 13.3 events/hour) increase in REI4% was associated with 1.75 mm Hg higher nighttime DBP (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38, 3.11) and a prevalence ratio of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24) for nocturnal hypertension. Each SD (10.4%) increase in nocturnal hypoxemia was associated with a 1.91 mm Hg higher nighttime SBP (95% CI: 0.15, 3.66). CONCLUSIONS: Severity of OSA and nocturnal hypoxemia were associated with high nighttime BP in African American participants in the JHS.

4.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(1): 10-20, 2020 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449886

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is a nonsuppressible renin-independent aldosterone production that causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence of nonsuppressible renin-independent aldosterone production, as well as biochemically overt primary aldosteronism, in relation to blood pressure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 4 U.S. academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Participants with normotension (n = 289), stage 1 hypertension (n = 115), stage 2 hypertension (n = 203), and resistant hypertension (n = 408). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed an oral sodium suppression test, regardless of aldosterone or renin levels, as a confirmatory diagnostic for primary aldosteronism and to quantify the magnitude of renin-independent aldosterone production. Urinary aldosterone was measured in participants in high sodium balance with suppressed renin activity. Biochemically overt primary aldosteronism was diagnosed when urinary aldosterone levels were higher than 12 µg/24 h. RESULTS: Every blood pressure category had a continuum of renin-independent aldosterone production, where greater severity of production was associated with higher blood pressure, kaliuresis, and lower serum potassium levels. Mean adjusted levels of urinary aldosterone were 6.5 µg/24 h (95% CI, 5.2 to 7.7 µg/24 h) in normotension, 7.3 µg/24 h (CI, 5.6 to 8.9 µg/24 h) in stage 1 hypertension, 9.5 µg/24 h (CI, 8.2 to 10.8 µg/24 h) in stage 2 hypertension, and 14.6 µg/24 h (CI, 12.9 to 16.2 µg/24 h) in resistant hypertension; corresponding adjusted prevalence estimates for biochemically overt primary aldosteronism were 11.3% (CI, 5.9% to 16.8%), 15.7% (CI, 8.6% to 22.9%), 21.6% (CI, 16.1% to 27.0%), and 22.0% (CI, 17.2% to 26.8%). The aldosterone-renin ratio had poor sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting biochemically overt primary aldosteronism. LIMITATION: Prevalence estimates rely on arbitrary and conventional thresholds, and the study population may not represent nationwide demographics. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of primary aldosteronism is high and largely unrecognized. Beyond this categorical definition of primary aldosteronism, there is a prevalent continuum of renin-independent aldosterone production that parallels the severity of hypertension. These findings redefine the primary aldosteronism syndrome and implicate it in the pathogenesis of "essential" hypertension. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health.

5.
J Hypertens ; 38(8): 1603-1611, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251197

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We compared the prevalence of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) according to the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC 7) and the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline in an integrated healthcare delivery system. METHODS: We identified individuals aged at least 18 years with hypertension from Kaiser Permanente Southern California between 1 July 2014 and 30 June 2015. aTRH was defined as either blood pressure (BP) above goal (≥140/90 mmHg per JNC7, and ≥130/80 mmHg per 2017 ACC/AHA for most adults with hypertension) while taking at least 3 classes of antihypertensive medication or taking at least four classes regardless of BP level. A secondary analysis was conducted requiring use of a diuretic for the definition of aTRH. Patient clinical characteristics and antihypertensive medication use were described using electronic health records. RESULTS: We included 469 509 patients with treated hypertension [mean (SD) age 65 years (12), 46% white, 26% Hispanic, 13% black, and 12% Asian]. The prevalence of aTRH was 16.9 and 21.8% according to the JNC 7 and the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively [Δ = 4.9% (95% CI: 4.7--5.1%)]. By requiring a diuretic to be considered as aTRH, the prevalence of aTRH decreased to 13.4 and 17.2% according to the JNC 7 and the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. Among patients with aTRH, 1.9% received a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic, and 5.6% received a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of aTRH increased using the more stringent BP goals of the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline. The use of recommended therapy for aTRH was suboptimal suggesting a potential area for improvement.

6.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e015062, 2020 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188307

RESUMEN

Background Sleep characteristics and disorders are associated with higher blood pressure (BP) when measured in the clinic setting. Methods and Results We tested whether self-reported sleep characteristics and likelihood of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were associated with nocturnal hypertension and nondipping systolic BP (SBP) among participants in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study who completed 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring during the year 30 examination. Likelihood of OSA was determined using the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Global sleep quality, habitual sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and midsleep time were obtained from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Nocturnal hypertension was defined as mean asleep SBP ≥120 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥70 mm Hg. Nondipping SBP was defined as a decline in awake-to-asleep SBP <10%. Among 702 participants, the prevalence of nocturnal hypertension and nondipping SBP was 41.3% and 32.5%, respectively. After multivariable adjustment including cardiovascular risk factors, the prevalence ratios (PRs) for nocturnal hypertension and nondipping SBP associated with high versus low likelihood of OSA were 1.32 (95% CI, 1.00-1.75) and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.68), respectively. The association between likelihood of OSA and nocturnal hypertension was stronger for white participants (PR: 2.09; 95% CI, 1.23-3.48) compared with black participants (PR: 1.11; 95% CI, 0.79-1.56). The PR for nondipping SBP associated with a 1-hour later midsleep time was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85-0.99). Global sleep quality, habitual sleep duration, and sleep efficiency were not associated with either nocturnal hypertension or nondipping SBP. Conclusions These findings suggest that addressing OSA risk and sleep timing in a clinical trial may improve BP during sleep.

8.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179903

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Refractory hypertension (RfHTN), a phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure, is defined as uncontrolled automated office BP [AOBP] ≥130/80 mmHg and awake ambulatory BP [ABP] ≥130/80 mmHg on ≥5 antihypertensive medications, including chlorthalidone and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Previous studies suggest that RfHTN is attributable to heightened sympathetic tone. The current study tested whether reserpine, a potent sympatholytic agent, lowers BP in patients with RfHTN. METHODS: Twenty-one out of 45 consecutive patients with suspected RfHTN were determined to be fully adherent with their antihypertensive regimen. Seven patients agreed to participate in the current clinical trial with reserpine and six patients completed the study. Other sympatholytic medications, such as clonidine or guanfacine were tapered and discontinued before starting reserpine. Reserpine 0.1 mg daily was administered in an open-label fashion for 4 weeks. All patients were evaluated by AOBP and 24-hour ABP at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Reserpine lowered mean systolic and diastolic AOBP by 29.3±22.2 and 22.0±15.8 mmHg, respectively. Mean 24-hr systolic and diastolic ABP was reduced by 21.8±13.4 and 15.3±9.6 mmHg, mean awake systolic diastolic ABP by 23.8±11.8 and 17.8±9.2 mmHg, and mean asleep systolic and diastolic ABP by 21.5±11.4 and 13.7±6.4 mmHg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Reserpine, a potent sympatholytic agent, lowers BP in patients whose BP remained uncontrolled on maximal antihypertensive therapy, lending support to the hypothesis that excess sympathetic output contributes importantly to the development of RfHTN.

9.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(2): 167-173, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049430

RESUMEN

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aortic blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness are greater in patients with controlled resistant hypertension (RHTN) than controlled non-resistant hypertension (non-RHTN) despite similar clinic BP level. Participants were recruited from University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Hypertension Clinic. Controlled hypertension was defined as automated office BP measurement with BP < 135/85 mm Hg. A total of 141 participants were evaluated by pulse wave analysis (PWA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Among them, 75 patients had controlled RHTN with use of 4 or more antihypertensive medications and 56 patients had controlled non-RHTN with use of 3 or less antihypertensive medications. Compared to patients with controlled non-RHTN, those with controlled RHTN were more likely to be African American and had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and congestive heart failure. The mean number of antihypertensive medications was greater in patients with controlled RHTN (4.4 ± 0.8 vs 2.3 ± 0.7, P < .001). Clinic brachial BP, aortic BP, augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index normalized for heart rate of 75 beats per minute (AIx@75) and cf-PWV were similar in both groups. In summary, there was no significant difference in central BP or arterial stiffness between patients with controlled RHTN and controlled non-RHTN. These findings suggest that the higher residual cardiovascular risk observed in patients with RHTN after achieving BP control compared to patients with more easily controlled hypertension is not likely attributable to persistent differences in central BP and arterial stiffness.

10.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 510-515, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813346

RESUMEN

Refractory hypertension (RfHTN) is a phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure defined as uncontrolled BP despite the use of effective doses of ≥5 antihypertensive medications including a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic (chlorthalidone) and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. The degree of medication nonadherence is unknown among patients with RfHTN. In this prospective evaluation, 54 patients with apparent RfHTN were recruited from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hypertension Clinic after having uncontrolled BP at 3 or more clinic visits. All patients' BP was evaluated by automated office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (n=49). Antihypertensive medication adherence was determined by measuring 24-hour urine specimens for antihypertensive medications and their metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (n=45). Of the 45 patients who completed 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, 40 (88.9%) had confirmed RfHTN based on an elevated automated office BP (≥130/80 mm Hg), mean 24-hour ABP (≥125/75 mm Hg), and mean awake (day-time) ABP (≥130/80 mm Hg). Out of the 40 fully evaluated patients with RfHTN, 16 (40.0%) were fully adherent with all prescribed medications. Eighteen (45.0%) patients were partially adherent and 6 (15.0%) had none of the prescribed agents detected in their urine. Of 18 patients who were partially adherent, 5 (12.5%) were adherent with at least 5 medications, including chlorthalidone and the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, consistent with true RfHTN. Of patients identified as having apparent RfHTN, 52.5% were adherent with at least 5 antihypertensive medications, including chlorthalidone and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, confirming true RfTHN. These findings validate RfHTN as a rare, but true phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure.

11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMEN

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

12.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMEN

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

13.
Blood Press Monit ; 25(2): 61-68, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855900

RESUMEN

Hypertension is a highly common condition with well-established adverse consequences. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has repeatedly been shown to better predict cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, compared to single office visit blood pressure. Non-dipping of sleep-time blood pressure is an independent marker for increased cardiovascular risk. We review blood pressure variability and the challenges of blood pressure monitoring during sleep. Although pathological sleep such as obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with non-dipping of sleep-time blood pressure, blood pressure is not routinely measured during sleep due to lack of unobtrusive blood pressure monitoring technology. Second, we review existing noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring technologies. Lastly, we propose including sleep-time blood pressure monitoring during sleep studies and including sleep studies in patients undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

14.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 652-659, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327263

RESUMEN

Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) in treated hypertensive patients is defined as controlled automated office blood pressure (BP; <135/85 mm Hg) in-clinic but uncontrolled out-of-clinic BP by ambulatory BP monitoring (awake [daytime] readings ≥135/85 mm Hg or 24-hour readings ≥130/80 mm Hg). To determine whether MUCH is attributable to antihypertensive medication nonadherence. One hundred eighty-four enrolled patients were confirmed to have controlled office BP; of these, 167 patients were with adequate 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings. Of 167 patients, 86 were controlled by in-clinic BP assessment but had uncontrolled ambulatory awake BP, indicative of MUCH. The remaining 81 had controlled in-clinic and ambulatory awake BP, consistent with true controlled hypertension. After exclusion of 9 patients with missing 24-hour urine collections, antihypertensive medication adherence was determined based on the detection of urinary drugs or drug metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 81 patients with MUCH, 69 (85.2%) were fully adherent and 12 (14.8%) were partially adherent (fewer medications detected than prescribed). Of the 77 patients with true controlled hypertension, 69 (89.6%) were fully adherent with prescribed antihypertensive medications and 8 (10.4%) were partially adherent. None of the patients in either group were fully nonadherent. There was no statistically significant difference in complete or partial adherence between the MUCH and true controlled groups (P=0.403). Measurement of urinary drug and drug metabolite levels demonstrates a similarly high level of antihypertensive medication adherence in both MUCH and truly controlled hypertensive patients. These findings indicate that MUCH is not attributable to antihypertensive medication nonadherence.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria/métodos , Antihipertensivos/administración & dosificación , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/métodos , Hipertensión Enmascarada/diagnóstico , Hipertensión Enmascarada/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
15.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(9): 67, 2019 07 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321564

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To compare European and American guidelines for the diagnosis, evaluation, and management of resistant hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Resistant hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains above goal with the use of 3 or more antihypertensive agents, commonly a renin-angiotensin blocker (either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker), a long-acting calcium channel blocker, and thiazide or thiazide-like diuretic. Resistant hypertension is common, with a recent analysis indicating that it affects approximately 17-19% of adult Americans with hypertension. Pseudocauses of apparent resistant hypertension, including inaccurate blood pressure measurement, white coat effect, undertreatment, and poor medication adherence, must be excluded in order to confirm true resistant hypertension. Evaluation of resistant hypertension requires identifying and treating secondary causes of hypertension, including obstructive sleep apnea, primary aldosteronism, and renal artery stenosis. Treatment of resistant hypertension includes a combined use of lifestyle modification and prescription of effective multiple-drug combinations. Preferential use of a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic, either chlorthalidone or indapamide, and a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, most commonly spironolactone, is recommended if needed to achieve blood pressure control. Aside for small exceptions, European and American guidelines agree in terms of recommendations for diagnosing, evaluating, and treating resistant hypertension.

17.
Hypertens Res ; 42(11): 1708-1715, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209397

RESUMEN

Refractory hypertension (RfH) is defined as a lack of blood pressure control despite the administration of at least 5 anti-hypertensive drugs. The factors associated with its natural history are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate both the incidence of RfH in an cohort of patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and the factors involved in that progression. This was an observational prospective multicenter study (24 centers) with 172 patients with confirmed RH (24-h ABPM) who underwent a further 24 h ABPM study at the end of the follow-up. Prospective information was obtained from all patients in their corresponding Hypertension Units via a standard clinical protocol, and they all underwent a sleep study. Thirty patients were diagnosed with RfH (17.4%) after a mean follow-up of 57 months, despite the prescription of a greater number of long-acting thiazide-like diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. The factors associated with progression to RfH were: a longer period since the diagnosis of RH (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.1, p = 0.007); the HbA1c concentration (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.42-1.8; p = 0.005); the initial heart rate (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.09, p = 0.004); and poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in cases of obstructive sleep apnea (OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.47-7.7, p = 0.004). In conclusion, a considerable percentage of patients evolved from the RH to the RfH phenotype despite changes in their treatment. Some easily measurable variables, such as heart rate, the time since the diagnosis, the HbA1c level, and the presence of untreated obstructive sleep apnea (or poor adherence to CPAP) have been demonstrated to be prognostic factors in the progression to RfH.

18.
J Hypertens ; 37(9): 1797-1804, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058798

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Refractory hypertension has been defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (at or above 140/90 mmHg) when on five or more classes of antihypertensive medication, inclusive of a diuretic. Because unbiased estimates of the prevalence of refractory hypertension in the United States are lacking, we aim to provide such estimates using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). METHODS: Refractory hypertension was assessed across multiple NHANES cycles using the aforementioned definition. Eight cycles of NHANES surveys (1999-2014) representing 41 552 patients are the subject of this study. Prevalence of refractory hypertension across these surveys was estimated in the drug-treated hypertensive population after adjusting for the complex survey design and standardizing for age. RESULTS: Across all surveys, refractory hypertension prevalence was 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) (0.5, 0.7)] amongst drug-treated hypertensive adults; 6.2% [95% CI (5.1, 7.6)] of individuals with treatment-resistant hypertension actually had refractory hypertension. Although the prevalence of refractory hypertension ranged from 0.3% [95% CI (0.1, 1.0)] to 0.9% [95% CI (0.6, 1.2)] over the eight cycles considered, there was no significant trend in prevalence over time. Refractory hypertension prevalence amongst those prescribed five or more drugs was 34.5% [95% CI (27.9, 41.9)]. Refractory hypertension was associated with advancing age, lower household income, black race, and also chronic kidney disease, albuminuria, diabetes, prior stroke, and coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: We provided the first nationally representative estimate of refractory hypertension prevalence in US adults.

19.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(5): 441-444, 2019 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009040
20.
Circ Res ; 124(7): 1061-1070, 2019 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920924

RESUMEN

Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive agents of different classes, including a diuretic, usually thiazide-like, a long-acting calcium channel blocker, and a blocker of the renin- angiotensin system, either an ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor or an ARB (angiotensin receptor blocker), at maximal or maximally tolerated doses. Antihypertensive medication nonadherence and the white coat effect, defined as elevated blood pressure when measured in clinic but controlled when measured outside of clinic, must be excluded to make the diagnosis. RHTN is a high-risk phenotype, leading to increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease outcomes. Healthy lifestyle habits are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in patients with RHTN. Aldosterone excess is common in patients with RHTN, and addition of spironolactone or amiloride to the standard 3-drug antihypertensive regimen is effective at getting the blood pressure to goal in most of these patients. Refractory hypertension is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure despite use of ≥5 antihypertensive agents of different classes, including a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic and an MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) antagonist, at maximal or maximally tolerated doses. Fluid retention, mediated largely by aldosterone excess, is the predominant mechanism underlying RHTN, while patients with refractory hypertension typically exhibit increased sympathetic nervous system activity.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Hiperaldosteronismo/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de los Simportadores del Cloruro de Sodio/uso terapéutico , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Animales , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/epidemiología , Hiperaldosteronismo/metabolismo , Hiperaldosteronismo/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/metabolismo , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo , Inhibidores de los Simportadores del Cloruro de Sodio/efectos adversos , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/efectos de los fármacos , Sistema Nervioso Simpático/fisiopatología , Simpaticolíticos/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Equilibrio Hidroelectrolítico/efectos de los fármacos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA