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Gerontologist ; 2019 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141138


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stereotypes are beliefs about a particular group often adopted to bypass complex information processing. Like racism and other forms of discrimination, ageism affects individuals and society as a whole. The purpose of the study was to analyze the Stereotype Content and Strength Survey (SCSS) designed to update assessment tools commonly used to measure stereotypes of older adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: An updated survey was developed including aging-related descriptive items from previously published studies. Students enrolled at two Midwestern universities (n = 491) were directed to think about their perceptions of "older adults" and select the proportion they believed could be described by the items used in the tool. Response categories for each descriptive item were dichotomized and operationalized to be a strong stereotype if the collapsed response percentage was significantly ≥80%. RESULTS: A Principal Axis Factor analysis and Direct Oblim rotation was computed on 117 descriptive items representing positive, negative, and physical characteristics, resulting in a 3-factor model with acceptable psychometric properties. Cronbach alpha analyses revealed reliable scales for negative (α = .92), positive (α = .88), and physical (α = .81) stereotypes. Of 117 descriptive items, 33 emerged as strong stereotypes including 30 positive, 2 physical, and 1 negative item. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This updated assessment has the potential to contribute to an understanding of the existence of age-related stereotypes as well as the strength, or the proportion of older adults who could be described by each of the items used in the SCSS.

BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 321, 2018 Dec 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591050


BACKGROUND: Point-of-care-ultrasound (POCUS) training is expanding in undergraduate and graduate medical education, but lack of trained faculty is a major barrier. Two strategies that may help mitigate this obstacle are interprofessional education (IPE) and near-peer teaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate a POCUS course in which diagnostic medical sonography (DMS) students served as near-peer teachers for internal medicine residents (IMR) learning to perform abdominal sonography. METHODS: Prior to the IPE workshop, DMS students participated in a train-the-trainer session to practice teaching and communication skills via case-based simulation. DMS students then coached first-year IMR to perform POCUS examinations of the kidney, bladder, and gallbladder on live models. A mixed-methods evaluation of the interprofessional workshop included an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE), course evaluation, and qualitative analysis of focus group interviews. RESULTS: Twenty-four of 24 (100%) IMR completed the OSCE, averaging 97.7/107 points (91.3%) (SD 5.2). Course evaluations from IMR and DMS students were globally positive. Twenty three of 24 residents (96%) and 6/6 DMS students (100%) participated in focus group interviews. Qualitative analysis identified themes related to the learning environment, scanning technique, and suggestions for improvement. IMR felt the interprofessional training fostered a positive learning environment and that the experience complimented traditional faculty-led workshops. Both groups noted the importance of establishing mutual understanding of expectations and suggested future workshops have more dedicated time for DMS student demonstration of scanning technique. CONCLUSION: An interprofessional, near-peer workshop was an effective strategy for teaching POCUS to IMR. This approach may allow broader adoption of POCUS in medical education, especially when faculty expertise is limited.

Medicina Interna/educación , Sistemas de Atención de Punto , Enseñanza , Ultrasonografía , Abdomen/diagnóstico por imagen , Educación Médica/métodos , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes de Medicina