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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(1): e00174019, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566989

RESUMEN

This study aims to analyze the association between temporal variations in injuries and deaths from external causes and periods of greater flow of visitors in tourist municipalities (counties) on the coastline of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2004 to 2014. This is an ecological study of daily and monthly time series based on data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM) and Brazilian Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIH/SUS) from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, using as the analytical units the four municipalities on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. Negative binomial regression models were adjusted for the outcome that represented the number of hospital admissions and/or deaths from external causes, with calendar variables as predictors (days of the week, holidays, month, and year of occurrence). The Brazilian holidays New Year's Day, Carnival, Tiradentes, and Proclamation of the Republic stood out with mean numbers greater than or equal to 5 outcomes per day. Among the days of the week, Monday and Sunday had the highest mean numbers. Considering all the predictors, there was a higher tendency to the occurrence of outcomes on Monday (OR = 1.11; 95%CI: 1.05-1.18), New Year's Day (OR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.19-1.74), and Proclamation of the Republic Day (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.13-1.94) and in the months of January (OR = 1.11; 95%CI: 1.02-1.20) and February (OR = 1.13; 95%CI: 1.04-1.23). Morbidity and mortality from external causes in these tourist towns were higher in the period with the greatest flow of tourists, emphasizing the need to organize care for these injuries, alongside measures for prevention and health promotion targeted to this group of causes.

2.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 17): 551, 2020 Dec 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308151

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: An effective yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been available since 1937. Nevertheless, questions regarding its use remain poorly understood, such as the ideal dose to confer immunity against the disease, the need for a booster dose, the optimal immunisation schedule for immunocompetent, immunosuppressed, and pediatric populations, among other issues. This work aims to demonstrate that computational tools can be used to simulate different scenarios regarding YF vaccination and the immune response of individuals to this vaccine, thus assisting the response of some of these open questions. RESULTS: This work presents the computational results obtained by a mathematical model of the human immune response to vaccination against YF. Five scenarios were simulated: primovaccination in adults and children, booster dose in adult individuals, vaccination of individuals with autoimmune diseases under immunomodulatory therapy, and the immune response to different vaccine doses. Where data were available, the model was able to quantitatively replicate the levels of antibodies obtained experimentally. In addition, for those scenarios where data were not available, it was possible to qualitatively reproduce the immune response behaviours described in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Our simulations show that the minimum dose to confer immunity against YF is half of the reference dose. The results also suggest that immunological immaturity in children limits the induction and persistence of long-lived plasma cells are related to the antibody decay observed experimentally. Finally, the decay observed in the antibody level after ten years suggests that a booster dose is necessary to keep immunity against YF.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Teóricos , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Adulto , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Niño , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico , Inmunización Secundaria , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Vacunación , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología
4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36 Suppl 2: e00199920, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876102
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e00182019, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965327

RESUMEN

Immunization is one of the most effective measures to protect individuals and the population against vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccines are safe and effective products, but like any other drug they can cause adverse events, which tend to become more visible as the diseases are controlled, eliminated, or eradicated. This study analyzed activities in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) based on data from the scientific literature, websites of immunization programs and health andregulatory agencies, and the authors' expertise in the areas of immunizations and pharmacovigilance. With the increase in the number of vaccines in the basic immunization schedule and expansion of the population's access, it has become essential to establish an efficient surveillance system for AEFI in Brazil. However, underreporting of cases in Brazil and in other countries hinders the detection of AEFI, especially rare events. Constantly updated information on vaccines' risks and benefits allows immunization programs to provide rapid and clear responses to rumors of AEFI. This ensures the system's reliability, especially in the face of the growing antivaccine movement and the increasing influence of social media in public opinion.

8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.2): e00182019, 2020. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1132884

RESUMEN

A vacinação é uma das ações mais efetivas para proteger o indivíduo e a população contra doenças imunopreveníveis. Vacinas são produtos seguros e eficazes, porém, como qualquer outro medicamento, podem causar eventos adversos, que ganham maior visibilidade na medida em que as doenças são controladas, eliminadas ou erradicadas. Este trabalho analisou as ações de vigilância de eventos adversos pós-vacinação (EAPV) com base em dados da literatura científica e sites de programas de imunizações, agências reguladoras e de saúde, além da expertise dos autores nas áreas de imunizações e farmacovigilância. Com o aumento do número de vacinas no calendário básico e a ampliação do acesso da população, tornou-se fundamental o estabelecimento de um sistema eficiente de vigilância de EAPV no Brasil. Entretanto, a subnotificação de casos no Brasil e em outros países dificulta a detecção de EAPV, principalmente os raros. Informações sempre atualizadas sobre o benefício/risco das vacinas permitem que programas de imunizações deem respostas rápidas e claras aos rumores de EAPV. Isso garante a confiabilidade no sistema, ainda mais diante do crescente movimento antivacinista e a influência cada vez maior das mídias sociais na opinião pública.


La vacunación es una de las acciones más efectivas para proteger al individuo y a la población contra enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. Las vacunas son productos seguros y eficaces, sin embargo, como cualquier otro medicamento, pueden causar eventos adversos, que tienen mayor visibilidad según se controlen, eliminen o se erradiquen las enfermedades. Este trabajo analizó las acciones de vigilancia de eventos adversos posvacunación (EAPV), basándose en datos de la literatura científica y sitios web de programas de inmunizaciones, agencias reguladoras y de salud, además de la expertise de los autores en las áreas de inmunizaciones y farmacovigilancia. Con el aumento del número de vacunas en el calendario básico y la ampliación del acceso de la población, se hizo fundamental el estabelecimiento de un sistema eficiente de vigilancia de EAPV en Brasil. Sin embargo, la subnotificación de casos en Brasil y en otros países dificulta la detección de EAPV, principalmente, los raros. Informaciones siempre actualizadas sobre el beneficio/riesgo de las vacunas permiten que programas de inmunizaciones proporcionen respuestas rápidas y claras a los rumores sobre EAPV. Esto garantiza la confianza en el sistema, incluso más aún ante el creciente movimiento antivacunas y la influencia cada vez mayor de los redes sociales en la opinión pública.


Immunization is one of the most effective measures to protect individuals and the population against vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccines are safe and effective products, but like any other drug they can cause adverse events, which tend to become more visible as the diseases are controlled, eliminated, or eradicated. This study analyzed activities in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) based on data from the scientific literature, websites of immunization programs and health andregulatory agencies, and the authors' expertise in the areas of immunizations and pharmacovigilance. With the increase in the number of vaccines in the basic immunization schedule and expansion of the population's access, it has become essential to establish an efficient surveillance system for AEFI in Brazil. However, underreporting of cases in Brazil and in other countries hinders the detection of AEFI, especially rare events. Constantly updated information on vaccines' risks and benefits allows immunization programs to provide rapid and clear responses to rumors of AEFI. This ensures the system's reliability, especially in the face of the growing antivaccine movement and the increasing influence of social media in public opinion.

10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(supl.2): e00182019, 2020. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124356

RESUMEN

A vacinação é uma das ações mais efetivas para proteger o indivíduo e a população contra doenças imunopreveníveis. Vacinas são produtos seguros e eficazes, porém, como qualquer outro medicamento, podem causar eventos adversos, que ganham maior visibilidade na medida em que as doenças são controladas, eliminadas ou erradicadas. Este trabalho analisou as ações de vigilância de eventos adversos pós-vacinação (EAPV) com base em dados da literatura científica e sites de programas de imunizações, agências reguladoras e de saúde, além da expertise dos autores nas áreas de imunizações e farmacovigilância. Com o aumento do número de vacinas no calendário básico e a ampliação do acesso da população, tornou-se fundamental o estabelecimento de um sistema eficiente de vigilância de EAPV no Brasil. Entretanto, a subnotificação de casos no Brasil e em outros países dificulta a detecção de EAPV, principalmente os raros. Informações sempre atualizadas sobre o benefício/risco das vacinas permitem que programas de imunizações deem respostas rápidas e claras aos rumores de EAPV. Isso garante a confiabilidade no sistema, ainda mais diante do crescente movimento antivacinista e a influência cada vez maior das mídias sociais na opinião pública.


La vacunación es una de las acciones más efectivas para proteger al individuo y a la población contra enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. Las vacunas son productos seguros y eficaces, sin embargo, como cualquier otro medicamento, pueden causar eventos adversos, que tienen mayor visibilidad según se controlen, eliminen o se erradiquen las enfermedades. Este trabajo analizó las acciones de vigilancia de eventos adversos posvacunación (EAPV), basándose en datos de la literatura científica y sitios web de programas de inmunizaciones, agencias reguladoras y de salud, además de la expertise de los autores en las áreas de inmunizaciones y farmacovigilancia. Con el aumento del número de vacunas en el calendario básico y la ampliación del acceso de la población, se hizo fundamental el estabelecimiento de un sistema eficiente de vigilancia de EAPV en Brasil. Sin embargo, la subnotificación de casos en Brasil y en otros países dificulta la detección de EAPV, principalmente, los raros. Informaciones siempre actualizadas sobre el beneficio/riesgo de las vacunas permiten que programas de inmunizaciones proporcionen respuestas rápidas y claras a los rumores sobre EAPV. Esto garantiza la confianza en el sistema, incluso más aún ante el creciente movimiento antivacunas y la influencia cada vez mayor de los redes sociales en la opinión pública.


Immunization is one of the most effective measures to protect individuals and the population against vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccines are safe and effective products, but like any other drug they can cause adverse events, which tend to become more visible as the diseases are controlled, eliminated, or eradicated. This study analyzed activities in the surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) based on data from the scientific literature, websites of immunization programs and health andregulatory agencies, and the authors' expertise in the areas of immunizations and pharmacovigilance. With the increase in the number of vaccines in the basic immunization schedule and expansion of the population's access, it has become essential to establish an efficient surveillance system for AEFI in Brazil. However, underreporting of cases in Brazil and in other countries hinders the detection of AEFI, especially rare events. Constantly updated information on vaccines' risks and benefits allows immunization programs to provide rapid and clear responses to rumors of AEFI. This ensures the system's reliability, especially in the face of the growing antivaccine movement and the increasing influence of social media in public opinion.

12.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2192, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616412

RESUMEN

The Yellow Fever (YF) vaccination is recommended for people living in endemic areas and represents the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of infection. Previous studies have warned that booster regimens should be considered to guarantee the long-term persistence of 17DD-YF-specific memory components in adults living in areas with YF-virus circulation. Considering the lower seroconversion rates observed in children (9-12 months of age) as compared to adults, this study was designed in order to access the duration of immunity in single-dose vaccinated children in a 10-years cross-sectional time-span. The levels of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT) and the phenotypic/functional memory status of T and B-cells were measured at a baseline, 30-45 days, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 10 years following primary vaccination. The results revealed that a single dose induced 85% of seropositivity at 30-45 days and a progressive time-dependent decrease was observed as early as 2 years and declines toward critical values (below 60%) at time-spans of ≥4-years. Moreover, short-lived YF-specific cellular immunity, mediated by memory T and B-cells was also observed after 4-years. Predicted probability and resultant memory analysis emphasize that correlates of protection (PRNT; effector memory CD8+ T-cells; non-classical memory B-cells) wane to critical values within ≥4-years after primary vaccination. Together, these results clearly demonstrate the decline of 17DD-YF-specific memory response along time in children primarily vaccinated at 9-12 months of age and support the need of booster regimen to guarantee the long-term persistence of memory components for children living in areas with high risk of YF transmission.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad/inmunología , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Linfocitos B/inmunología , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunización Secundaria/métodos , Lactante , Masculino , Vacunación/métodos
13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1211, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293563

RESUMEN

The present study aims to determine whether 17DD-YF-specific humoral and cellular immunological memory is maintained 8-years after primary vaccination with subdoses (10,447IU;3,013IU;587IU;158IU;31IU). For this purpose, this follow-up study was carried out in a subset of volunteers (n = 98) originally enrolled in the dose-response study in 2009 and 46 non-vaccinated controls. Our results demonstrated that vaccinees, who had seroconverted following primary vaccination and had not been revaccinated, present similar neutralizing antibodies levels and YF-specific cellular memory, particularly CMCD4 and EMCD8 as compared to the reference full dose (27,476IU). Although, PRNT seropositivity rates were similar across subgroups (94, 82, 83, 94, 80, and 91%, correspondingly), only doses above 587IU elicited similar iterative proportion of seropositivity rates, calculated as a progressive decrease on seropositivity rates along time (89, 80, 80, and 91%, respectively) as compared to 158IU and 31IU (68 and 46%, respectively). Noteworthy were the strong positive correlations ("EMCD4,EMCD8" and "TNFCD8,IFNCD8") observed in most subdoses, except for 31IU. Major similarities underscored the preserved antibody titers and the outstanding levels of EMCD8, relevant correlates of protection for YF-specific immunity. These findings provide evidences to support the regular use of dose sparing strategy for YF vaccine in adults.


Asunto(s)
Memoria Inmunológica/inmunología , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Método Doble Ciego , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología
14.
J Trop Pediatr ; 65(6): 592-602, 2019 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006031

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To better understand the clinical spectrum and course of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) during the first 18 months of life of children whose mothers had rash during pregnancy. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study evaluated the clinical progress from birth until 18 months of life of children of mothers who developed rash during or up to 3 months before gestation. Maternal rash occurred from November 2015 to May 2017. The study subjects were divided into three groups: children whose mothers tested positive by RT-qPCR for Zika virus (ZIKV) (Group 1), children whose mothers tested negative by RT-qPCR for ZIKV (Group 2), and children whose mothers did not undergo any testing for ZIKV (Group 3) but tested negative for other congenital infections. RESULTS: Between April 2016 and July 2018, we studied 108 children: 43 in Group 1, 26 in Group 2 and 39 in Group 3. The majority of children were admitted into the study within 6 months of life. CZS was diagnosed in 26 children, equally distributed in Groups 1 and 3. Of 18 children with microcephaly, 6 were in Group 1 (1 postnatal) and 12 were in Group 3 (5 postnatal). Maternal rash frequency was 10 times higher during the first trimester than in the other trimesters (OR: 10.35; CI 95%: 3.52-30.41). CZS was diagnosed during the follow-up period in 14 (54%) cases. Developmental delays and motor abnormalities occurred in all children and persisted up to 18 months. Epilepsy occurred in 18 (69%) of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Infants born of mothers exposed to ZIKV during pregnancy showed progression of developmental, motor and neurologic abnormalities even if they were born asymptomatic. Continued postnatal monitoring of such newborns is necessary to preclude disability-associated complications.


Asunto(s)
Discapacidades del Desarrollo/etiología , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Exantema/virología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Infección por el Virus Zika/congénito , Virus Zika , Brasil/epidemiología , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/diagnóstico , Epidemias , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Madres , Embarazo , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Virus Zika/genética , Virus Zika/aislamiento & purificación , Infección por el Virus Zika/complicaciones , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
15.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180517, 2019 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843921

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Field testing required to license the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine must take into account the current recommendation of the vaccine in Brazil: first dose at 12 months and second dose at 15 months of age in combination with a varicella vaccine. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical consistency, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity of three batches of MMR vaccine prepared with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) from Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz (MMR-Bio), and compare it to a vaccine (MMR produced by GlaxoSmithKline) with different API. METHODS: This was a phase III, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority study of the MMR-Bio administered in infants immunised at health care units in Pará, Brazil, from February 2015 to January 2016. Antibody levels were titrated by immunoenzymatic assays. Adverse events were recorded in diaries. FINDINGS: Seropositivity levels after MMR-Bio were 97.6% for measles, 84.7% for mumps, and 98.0% for rubella. After the MMRV vaccine, seroconversion rates and GMT increased substantially for mumps. In contrast, approximately 35% of the children had no detectable antibodies to varicella. Systemic adverse events were more frequent than local events. CONCLUSION: The demonstration of batch consistency and non-inferiority of the Bio-MMR vaccine completed the technology transfer. This is a significant technological achievement with implications for immunisation programs.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra la Varicela/administración & dosificación , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola/administración & dosificación , Varicela/prevención & control , Vacuna contra la Varicela/efectos adversos , Vacuna contra la Varicela/inmunología , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Lactante , Masculino , Sarampión/prevención & control , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola/efectos adversos , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola/inmunología , Paperas/prevención & control , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/inmunología , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán)/prevención & control , Vacunas Combinadas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Combinadas/efectos adversos , Vacunas Combinadas/inmunología
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180517, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-990193

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Field testing required to license the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine must take into account the current recommendation of the vaccine in Brazil: first dose at 12 months and second dose at 15 months of age in combination with a varicella vaccine. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the clinical consistency, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity of three batches of MMR vaccine prepared with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) from Bio-Manguinhos, Fiocruz (MMR-Bio), and compare it to a vaccine (MMR produced by GlaxoSmithKline) with different API. METHODS This was a phase III, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority study of the MMR-Bio administered in infants immunised at health care units in Pará, Brazil, from February 2015 to January 2016. Antibody levels were titrated by immunoenzymatic assays. Adverse events were recorded in diaries. FINDINGS Seropositivity levels after MMR-Bio were 97.6% for measles, 84.7% for mumps, and 98.0% for rubella. After the MMRV vaccine, seroconversion rates and GMT increased substantially for mumps. In contrast, approximately 35% of the children had no detectable antibodies to varicella. Systemic adverse events were more frequent than local events. CONCLUSION The demonstration of batch consistency and non-inferiority of the Bio-MMR vaccine completed the technology transfer. This is a significant technological achievement with implications for immunisation programs.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Rubéola (Sarampión Alemán) , Vacunas Bacterianas/provisión & distribución , Inmunogenicidad Vacunal/inmunología , Virus del Sarampión , Ensayo Clínico
17.
Vaccine ; 36(28): 4112-4117, 2018 06 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784469

RESUMEN

In 2009, Bio-Manguinhos conducted a dose-response study with the yellow fever vaccine, administering the vaccine in the usual mean dose of 27,476 IU (full dose, reference) and in tapered doses (10,447 IU, 3013 IU, 587 IU, 158 IU, and 31 IU) by the usual subcutaneous route and usual volume (0.5 mL). Tapered doses were obtained by dilution in the manufacturer's laboratory, and the test batches presented industrial quality. Doses down to 587 IU showed similar immunogenicity to the full dose (27,476, reference), while the 158 IU and 31 IU doses displayed lower immunogenicity. Seropositivity was maintained at 10 months, except in the group that received the 31 IU dose. The current study aims to determine whether yellow fever seropositivity was maintained eight years after YF vaccination in non-revaccinated individuals. According to the current study's results, seropositivity was maintained in 85% of 318 participants and was similar across groups. The findings support the use of the yellow fever vaccine in fractional doses during outbreaks, but each fractional dose should have at least 587 IU. This study also supports the minimum dose required by WHO, 1000 IU. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 03338231.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Estudios de Cohortes , Relación Dosis-Respuesta Inmunológica , Humanos , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Masculino , Personal Militar , Factores de Tiempo , Voluntarios , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/administración & dosificación
18.
Trials ; 19(1): 244, 2018 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685164

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The annual new-case detection rate for leprosy, while generally stable over the last decade, shows that transmission rates have remained stagnant despite the successful worldwide administration of multidrug therapy since the 1980s. As such, novel control strategies are urgently needed. Focusing on managing leprosy patient contacts, the most susceptible to contracting the disease, has been seen as a potential strategy in limiting the spread of leprosy as shown by a number of recent epidemiological studies. Immunoprophylaxis with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been seen as an effective preventive measure due to its ability to stimulate the development of cellular immunity which is essential in controlling the disease, especially in its multibacillary (MB) forms. The association of immunoprophylaxis with chemoprophylaxis in a single dose of rifampicin has been shown to be a promising preventive strategy, although a variety of studies have found instances of early case detection just a few months after BCG vaccination. METHODS/DESIGN: The present study is a phase IV chemoprophylactic clinical trial consisting of administration of a single dose of rifampicin in MB leprosy patient contacts under care at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic/FIOCRUZ as part of a randomized (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. It is comprised of two groups: 1) rifampicin + BCG; and 2) placebo + BCG. DISCUSSION: The aim is to evaluate whether the use of chemoprophylaxis with a single dose of rifampicin in MB leprosy patient contacts prior to the BCG vaccine would be able to prevent the onset of leprosy in those cases that may occur just a few months after vaccination. Contact subclinical infections (polymerase chain reaction) and the immunological parameters (anti-PGL-1, anti-LID-1, and IFN-γ) will be evaluated and the results will be compared after 12 months of follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC), RBR-69QK5P . Retrospectively registered on 1 June 2017.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna BCG/administración & dosificación , Trazado de Contacto , Leprostáticos/administración & dosificación , Lepra Multibacilar/prevención & control , Rifampin/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Vacuna BCG/efectos adversos , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , Ensayos Clínicos Fase IV como Asunto , Método Doble Ciego , Esquema de Medicación , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Leprostáticos/efectos adversos , Lepra Multibacilar/inmunología , Lepra Multibacilar/microbiología , Lepra Multibacilar/transmisión , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Rifampin/efectos adversos , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
19.
J Trop Pediatr ; 64(5): 373-381, 2018 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059411

RESUMEN

Background: More than half of the hospitalizations because of dengue in Brazil occurred in children <15 years of age in 2007 and 2008, an unexpected change in the epidemiological pattern. We sought to determine clinical and laboratory parameters associated with severity. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in three pediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 233 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients were included: 69 cases and 164 controls. Specific clinical and laboratory factors were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Lethargy [adjusted odds ratio (ORa): 9.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.08-27.12], dyspnea (ORa: 8.24, 95% CI: 3.27-20.72) and abdominal pain (ORa: 6.78, 95% CI: 1.44-31.84) were independently associated with severe dengue in children. Lethargy and dyspnea presented as early as 72 and 48 h, respectively, before shock. Conclusions: Abdominal pain and lethargy confirmed their role as warning signs, which along with dyspnea might be helpful in identifying cases progressing to severe dengue.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Dolor Abdominal/etiología , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Disnea/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Letargia/etiología , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Dengue Grave/epidemiología
20.
Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 19(6): 730-742, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-897878

RESUMEN

Abstract Studies assessed the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure (BP); however, few studies have evaluated the effects of long-term resistance training on variations of this response. The aim of the study was to verify through a systematic review, the long-term effect of resistance training on BP. Searches were made on Medline through Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and Lilacs databases. Overall, 751 articles were found, of which 22 were further analyzed. The analysis followed the PRISMA checklist (Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies) and was divided according to two resistance training models: traditional resistance training (TRT), resistance training alone; or combined resistance training (CRT), resistance training associated with aerobic exercise. Greater BP reductions occurred for CRT compared to TRT. However, further studies are needed to better explicit the resistance training variables (number of exercises, repetitions, number of sets, intervals, speed of execution and load intensity), in order to identify the best training model and improve the methodological quality of experiments in an attempt to reduce the risk of bias.


Resumo Estudos têm verificado os efeitos benéficos do exercício aeróbico na modificação da pressão arterial (PA), entretanto poucos estudos avaliaram os efeitos a longo prazo do treinamento resistido na variação desse desfecho. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi verificar por meio de uma revisão sistemática a ação de longo prazo do treinamento resistido na PA. Realizaram-se buscas nas bases Medline via Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web Science e Lilacs. Foram encontrados 751 artigos dos quais 22 fizeram parte da análise. A análise seguiu o checklist PRISMA (Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Studies) e foi dividida em função da utilização de dois modelos para a aplicação do treinamento resistido: treinamento resistido tradicional (TRT), somente exercícios resistidos, e treinamento resistido combinado (TRC), exercícios resistidos mais exercícios aeróbicos. As maiores reduções na PA ocorreram quando da realização do treinamento resistido combinado em relação ao treinamento resistido tradicional. Entretanto, são necessários mais estudos para melhor explicitar as variáveis do treinamento resistido (número de exercícios, repetições, número de séries, intervalos, velocidade de execução e intensidade de carga), para que se possa identificar o melhor modelo de treinamento e aprimorar a qualidade metodológica dos experimentos na tentativa de diminuir os riscos de viés.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Entrenamiento de Resistencia/métodos , Presión Arterial
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