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1.
Euro Surveill ; 26(2)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446304

RESUMEN

The European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action (EuroMOMO) network monitors weekly excess all-cause mortality in 27 European countries or subnational areas. During the first wave of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Europe in spring 2020, several countries experienced extraordinarily high levels of excess mortality. Europe is currently seeing another upsurge in COVID-19 cases, and EuroMOMO is again witnessing a substantial excess all-cause mortality attributable to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causas de Muerte , Niño , Preescolar , Sistemas de Computación , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(3)2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514073

RESUMEN

More than 50% of all gynecologic tumors can be classified as rare (defined as an incidence of ≤6 per 100,000 women) and usually have a poor prognosis owing to delayed diagnosis and treatment. In contrast to almost all other common solid tumors, the treatment of rare gynecologic tumors (RGT) is often based on retrospective studies, expert opinion, or extrapolation from other tumor sites with similar histology, leading to difficulty in developing guidelines for clinical practice. Currently, gynecologic cancer research, due to distinct scientific and technological challenges, is lagging behind. Moreover, the overall efforts for addressing these challenges are fragmented across different European countries and indeed, worldwide. The GYNOCARE, COST Action CA18117 (European Network for Gynecological Rare Cancer Research) programme aims to address these challenges by creating a unique network between key stakeholders covering distinct domains from concept to cure: basic research on RGT, biobanking, bridging with industry, and setting up the legal and regulatory requirements for international innovative clinical trials. On this basis, members of this COST Action, (Working Group 1, "Basic and Translational Research on Rare Gynecological Cancer") have decided to focus their future efforts on the development of new approaches to improve the diagnosis and treatment of RGT. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current state-of-the-art and describe the goals of this COST Action and its future challenges with the aim to stimulate discussion and promote synergy across scientists engaged in the fight against this rare cancer worldwide.

3.
Rural Remote Health ; 20(4): 5666, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207913

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Social factors might bring about health inequities. Vulnerable population groups, including those suffering from non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and depression, might be more prone to suffering the effects of such inequities. This study aimed to identify patients with type 2 diabetes with depression in a primary care setting, with the objective of describing health inequities among urban and suburban dwellers. METHODS: A quantitative, retrospective and descriptive study was carried out among patients with diabetes attending public primary healthcare centres in different regions of Malta. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to identify patient and disease characteristics. Convenience sampling was used. RESULTS: The logistic regression model predicting the likelihood of different factors occurring with suburban patients with diabetes as opposed to those residing in urban areas contained five independent variables (severity of depression, monthly income, blood capillary glucose readings, weight and nationality). The full model containing all predictors was statistically significant, c2 (5, n=400), p<0.001, indicating that the model was able to distinguish between urban and suburban areas. The model as a whole explained between 10% (Cox and Snell R2) and 20% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in urban and suburban areas, and correctly classified 73.8% of cases. All five of the independent variables made a unique, statistically significant contribution to the model. Elevated blood glucose and obesity tended to be more prevalent in suburban respondents than in urban participants. Conversely, participants with diabetes living in urban areas were more likely to be depressed, non-Maltese and have a higher income. CONCLUSION: Despite the small size of the Maltese islands and the expected social homogeneity, health inequities still exist, highlighting the importance of social factors in the epidemiology of disease. This study provides information for healthcare professionals and policy-makers to mitigate the effects of social inequities on vulnerable population groups.

4.
Early Hum Dev ; : 105222, 2020 Oct 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097356

RESUMEN

There is a significant relationship between ambient temperature and mortality. In healthy individuals with no underlying co-morbid conditions, there is an efficient heat regulation system which enables the body to effectively handle thermal stress. However, in vulnerable groups, especially in elderly over the age of 65 years, infants and individuals with co-morbid cardiovascular and/or respiratory conditions, there is a deficiency in thermoregulation. When temperatures exceed a certain limit, being cold winter spells or heat waves, there is an increase in the number of deaths. In particular, it has been shown that at temperatures above 27 °C, the daily mortality rate increases more rapidly per degree rise compared to when it drops below 27 °C. This is especially of relevance with the current emergency of global warming. Besides the direct effect of temperature rises on human health, global warming will have a negative impact on primary producers and livestock, leading to malnutrition, which will in turn lead to a myriad of health related issues. This is further exacerbated by environmental pollution. Public health measures that countries should follow should include not only health-related information strategies aiming to reduce the exposure to heat for vulnerable individuals and the community, but improved urban planning and reduction in energy consumption, among many others. This will reduce the carbon footprint and help avert global warming, thus reducing mortality.

5.
Early Hum Dev ; : 105212, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036833

RESUMEN

COVID-19 continues pandemic and researchers and companies are racing to develop effective vaccines with currently (September 2020) over 320 vaccine candidates, 32 of which are in clinical trials that plan to enroll >280,000 volunteers from >470 sites in 34 different countries. Vaccines are given to healthy multitudes and for this reason, they must adhere to high safety standards. Many question the safety of vaccines developed with the current alacrity, commonly citing potential hypothetical and unknown (and indeed unknowable) side effects. This brief paper will outline the risk of such hypothetical events after a vaccine has gone through the appropriate testing phases and will compare this to estimated death rate from COVID-19 after factoring in asymptomatic cases, using a variety of scenarios and working with estimates of population, case and infection fatality ratios (analysed as Population Fatality Rate, Infection Fatality Ratio and Case Fatality Ratio). Even after factoring in up to 80% of individuals testing positive COVID-19 being asymptomatic, an effective vaccine that completes phase 3 trials having been administered to 20,000 individuals with very few (≤2) or no serious effects is well worth taking.

7.
Tob Prev Cessat ; 6: 48, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954061

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Although brief smoking cessation interventions that follow the 5As algorithm (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) can trigger smokers to quit, routine delivery remains low in Europe. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation practices of healthcare professionals interested in tobacco cessation, and their opinions and attitudes. METHODS: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was adopted. Healthcare professionals (n=133) who attended one of ten training sessions on brief interventions for smoking cessation, held every month between September 2018 and June 2019 in Malta, were recruited. Univariate logistic regression and non-parametric tests were carried out to identify associations by participants' characteristics. Potential confounders were ruled out following multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Most participants were female nurses who had never smoked. While most professionals reportedly asked (76.3%), advised (83.5%) and assessed (70.5%) patients for cessation, fewer provided assistance (40.9%) and arranged followup (24.2%). Compared to other participants, doctors were more likely to have counselled patients over the previous week. Most professionals were favourably disposed towards counselling patients to quit, however, they claimed they had insufficient time to do so. Although most found it difficult to get clients to quit, former smokers were more likely to disagree when compared to those who never smoked (OR=6.86; 95% CI: 2.17-21.71; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: While more initiatives to train healthcare professionals in providing smoking cessation interventions are recommended, lack of sufficient time, being an organisational barrier, requires healthcare management exploration and action. Given that former smokers were more confident in helping patients quit, engaging them in training activities would be of added value.

8.
Arch Public Health ; 78: 68, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760586

RESUMEN

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a public health concern and a leading cause of ill health. A high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints has been reported for Malta, a small European state. The aim was to estimate for the first time the burden of LBP at population level in Malta in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and compare to estimates obtained by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. Method: The Maltese European Health Interview Survey dataset for 2015 provided the LBP prevalence data through representative self-reported history of chronic LBP within the past 12 months in combination with limitations to daily activities. Proportions of LBP severity (with and without leg pain - mild, moderate, severe and most severe) and their corresponding disability weights followed values reported in the GBD study. Years lived with disability (YLD) for LBP were estimated for the whole population by age and sex. Since LBP does not carry any mortality, YLD reflected DALYs. The estimated local DALYs per 100,000 were compared to the GBD 2017 study results for Malta for the same year. Results: LBP with activity limitation gave a point prevalence of 6.4% (95% Uncertainty Interval [UI] 5.7-7.2%) (5.6% males [95% UI 4.6-6.6%]; 7.3% females [95% UI 6.2-8.4%]), contributing to a total of 23,649 (95% UI 20,974-26,463) Maltese suffering from LBP. The LBP DALYs were of 716 (95% UI 558-896) per 100,000. Females experienced higher LBP burden (739 [95% UI 575-927] DALYs per 100,000) than males (693 [95% UI 541-867] DALYs per 100,000). Our DALY estimates were lower than those reported by the GBD 2017 study (i.e., 1829 [95% UI 1300-2466] per 100,000). Conclusions: LBP imposes a substantial burden on the Maltese population. Differences observed between national estimates and those of the GBD study suggest the integration of updated locally sourced data into the model and encouraging local contributors in order to improve the DALY estimates of each country.

9.
Cureus ; 12(5): e8195, 2020 May 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572354

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives The incidence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) ranges from 0.59 to 5 per 100,000 persons, and it is on the rise in many countries. The reason for this rise is multifactorial, and possible contributing factors include an aging population, overdiagnosis, ionizing radiation, air pollution and others. The aim of this study is to conduct an epidemiological study of GBM in a well-defined population over a 10-year period and determine its significance, while comparing results with international standards. Materials and Methods All histological diagnoses of GBM in Malta from 2008 to 2017 were identified. Poisson regression was used to determine significance in incidence variation. Log-rank tests were used to compare the survival distributions of each variable. Cox regression for survival analysis with the Breslow method for ties was then performed to consider the overall model. Results A total of 100 patients (61 males; mean age 60.29±10.09 years) were diagnosed with GBM over the period 2008 to 2017. There was a significant increase in incidence from 0.73 to 4.49 per 100,000 over the 10-year period (p≤0.001). The most common presenting complaint was limb paresis (29%). Approximately 65% of patients were treated with maximum safe resection (MSR). Using Cox regression analysis, younger age at presentation and treatment with MSR significantly improved survival (p=0.026 and p≤0.001, respectively). The median survival was 10 months. Conclusions An increasing incidence of GBM is becoming evident, while the median survival remains low. This troubling trend emphasizes the importance of further research into GBM etiology and treatment.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e19659, 2020 06 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558655

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An infodemic is an overabundance of information-some accurate and some not-that occurs during an epidemic. In a similar manner to an epidemic, it spreads between humans via digital and physical information systems. It makes it hard for people to find trustworthy sources and reliable guidance when they need it. OBJECTIVE: A World Health Organization (WHO) technical consultation on responding to the infodemic related to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic was held, entirely online, to crowdsource suggested actions for a framework for infodemic management. METHODS: A group of policy makers, public health professionals, researchers, students, and other concerned stakeholders was joined by representatives of the media, social media platforms, various private sector organizations, and civil society to suggest and discuss actions for all parts of society, and multiple related professional and scientific disciplines, methods, and technologies. A total of 594 ideas for actions were crowdsourced online during the discussions and consolidated into suggestions for an infodemic management framework. RESULTS: The analysis team distilled the suggestions into a set of 50 proposed actions for a framework for managing infodemics in health emergencies. The consultation revealed six policy implications to consider. First, interventions and messages must be based on science and evidence, and must reach citizens and enable them to make informed decisions on how to protect themselves and their communities in a health emergency. Second, knowledge should be translated into actionable behavior-change messages, presented in ways that are understood by and accessible to all individuals in all parts of all societies. Third, governments should reach out to key communities to ensure their concerns and information needs are understood, tailoring advice and messages to address the audiences they represent. Fourth, to strengthen the analysis and amplification of information impact, strategic partnerships should be formed across all sectors, including but not limited to the social media and technology sectors, academia, and civil society. Fifth, health authorities should ensure that these actions are informed by reliable information that helps them understand the circulating narratives and changes in the flow of information, questions, and misinformation in communities. Sixth, following experiences to date in responding to the COVID-19 infodemic and the lessons from other disease outbreaks, infodemic management approaches should be further developed to support preparedness and response, and to inform risk mitigation, and be enhanced through data science and sociobehavioral and other research. CONCLUSIONS: The first version of this framework proposes five action areas in which WHO Member States and actors within society can apply, according to their mandate, an infodemic management approach adapted to national contexts and practices. Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and the related infodemic require swift, regular, systematic, and coordinated action from multiple sectors of society and government. It remains crucial that we promote trusted information and fight misinformation, thereby helping save lives.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Colaboración de las Masas , Educación en Salud/métodos , Educación en Salud/normas , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/organización & administración , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/normas , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/normas , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/provisión & distribución
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003103, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442207

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Variations in intervention rates, without subsequent reductions in adverse outcomes, can indicate overuse. We studied variations in and associations between commonly used childbirth interventions and adverse outcomes, adjusted for population characteristics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this multinational cross-sectional study, existing data on 4,729,307 singleton births at ≥37 weeks in 2013 from Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, England, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany (Hesse), Malta, the United States, and Chile were used to describe variations in childbirth interventions and outcomes. Numbers of births ranged from 3,987 for Iceland to 3,500,397 for the USA. Crude data were analysed in the Netherlands, or analysed data were shared with the principal investigator. Strict variable definitions were used and information on data quality was collected. Intervention rates were described for each country and stratified by parity. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed, adjusted for population characteristics, and associations between rates of interventions, population characteristics, and outcomes were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Considerable intercountry variations were found for all interventions, despite adjustments for population characteristics. Adjustments for ethnicity and body mass index changed odds ratios for augmentation of labour and episiotomy. Largest variations were found for augmentation of labour, pain relief, episiotomy, instrumental birth, and cesarean section (CS). Percentages of births at ≥42 weeks varied from 0.1% to 6.7%. Rates among nulliparous versus multiparous women varied from 56% to 80% versus 51% to 82% for spontaneous onset of labour; 14% to 36% versus 8% to 28% for induction of labour; 3% to 13% versus 7% to 26% for prelabour CS; 16% to 48% versus 12% to 50% for overall CS; 22% to 71% versus 7% to 38% for augmentation of labour; 50% to 93% versus 25% to 86% for any intrapartum pain relief, 19% to 83% versus 10% to 64% for epidural anaesthesia; 6% to 68% versus 2% to 30% for episiotomy in vaginal births; 3% to 30% versus 1% to 7% for instrumental vaginal births; and 42% to 70% versus 50% to 84% for spontaneous vaginal births. Countries with higher rates of births at ≥42 weeks had higher rates of births with a spontaneous onset (rho = 0.82 for nulliparous/rho = 0.83 for multiparous women) and instrumental (rho = 0.67) and spontaneous (rho = 0.66) vaginal births among multiparous women and lower rates of induction of labour (rho = -0.71/-0.66), prelabour CS (rho = -0.61/-0.65), overall CS (rho = -0.61/-0.67), and episiotomy (multiparous: rho = -0.67). Variation in CS rates was mainly due to prelabour CS (rho = 0.96). Countries with higher rates of births with a spontaneous onset had lower rates of emergency CS (nulliparous: rho = -0.62) and higher rates of spontaneous vaginal births (multiparous: rho = 0.70). Prelabour and emergency CS were positively correlated (nulliparous: rho = 0.74). Higher rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury following vaginal birth were found in countries with higher rates of spontaneous birth (nulliparous: rho = 0.65). In countries with higher rates of epidural anaesthesia (nulliparous) and spontaneous births (multiparous), higher rates of Apgar score < 7 were found (rhos = 0.64). No statistically significant variation was found for perinatal mortality. Main limitations were varying quality of data and missing information. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable intercountry variations were found for all interventions, even after adjusting for population characteristics, indicating overuse of interventions in some countries. Multivariable analyses are essential when comparing intercountry rates. Implementation of evidence-based guidelines is crucial in optimising intervention use and improving quality of maternity care worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Países Desarrollados/estadística & datos numéricos , Parto , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , Cesárea , Chile , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Trabajo de Parto Inducido/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Materna , Embarazo , Adulto Joven
13.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 61(4): E584-E592, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628965

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study comes at an opportune time due to recent introduction of the National Cervical Cancer Screening programme in Malta. It aims to assess the knowledge of 25-64 year-old females on cervical cancer and attitudes towards screening. Study design: A cross-sectional, telephone-based, quantitative survey conducted in 2017. Methods: The survey tool was based on the Cervical Cancer Awareness Measure questionnaire and was carried out among a random stratified sample of females of 25-64 years, resident in Malta. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied. Results: 407 females (85% response rate) were interviewed. Knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms was found to be significantly higher in women with a higher level of education (p < 0.001). Cervical screening was attended every 3 years by 69% of respondents. Regular attendees were more likely to have children (p = 0.001), have experienced cancer in a close family member (p = 0.002), and were between 35-44 and 45-54 years old (p < 0.001). The main reasons for non-attendance were embarrassment, fear of the test and fear of the result. Conclusion: This research provides a better understanding of who are the vulnerable groups with respect to cervical cancer knowledge and screening attendance. Improving health literacy and implementing health promotion campaigns will improve early symptom recognition, risk factor knowledge and attendance for screening.

14.
Skinmed ; 17(6): 374-378, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904326

RESUMEN

This study aimed to define the clinical features and prevalence of the finger-prick sign in a cohort of persons with diabetes mellitus (DM). One hundred and five consecutive persons with DM attending a hospital diabetes clinic (n = 44) or a dermatology out-patients clinic (n = 61) who performed self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) at least once daily and 105 age- and sex-matched controls were examined for typical prick marks on any of their fingers. The sign was positive (two or more prick marks visible) in 88 participants (84%), with strong positive correlation between the stated daily SMBG frequency and the number of prick marks observed, r = 0.723, P < 0.0001. Prick mark numbers were highest for the ring followed by the little, middle, and index fingers and lowest for the thumb, and varied significantly between the different fingers (P < 0.0001). Overall, prick marks were commoner on the non-dominant hand compared to the dominant hand (P < 0.0001). None of the controls had any visible finger-prick marks. The finger-prick sign is positive in most persons with DM who perform SMBG, particularly in those who test more frequently. It is a pointer to DM that can be clinically useful, particularly in emergencies when a person's medical history is unobtainable.


Asunto(s)
Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea/métodos , Dermoscopía , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Dedos , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Femenino , Lateralidad Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
16.
Early Hum Dev ; 128: 118-119, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241900

RESUMEN

In the scholarly environment, research findings are disseminated as journal papers which support/dispute extant knowledge or add further to what is already known. The entire manuscript needs to be cited (in-text) and referenced (at the end of article), in order for readers to ascertain the validity of the research claim/s. This must be done in proper and accepted fashion as plagiarism is a serious misdeed and inappropriate referencing mars a paper. Recent advancements in technology have led to the development of bibliographic management software tools. These tools are available as both commercial and open source software, and constitute a database wherein researchers search, store and cite references. Furthermore, authors can not only create personalized databases but also cite stored articles when compiling a manuscript or report or indeed any other form of document. This software obviates human manual inputting errors and inaccurate referencing, while conveniently enabling citation and referencing in any referencing style required, for example, after rejection, when an author must almost perforce resubmit a prepared but rejected paper to a different journal after suitable amendments.


Asunto(s)
Bibliografías como Asunto , Escritura Médica/normas , Programas Informáticos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
17.
Early Hum Dev ; 123: 42-45, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680331

RESUMEN

Linear regression is the equation which provides of straight line that best describes the association between two continuous variables, x and y. However, it is often the case that the dependent variable y is influenced by more than one variable and not just a single x variable. Multivariate analysis is a statistical modeling technique wherein multiple x variables are analysed simultaneously for their effect on y, resulting in an additive model (via an equation) that explains the observation/s and corrects for confounding association/s using one dependent and several independent variables, assigning a gradient to each of these independent variables, and with all product terms of gradient and magnitude of the independent variables adding up to estimate 'y'. This paper outlines these various techniques and applications.


Asunto(s)
Bioestadística/métodos , Escritura Médica/normas , Análisis Multivariante
18.
Early Hum Dev ; 123: 46-47, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678515

RESUMEN

This paper outlines Binomial and Poisson distributions which are both used to measure the occurrence of a number of random events within a certain period.


Asunto(s)
Bioestadística/métodos , Escritura Médica/normas , Distribución Binomial , Distribución de Poisson
19.
Early Hum Dev ; 123: 48-49, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678516

RESUMEN

Data may be normally distributed in which case standard and relatively familiar tests may be used for inferential testing. Or data may be non-normally distributed, such as ordinal data, in which case, non-parametric tests are usually advocated. This paper will review current thinking with regard to these tests, and the appropriateness of their application/s.


Asunto(s)
Bioestadística/métodos , Escritura Médica/normas , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
20.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; 17(2): 315-323, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918867

RESUMEN

Purpose: Individuals with dysglycaemic are prone to dyslipidaemia. Understanding the dyslipidaemic status of dysglycaemic individuals is essential for monitoring and early prevention. The aim was to assess the control of lipidaemia by glycaemic status in a representative adult population. Methods: A retrospective health examination survey was performed on a sample of adults (n = 3947) in Malta in 2014-6. Sociodemographic data, biochemistry blood tests and anthropometric measurements were gathered. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the lipidaemic status and its control across the glycaemic spectrum (normoglycemic, impaired fasting glucose individuals, new diabetics and known diabetics). Results: The prevalence of uncontrolled dyslipidaemia was 7.75% (CI 95%: 6.69-8.63), among whom 6.97% (CI 95%: 6.21-7.81) were naïve dyslipidaemic. A progressive elevation in both LDL-C and total cholesterol but not triglycerides was present among uncontrolled dyslipidaemia individuals across the glycaemic spectrum. Global dyslipidaemia was present in 19.26% (CI 95%: 18.05-20.52) of the total general population and in 46.59% (CI 95%: 40.49-52.69%) of known diabetics. Most individuals irrespective of lipid status were normoglycaemic. Conclusions: Dyslipidaemia occurs in the presence of insulin resistance. Dyslipidaemia predominated in the normoglycaemic state irrespective of statins use, indicating the need to manage dyslipidaemia prior to dysglycaemia.

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