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1.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(6): 635-642, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867058

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease of 2019 pandemic has changed university routines affecting student mental health. The aims of this study were to survey aspects related to mental health of pharmaceutical course students considering previous and current contexts. METHODS: The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and Brunel Mood Scale were used. DASS-21 was completed pre- and post-pandemic. The validity and reliability of the data were verified. The prevalence (95% CI) of mental health symptoms was estimated. The relationship between the time spent watching/reading the news and mean scales scores was evaluated (Pearson's correlation coefficient). RESULTS: The prevalence of depression symptoms in students pre-pandemic was 66.7% (95% CI = 65.3-68.1) and during the pandemic was 81% (95% CI = 79.8-82.2). More than 70% (95% CI = 69.8-72.6) of participants had some psychological impact as a result of the pandemic (mild: 16.7% [95% CI = 15.6-17.8]; moderate: 9.1% [95% CI = 8.2-10]; severe: 45.4% [95% CI = 43.9-46.9]). High values of tension, depressed mood, mental confusion, and anger were observed. There was a significant correlation between the time spent following the news of the pandemic and symptoms of anxiety (r = 0.356; P < .001), stress (r = 0.248; P = .014), hyperarousal (r = 0.322; P ≤ 0.001), and intrusion (r = 0.21; P = .039). CONCLUSIONS: Students are highly vulnerable to depressive symptoms and mood swings due to the pandemic. These findings deserve consideration mainly from mental health professionals, but also from managers and educators.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Ansiedad/etiología , Depresión/etiología , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Brasil/epidemiología , Confusión , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Masculino , Salud Mental , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies of previous pandemics indicate that healthcare workers have a high risk of developing symptoms related to mental health, especially depression, anxiety, and stress. OBJECTIVE: To identify mental disorder symptoms among Brazilian healthcare workers during the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic and compare findings in different work categories. METHODS: This was an online cross-sectional study. Information related to the pandemic and mental disorder symptoms was collected. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Impact of Event Scale-revised were used. Associations were estimated by the chi-square test. The mean scores were compared among work categories with ANOVA (α = 5%) and the prevalence of symptoms was estimated. RESULTS: 1,609 healthcare workers participated in the survey [mean age: 36.9 (SD = 11.6) years, women = 83.6%]. There was no association between work category and changes in mental health during the pandemic (p = 0.288) or prevalence of unsafe feeling (p = 0.218). A significant relationship was observed between maintaining work activities during the pandemic and work category (p < 0.001). Physicians had the lowest out-of-work prevalence (9.5%) while dentists had the highest (32.3%). Physicians and nurses showed the highest prevalence of in-person work routine. Psychologists presented the highest prevalence of remote work (64.0%) while dentists had the lowest (20.2%). A high prevalence of depression (D), anxiety (A), and stress (S) symptoms was observed in all professional categories (D: 57.2, 95% CI 48.3-66.1%; A: 46.20%, 95% CI = 37.2-55.2%; S: 55.80%, 95% CI = 46.8-64.8%), with physicians (D = 38.4%, A = 25.80%, S = 37.90%), psychologists (D = 50.2%, A = 39.0%, S = 43.1%), and nurses (D = 50.0%, A = 40.9%, S = 49.0%) having significantly lower scores. Psychologists had the lowest pandemic-related psychological impact (42.70%, 95% CI 36.8-48.6%). CONCLUSION: Extreme changes in the work routine of dentists and psychologists and an overall high prevalence of mental symptoms due to the pandemic were found. Researchers should focus on gathering information that can identify workers at increased risk of mental illness to guide discussions and develop actions to minimize the harm of the pandemic. In addition, we suggest that healthcare and support systems urgently adopt mental health care measures with specialized professionals to protect the psychological well-being of the healthcare community.

3.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609275

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to investigate an instrument developed to assess body satisfaction of Brazilian women and men and to identify participants' body satisfaction level. METHODS: Brazilian young adults completed the Body Satisfaction Situational Scale and a sociodemographic questionnaire. A total of 1481 individuals (female = 1035; male = 446) aged between 18 and 40 years old participated in the study. Factorial, convergent and discriminant validity and reliability were evaluated. An invariance test was performed across sexes using multi-group analysis. The prevalence of body satisfaction among participants was calculated using the final models of the instrument. RESULTS: The complete model of the scale (23 items and four factors) was invariant across sexes, but it did not fit the samples even after refinement. Therefore, a theoretical investigation of the scale content was performed based on literature. Thus, a reduced model composed of two factors and ten items was found for each sex. These models showed good validity and reliability to independent samples. About prevalence, most of the women were not at all satisfied with body fat and most of the men were slightly satisfied with body musculature. Further, women and men were moderately satisfied with their face, hair, and skin. CONCLUSION: A reduced model of the instrument for women and another for men showed adequate indices of construct validity and reliability to samples. The most participants were not very satisfied with their bodies. The results can be useful to develop protocols aiming to promote body satisfaction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.

4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(11): e00059220, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331590

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to verify the influence of pressure from sociocultural agents on dissatisfaction with face and body in young women mediated by the internalization of the lean and muscular body and to identify the contribution of individual characteristics to this model. A total of 612 university female students participated of study. The students completed the Portuguese versions of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 and of the Body Area Scale-Revised and a sociodemographic questionnaire. A hypothetical model was constructed using structural equation modeling to test the relationship between the variables. The model fit and the significance of the hypothetical paths were verified. The results provide evidence that the greater the pressure of sociocultural agents and the internalization of the lean body, the more women were dissatisfied with body and face appearance. The media contributed to a greater internalization of the muscular body, which reduced the body dissatisfaction. The practice of physical activity and a higher economic level contributed to a greater internalization of the muscular body, which reduced body dissatisfaction. A higher economic level also influenced the internalization of the lean body and increased the dissatisfaction with face and body. A higher body mass index contributed to a greater pressure from sociocultural agents, greater internalization of the lean body, and greater dissatisfaction with body and face. The relationships identified in the model can contribute to the development of strategies aimed at reducing body dissatisfaction and eating disorders in the population, such as body acceptance.


Asunto(s)
Insatisfacción Corporal , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Imagen Corporal , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Acta Odontol Scand ; : 1-9, 2020 Dec 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370538

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop the Finnish version of the Orofacial Esthetic Scale (OES-Fi) and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ-Fi) and estimate the psychometric properties of these instruments applied to adult Finns. METHODS: The English versions of the instruments were translated into Finnish and back-translated. Thereafter, OES-Fi and PIDAQ-Fi were established in a pilot study. The factorial validity was estimated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFI, TLI, SRMR) in independent samples (Test and Validation samples). The measurement invariance of the factorial models was tested using multigroup analysis (ΔCFI). Convergent validity [Average Variance Extracted (AVE)] and reliability [Composite Reliability (CR) and α] were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 3636 individuals [mean age = 32.0 (SD = 11.6) years, 75% women] participated in the study. After refinements, the factorial model of the instruments showed an adequate fit to the data (CFI ≥0.94, TLI ≥0.90, SRMR ≤0.07) and showed measurement invariance in two independent samples (|ΔCFI| <0.01). Convergent validity (AVE = 0.54-0.82) and reliability (α = 0.86-0.94) were adequate. CONCLUSION: The data obtained using OES-Fi and PIDAQ-Fi were valid and reliable. Thus, these instruments could be useful for evaluating individual satisfaction with orofacial appearance and the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in a clinical or research setting.

6.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942647

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Isolation measures used to contain epidemics generate social interaction restrictions and impose changes in routines of the public that increase negative psychological outcomes. Anxiety and depression are the most common symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mental health of the Brazilian population during the SARs-CoV-2 pandemic and its relationship with demographic and health characteristics. METHODS: Adults from all Brazilian States participated (n = 12,196; women: 69.8%, mean age = 35.2 years). The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and the Impact of Event Scale-revised were used (online survey). Data validity and reliability were verified by confirmatory factor analysis and ordinal alpha coefficient. The probability of presenting psychological symptoms was calculated by multiple logistic regression and odds ratio (OR) (0 = without symptoms, 1 = with mild, moderate, and severe levels of symptoms). RESULTS: High prevalence of depression (61.3%), anxiety (44.2%), stress (50.8%), and psychological impact (54.9%) due to the isolation experienced from the pandemic was found. Younger individuals (OR = 1.58-3.58), those that felt unsafe (OR = 1.75-2.92), with a previous diagnosis of mental health (OR = 1.72-2.64) and/or had general health problems before the pandemic (OR = 1.17-1.51), who noticed changes in their mental state due to the pandemic context (OR = 2.53-9.07), and excessively exposed to the news (OR = 1.19-2.18) were at increased risk of developing symptoms. Women (OR = 1.35-1.65) and those with lower economic status (OR = 1.38-2.69) were more likely to develop psychological symptoms. Lower educational levels increased the likelihood of depressive (OR = 1.03-1.34) and intrusive symptoms (OR = 1.09-1.51). Conclusions: The pandemic and related factors can have a high impact on the mental health of the population. Demographic characteristics can influence the occurrence of psychological symptoms.

7.
Psicol Reflex Crit ; 33(1): 11, 2020 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596746

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory-Brazilian version (CBI-Br) in a sample of university professors and academic staff members of Brazilian public universities, to estimate the level of burnout syndrome (BS) among these workers, and to assess the associations of BS with demographic and occupational determinants of the syndrome. A total of 676 workers participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a three-factor model with 18 items and an acceptable overall fit. Adequate convergent and discriminant validity of the CBI-Br's factors were observed, as well as adequate reliability of the instrument for the sample. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the CBI-Br for the measurement of BS in Brazilian university professors and academic staff members. In addition, the CBI-Br may be an important tool for the diagnosis of psychosocial risks related to BS in the academic environment.

8.
Int Dent J ; 70(5): 321-327, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476147

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of demographic and clinical characteristics on the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics of dental patients. METHODS: The psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics was assessed by the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ). Data validity was estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Reliability was assessed using standardised Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α). A structural model was developed to assess the contribution of demographic and clinical characteristics to the results. The fit of the model was evaluated and the z test (α = 5%) was used to estimate the significance of the contributions (ß). RESULTS: A total of 505 dental patients (80% female; age: 36.3, SD = 11.4) participated in the study. Data showed adequate validity (CFA: χ2 /df = 3.3, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.92, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.92 and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.07) and reliability (α = 0.77-0.92). The fit of the structural model was adequate (χ2 /df = 2.8, TLI = 0.89, CFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). People of a lower economic level, with incomplete dentition, who did not undergo previous aesthetic dental treatment, and who did not like their own smile showed greater psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic and clinical characteristics should be considered in the evaluation of the impact of dental aesthetics on individuals'. Moreover, PIDAQ is an alternative tool for clinical evaluation of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics because it provides valid and reliable data.


Asunto(s)
Estética Dental , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166658

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the psychometric characteristics of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-18 (TFEQ-18) and to estimate the prevalence of cognitive restraint (CRes), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE) among Brazilian undergraduate students. METHODS: A total of 775 students completed TFEQ-18 (62.1% females; total mean age = 20.9 years [SD = 2.8]; females mean age: 20.8 years [SD = 2.8]; males mean age: 21.2 years [SD = 2.7]). Total sample was randomly separated in test/validation samples. An assessment of psychometric characteristics was conducted to each subsample with confirmatory factor analysis considering the indices: chi-square per degree of freedom ratio (χ2/df), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI), and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). The mean score of each TFEQ-18 factor was estimated. The prevalence of CRes, UE, and EE was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) and compared by sex and weight status. RESULTS: The psychometric characteristics of the TFEQ-18 were adequate in both samples (test/validation: χ2/df = 3.58/2.86; CFI = 0.938/0.958; TLI = 0.928/0.951; RMSEA = 0.081/0.069). The prevalence of students with moderate to exacerbated scores of CRes, UE, and EE was 34.4% (95%CI 31.1-37.7%), 35.6% (95%CI 32.2-39.0%), and 43.1% (95%CI 39.6-46.6%), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence according to sex or weight status. CONCLUSIONS: The TFEQ-18 presented adequate psychometric characteristics and indicated a high prevalence of CRes, UE, and EE among the students. This research emphasizes the importance of investigating aspects of eating behavior to best direct clinical and educational strategies for reducing the risk of adopting unhealthy eating behaviors among undergraduate students. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

10.
Body Image ; 32: 199-217, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032822

RESUMEN

The Breast Size Satisfaction Survey (BSSS) was established to assess women's breast size dissatisfaction and breasted experiences from a cross-national perspective. A total of 18,541 women were recruited from 61 research sites across 40 nations and completed measures of current-ideal breast size discrepancy, as well as measures of theorised antecedents (personality, Western and local media exposure, and proxies of socioeconomic status) and outcomes (weight and appearance dissatisfaction, breast awareness, and psychological well-being). In the total dataset, 47.5 % of women wanted larger breasts than they currently had, 23.2 % wanted smaller breasts, and 29.3 % were satisfied with their current breast size. There were significant cross-national differences in mean ideal breast size and absolute breast size dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small (η2 = .02-.03). The results of multilevel modelling showed that greater Neuroticism, lower Conscientiousness, lower Western media exposure, greater local media exposure, lower financial security, and younger age were associated with greater breast size dissatisfaction across nations. In addition, greater absolute breast size dissatisfaction was associated with greater weight and appearance dissatisfaction, poorer breast awareness, and poorer psychological well-being across nations. These results indicate that breast size dissatisfaction is a global public health concern linked to women's psychological and physical well-being.


Asunto(s)
Insatisfacción Corporal/psicología , Mama , Salud Global , Satisfacción Personal , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Tamaño de los Órganos
11.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 41: [12], 01/01/2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128581

RESUMEN

To identify the prevalence of distortion and dissatisfaction with the body size of Brazilian university students, and establish their relationship with the demographic and academic characteristics and the anthropometric nutritional status. The sample consisted of students from a public university in the state of São Paulo. The Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for Brazilian adults was used as an instrument. The participants selected the figure that corresponded to the current body and another one for the desired body. The prevalence of distortion and dissatisfaction with body sizewas calculated with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi-Square Test (χ2). The significance level of 5% was adopted. A total of 356 students (women=71.63%) with a mean age of 20.95 (SD=2.55) years participated. The prevalence of distortion and dissatisfaction with body size was 73.03% (95% CI=68.23­77.83) and 79.49% (95% CI=75.3­83.68), respectively. There was a high prevalence of distortion with body size among individuals with low weight (χ2=9.523, p=0.009). Students who distorted the body size (52.31% [95% CI=47.12­57.50]) underestimated their body size. The type of distortion was related to sex (χ2=26.35, p<0.001), physical activity (χ2=4.51, p=0.034), use of supplements (χ2=4.62, p=0.032), andthe anthropometric nutritional status (χ2=9.05, p=0.011). Students dissatisfied with the body (58.66% [95% CI=52.92­64.40]) wished to reduce the body size. The type of dissatisfaction was related to sex (χ2=5.79, p=0.016) and anthropometric nutritional status (χ2=89.83, p<0.001). The prevalence of body size underestimation was higher among men, students who practice physical activity, subjects using dietary supplements and underweight individuals. The wish to decrease body size was higher among women and overweight/obese individuals.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Distorsión de la Percepción , Estudiantes , Universidades , Estado Nutricional/etnología , Tamaño Corporal/etnología , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Brasil
12.
Eat Weight Disord ; 25(1): 221-230, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076529

RESUMEN

The Caregiver Eating Messages Scale (CEMS) was developed to assess perceived restrictive or critical caregiver messages in relation to food intake and pressure to eat, whereas the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures one's tendency to follow internal cues of hunger and satiety when making eating-related decisions. Both scales are useful in the arsenal of eating behaviour scholars. Here, we developed Brazilian Portuguese translations of both scales and assessed their psychometric properties in Brazilian adults. A total of 288 participants (men = 52.8%) completed the CEMS, IES-2, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), and a demographic questionnaire. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of both scales had adequate fit following the elimination of items and addition of covariances. Evidence of adequate factorial, convergent and discriminant validity, as well as reliability was identified. Furthermore, correlations of CEMS and IES-2 with BAS scores and body mass index were obtained. Both instruments' models were found to be invariant across sex, with men having significantly higher scores on three subscales of the IES-2 only. These results provide evidence for the psychometric properties of the CEMS and IES-2 in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking adults.Level of Evidence: V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

13.
Eat Weight Disord ; 25(4): 1079-1088, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218658

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to examine the psychometric proprieties of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) among Brazilian, Portuguese, Mozambican, and Italian college students. METHODS: A total of 1630 subjects (Brazilians = 446; Portuguese = 480, Mozambicans = 360, and Italians = 344) completed the Portuguese (Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican students) and the Italian versions (Italian students) of the BIQLI for measuring the effects of body image on one's quality of life. Psychometric testing included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), discriminant and convergent validity, internal consistency, and composite reliability. The cross-national invariance of the BIQLI was assessed by multi-group analysis using ΔCFI. Moreover, the global score of the BIQLI for all countries was calculated by an algorithm and compared using the Welch's ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-test (α = 5%). RESULTS: CFA showed an inadequate fit of unifactorial model of the BIQLI. Therefore, an alternative model comprising nine first-order factors and one second-order factor was proposed and evaluated. This new model showed adequate fit in all samples, despite some limitations that were found with respect to its convergent and discriminant validity. The alternative BIQLI model was invariant among countries. Global scores for the influence of body image on quality of life were significantly different across countries, with the Italians presenting the lowest scores. CONCLUSIONS: The BIQLI factorial model found in this study represents a reliable and valid alternative to its original structure for the assessment of the effect of body image on college students' perceived quality of life. This model must be further tested in other populations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

14.
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 33: 11, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1135887

RESUMEN

Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory-Brazilian version (CBI-Br) in a sample of university professors and academic staff members of Brazilian public universities, to estimate the level of burnout syndrome (BS) among these workers, and to assess the associations of BS with demographic and occupational determinants of the syndrome. A total of 676 workers participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a three-factor model with 18 items and an acceptable overall fit. Adequate convergent and discriminant validity of the CBI-Br's factors were observed, as well as adequate reliability of the instrument for the sample. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the CBI-Br for the measurement of BS in Brazilian university professors and academic staff members. In addition, the CBI-Br may be an important tool for the diagnosis of psychosocial risks related to BS in the academic environment.

15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(11): e00059220, 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1142625

RESUMEN

Abstract: The aim of the study was to verify the influence of pressure from sociocultural agents on dissatisfaction with face and body in young women mediated by the internalization of the lean and muscular body and to identify the contribution of individual characteristics to this model. A total of 612 university female students participated of study. The students completed the Portuguese versions of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 and of the Body Area Scale-Revised and a sociodemographic questionnaire. A hypothetical model was constructed using structural equation modeling to test the relationship between the variables. The model fit and the significance of the hypothetical paths were verified. The results provide evidence that the greater the pressure of sociocultural agents and the internalization of the lean body, the more women were dissatisfied with body and face appearance. The media contributed to a greater internalization of the muscular body, which reduced the body dissatisfaction. The practice of physical activity and a higher economic level contributed to a greater internalization of the muscular body, which reduced body dissatisfaction. A higher economic level also influenced the internalization of the lean body and increased the dissatisfaction with face and body. A higher body mass index contributed to a greater pressure from sociocultural agents, greater internalization of the lean body, and greater dissatisfaction with body and face. The relationships identified in the model can contribute to the development of strategies aimed at reducing body dissatisfaction and eating disorders in the population, such as body acceptance.


Resumo: O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a influência da pressão de agentes socioculturais na insatisfação com o rosto e o corpo em mulheres jovens mediada pela internalização do corpo magro e musculoso e identificar a contribuição das características individuais para esse modelo. Um total de 612 estudantes universitárias participaram do estudo. As alunas responderam às versões em português do Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 e da Body Area Scale-Revised e um questionário sociodemográfico. Um modelo hipotético foi construído usando modelagem de equações estruturais para testar a relação entre as variáveis. O ajuste do modelo e a significância dos caminhos hipotéticos foram verificados. Os resultados fornecem evidências de que quanto maior a pressão dos agentes socioculturais e a internalização do corpo magro, mais as mulheres ficam insatisfeitas com a aparência corporal e facial. A mídia contribuiu para uma maior internalização do corpo muscular, o que diminuiu a insatisfação corporal. A prática de atividade física e um maior nível econômico contribuíram para uma maior internalização da musculatura corporal, o que reduziu a insatisfação corporal. Um nível econômico mais elevado também influenciou na internalização do corpo magro e aumentou a insatisfação com o rosto e o corpo. O maior índice de massa corporal contribuiu para uma maior pressão dos agentes socioculturais, maior internalização do corpo magro e maior insatisfação com o corpo e a face. As relações identificadas no modelo podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de estratégias que visem reduzir a insatisfação corporal e os transtornos alimentares na população, como a aceitação corporal.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar la influencia de la presión de agentes socioculturales en la insatisfacción con el rostro y el cuerpo en mujeres jóvenes, mediadas por la internalización de un cuerpo esbelto y musculoso, así como para identificar la contribución de las características individuales a este modelo. Un total de 612 mujeres universitarias participaron en el estudio. Las estudiantes completaron las versiones en portugués Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 y del Body Area Scale-Revised y un cuestionario sociodemográfico. El modelo hipotético fue construido usando un modelado de ecuación estructural para probar la relación entre las variables. Se verificaron tanto el modelo ajustado, como la significancia de los recorridos hipotéticos. Los resultados proporcionan evidencias que cuanto mayor es la presión de los agentes socioculturales y la internalización de un cuerpo esbelto, mayor es la insatisfacción de las mujeres con la apariencia de su cuerpo y rostro. La media contribuyó a una mayor internalización del cuerpo musculoso, que redujo la insatisfacción con el cuerpo. La práctica de actividad física y un nivel económico más alto contribuyeron a una internalización más grande de un cuerpo musculoso, lo que redujo la insatisfacción con el cuerpo. Un nivel económico más alto también influenció en la internalización de un cuerpo esbelto e incrementó la insatisfacción con la cara y el cuerpo. Un mayor índice de masa corporal contribuyó a una mayor presión de los agentes socioculturales, y una mayor internalización de un cuerpo esbelto, así como una mayor insatisfacción con el cuerpo y la cara. Las relaciones identificadas en el modelo pueden contribuir al desarrollo de estrategias, con el objetivo de reducir la insatisfacción corporal y los desórdenes alimenticios en la población, tales como la aceptación corporal.

16.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e113, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800864

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to compare the scores of the Helplessness, Magnification, Rumination, and Catastrophizing factors of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) between samples with different pain characteristics. The psychometric properties of the PCS were evaluated in 1,151 Brazilian adults (78.9% female; 38.6 (SD = 10.8) years): 335 had no pain, 390 had been in pain for less than 3 months, 250 had been in recurring pain for more than 3 months, and 176 had been in continuous pain for more than 3 months. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to verify the fit of the PCS models. Convergent validity and reliability were evaluated. Multi-group analysis was used to estimate the invariance of the factorial model. The global score for the PCS factors was obtained using the regression weight matrix for estimating factor scores from CFA. Analysis of variance was used to compare scores between samples. After excluding three items, the tri-factorial model showed adequate fit. The model parameters were invariant (Δχ2(λ,i,ß,Res); p≥0.05). Individuals experiencing pain showed higher scores for catastrophic thoughts. Individuals with pain for less than 3 months had the highest scores for Rumination (p < 0.001). The PCS showed valid, reliable, and invariant results for the sample of Brazilian adults in no pain or with different pain conditions. The PCS adequately discriminated individuals in pain from those without pain. Among those in pain, Rumination was the only discriminating factor.


Asunto(s)
Catastrofización/psicología , Desamparo Adquirido , Dimensión del Dolor/psicología , Dolor/psicología , Rumiación Cognitiva , Brote de los Síntomas , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dimensión del Dolor/métodos , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Psicometría , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(5): e00170218, 2019 05 20.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116253

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale-4 (SATAQ-4) to the Portuguese language and assess its validity and reliability when applied to Brazilian students. Face, content, and pretest validity were assessed. In order to assess the levels of misunderstanding, a pretest was performed with 91 students from three Portuguese-speaking countries (25 Brazilians, 37 Portuguese, and 29 Mozambicans). Construct validity was estimated using a confirmatory strategy with chi-square by degrees of freedom ratio (χ²/df), comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). The reliability was estimated. Invariance was estimated for independent samples, for sex and presence/absence of overweight/obesity. Students participating in the pretest understood all the items in SATAQ-4. Participation in the main study included 1,051 Brazilian university students (age = 20.9 years (SD = 2.4), 66.4% women). SATAQ-4 presented adequate validity (χ²/df = 8.39; CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.08) and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84-0.95) in the sample. The model showed invariance between independent samples and was not invariant according to sex or presence/absence of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, SATAQ-4 is a valid and reliable instrument for a sample of Brazilian university students, as an alternative for assessing sociocultural attitudes towards appearance in this population.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal , Comparación Transcultural , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Traducciones , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud , Brasil , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
18.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(3): e00179318, 2019 04 08.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970100

RESUMEN

The Tripartite Influence Scale (TIS) is used to assess the influence of social and family factors on individuals' body image. However, little evidence has been presented on the validity of the TIS construct. The study aimed to estimate the psychometric indicators in TIS and identify the degree of influence of the media, parents, and peers on body image in university students, considering different characteristics. University students of both sexes participated. The psychometric indicators in TIS were assessed for each sex using confirmatory factor analysis. Mean scores were calculated for each TIS factor. Prevalence rates for degree of influence were presented. A multivariate regression model was built to verify the relationship between target characteristics and TIS factor scores. The sample included 791 university students (63.2% women) 18 to 40 years of age. TIS did not initially display a good fit to the samples and was therefore refined. After refinement, the scale showed adequate validity and reliability for women and men. Significant differences were observed in the mean scores between women and men, and in the prevalence rates the majority of the students were in the low category. Work, consumption of food supplements for body changes, age, body mass index, self-rated diet, and level of physical activity were significantly related to TIS factors. Women were generally more influenced than men by the media and peers. Characteristics identified as related to TIS can be relevant for inclusion in clinical and research protocols.


Asunto(s)
Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta/estadística & datos numéricos , Imagen Corporal/psicología , Familia/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
19.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 22(3): 213-221, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021044

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the agreement between orthodontic pain perception, evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS), and psychosocial and behavioural aspects of pain and to estimate the impact of clinical and demographic characteristics on these aspects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design using non-probabilistic sampling. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Orthodontic patients undergoing treatment at orthodontic clinics (n = 507 [63.3% women], mean age: 26.32 [SD = 11.70] years). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Psychosocial and behavioural aspects of pain were evaluated using the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI-Orthodontic). Agreement between the pain impact level assessed according to different methods was estimated using the linear-weighted Kappa (κp ) statistic. Structural models were elaborated to estimate the impact of clinical and demographic characteristics on the psychosocial and behavioural aspects of pain. The fit of the model was evaluated, and the z test (α = 5%) was used to estimate the significance of the impact (ß). RESULTS: The agreement between VAS and MPI-Orthodontic factors was inadequate (κp  = 0.028-0.584). The fit of the structural models was adequate. Women, younger individuals, and those who reported difficulty/pain with feeding exhibited greater perception of both the psychosocial and behavioural aspects. Individuals in lower socioeconomic strata who were not satisfied with treatment and did not seek treatment voluntarily exhibited greater perception of the psychosocial aspect of pain. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of orthodontic pain on psychosocial and behavioural aspects of patients' lives is a relevant issue. Clinical and demographic characteristics contributed to these aspects; however, pain intensity as a sole measure may be insufficient for an adequate understanding of pain perception.


Asunto(s)
Percepción del Dolor , Dolor , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dimensión del Dolor , Escala Visual Analógica
20.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 68(1): 32-41, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002452

RESUMEN

RESUMO Objetivo: Estimar as características psicométricas da Escala de Depressão, Ansiedade e Estresse (DASS-21) para universitários e comparar as prevalências de depressão, ansiedade e estresse segundo o sexo. Métodos: Avaliou-se o ajustamento da DASS-21 aos dados por análise confirmatória utilizando os índices razão de qui-quadrado pelos graus de liberdade (χ2/gl), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) e Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). As prevalências de depressão, ansiedade e estresse foram calculadas e comparadas segundo o sexo. Resultados: Participaram 1.042 estudantes [idades entre 18 e 35 anos, com média de 21,13 anos (desvio-padrão = 2,81), 65,7% mulheres]. O ajustamento da DASS-21 à amostra foi adequado (χ2/gl = 5,83; CFI = 0,96; TLI = 0,97; RMSEA = 0,07), contudo o item 2 apresentou baixo peso fatorial, sendo, portanto, excluído (χ2/gl = 6,05; CFI = 0,98; TLI = 0,97; RMSEA = 0,07). Em relação ao grau de acometimento dos estudantes pela depressão, ansiedade e estresse, verificou-se que 4,7%, 1,7% e 4,5% dos estudantes apresentaram, respectivamente, escores moderados a extremamente severos. Não houve diferença significativa entre as prevalências dos estados emocionais avaliados segundo o sexo. Conclusão: A DASS-21 apresentou adequada validade e confiabilidade para amostra. A prevalência de depressão, ansiedade e estresse foi semelhante entre homens e mulheres, apontando para a necessidade de um olhar igualitário na investigação desses estados emocionais.


ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) among Brazilian university students and to compare the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress between men and women. Methods: The DASS-21's fit was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis using the chi-square per degrees of freedom ratio (χ2/df), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). A second-order hierarchical model was tested (Negative Affectivity). The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was calculated and compared by sex. Results: Participants comprised 1,042 university students [aged 18 to 35 years (mean = 21.13; standard deviation = 2.81 years) 65.7% women]. The DASS-21's goodness of fit was adequate (χ2/df = 5.83; CFI = 0.96; TLI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.07). However, item 2 presented low factorial weight and was excluded (χ2/df = 6.05; CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.07). The study verified that 4.7%, 1.7%, and 4.5% of students presented moderate to extremely severe scores of depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. There was no significant difference between men and women in the prevalence of the emotional aspects assessed. Conclusion: The DASS-21 demonstrated adequate validity and reliability in a sample of university students. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress did not differ significantly between men and women, which points to the need for an egalitarian view in the investigation of these emotional states.

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