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J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519876016, 2019 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535920


Female labor force participation is important for women, children, and societies, but also may have unintended impacts including an increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV is a global health, human rights, and development problem with far-reaching economic and societal consequences. Mexico has a very high prevalence of IPV: 43.9% of Mexican women have reported experiencing IPV at the hands of their current partner. The literature on women's economic participation reveals mixed evidence on whether women's employment is associated with higher levels of IPV or whether it is protective against IPV. As the effect of women's work operates differently across contexts, we aim to estimate the effect of women's employment on their risk of experiencing IPV in rural and urban Mexico. Utilizing the nationally representative 2016 Mexican National Survey on the Dynamics of Household Relationships (ENDIREH), we employ propensity score matching (PSM) to address the potential selection bias between women who are employed and/or receiving a cash transfer with women who are not. We additionally implement inverse probability weighted regression adjustment (IPWRA) to explore this relationship and compare the results with the PSM findings. Three different measures of women's economic participation are analyzed: whether they had engaged in any productive work outside of the home in the past year, whether they received conditional cash transfers through Mexico's Prospera program, and whether they received Prospera and worked. Given the high levels of IPV in Mexico and the greater levels of economic participation borne of an increased number of women in the workforce, our results have important potential implications for targeting support to survivors of violence who receive cash transfers and undertake employment in both urban and rural areas.

J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 34(4): 417-437, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396808


Data from the Mexican Census reveal that between 2005 and 2015, nearly two million migrants returned voluntarily to Mexico from the United States. Currently, high rates of voluntary-return migration to Mexico continue at the same time that migration flows to the U.S. steadily decline. This return migration trend presents serious challenges for Mexico, a country that has long struggled to satisfy the health care demands of its population. However, little is known about return migrants' health care needs. In this study, we examine the health risk profiles and healthcare utilization for Mexican return migrants and the non-migrant population. We examine how these outcomes are affected by both the migration and return migration experience of the returnee population, while paying close attention to age-group differences. We employ inverse probability weighting regression adjustment (IPWRA) and logistic regression analysis of a sample of 348,450 respondents from the 2014 National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID) to test for differences in health conditions between those Mexican return migrants and non-migrants. We then turn to the Survey of Migration at Mexico's Northern Border (EMIF Norte, for its Spanish acronym) for the 2014-2017 period to further assess whether certain characteristics linked to aging and the migration experience influence the prevalence of chronic health conditions, and health insurance coverage among 17,258 returned migrants. Findings reveal that compared to non-migrants, returnees are more likely to be physically impaired. These poor health outcomes are influenced by the migration and return migration experience and vary by age group and duration of residence, the time that has elapsed since returning to Mexico. We do not find an association between return migration and mental or emotional distress. Policy implications are discussed in light of immigration reform and restrictions on eligibility for health insurance coverage for older adults in Mexico.

Emigración e Inmigración/tendencias , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Estado de Salud , Cobertura del Seguro , Americanos Mexicanos , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven