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Vaccine ; 38(43): 6682-6694, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888741


BACKGROUND: 21 million pregnant women worldwide (18%) are estimated to carry Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which is a risk for invasive disease in newborns, pregnant women, and stillbirths. Adults ≥ 60 years or with underlying health conditions are also vulnerable to invasive GBS disease. We undertook systematic reviews on GBS organism characteristics including: capsular polysaccharide (serotype), sequence type (multi-locus sequence types (MLST)), and virulence proteins. We synthesised data by at-risk populations, to inform vaccine development. METHODS: We conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses to estimate proportions of GBS serotypes for at risk populations: maternal colonisation, invasive disease in pregnant women, stillbirths, infants 0-90 days age, and older adults (≥60 years). We considered regional variation and time trends (2001-2018). For these at-risk population groups, we summarised reported MLST and surface proteins. RESULTS: Based on 198 studies (29247isolates), 93-99% of GBS isolates were serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, IV and V. Regional variation is likely, but data gaps are apparent, even for maternal colonisation which has most data. Serotype III dominates for infant invasive disease (60%) and GBS-associated stillbirths (41%). ST17 accounted for a high proportion of infant invasive disease (41%; 95%CI: 35-47) and was found almost exclusively in serotype III strains, less present in maternal colonisation (9%; 95%CI:6-13),(4%; 95%CI:0-11) infant colonisation, and adult invasive disease (4%, 95%CI:2-6). Percentages of strains with at least one of alp 1, alp2/3, alpha C or Rib surface protein targets were 87% of maternal colonisation, 97% infant colonisation, 93% infant disease and 99% adult invasive disease. At least one of three pilus islands proteins were reported in all strains. DISCUSSION: A hexavalent vaccine (serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, IV and V) might provide comprehensive cover for all at-risk populations. Surveillance of circulating, disease-causing target proteins is useful to inform vaccines not targeting capsular polysaccharide. Addressing data gaps especially by world region and some at-risk populations (notably stillbirths) is fundamental to evidence-based decision-making during vaccine design.

Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 1263-1272, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425562


Group B streptococcus (GBS) causes a high burden of neonatal and infant disease globally. Implementing a vaccine for pregnant women is a promising strategy to prevent neonatal and infant GBS disease and has been identified as a priority by the World Health Organisation (WHO). GBS serotype-specific polysaccharide - protein conjugate vaccines are at advanced stages of development, but a large number of participants would be required to undertake Phase III clinical efficacy trials. Efforts are therefore currently focused on establishing serocorrelates of protection in natural immunity studies as an alternative pathway for licensure of a GBS vaccine, followed by Phase IV studies to evaluate safety and effectiveness. Protein vaccines are in earlier stages of development but are highly promising as they might confer protection irrespective of serotype. Further epidemiological, immunological and health economic studies are required to enable the vaccine to reach its target population as soon as possible.

Health Technol Assess ; 23(67): 1-40, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855555


BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of infection in infants. Currently, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is the major strategy to prevent invasive group B streptococcus disease. However, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis does not prevent maternal sepsis, premature births, stillbirths or late-onset disease. Maternal vaccination may offer an alternative strategy. Multivalent polysaccharide protein conjugate vaccine development is under way and a serocorrelate of protection is needed to expedite vaccine licensure. OBJECTIVES: The ultimate aim of this work is to determine the correlate of protection against the major group B streptococcus disease-causing serotypes in infants in the UK. The aim of this feasibility study is to test key operational aspects of the study design. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of pregnant women and their infants in a 6-month period (1 July to 31 December 2018). SETTING: Five secondary and tertiary hospitals from London and South England. National iGBS disease surveillance was conducted in all trusts in England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women aged ≥ 18 years who were delivering at one of the selected hospitals and who provided consent during the study period. There were no exclusion criteria. INTERVENTIONS: No interventions were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) To test the feasibility of collecting serum at delivery from a large cohort of pregnant women. (2) To test the key operational aspects for a proposed large serocorrelates study. (3) To test the feasibility of collecting samples from those with invasive group B streptococcus. RESULTS: A total of 1823 women were recruited during the study period. Overall, 85% of serum samples were collected at three sites collecting only cord blood. At the two sites collecting maternal, cord and infant blood samples, the collection rate was 60%. A total of 614 women were screened for group B streptococcus with a colonisation rate of 22% (serotype distribution: 30% III, 25% Ia, 16% II, 14% Ib, 14% V and 1% IV). A blood sample was collected from 34 infants who were born to colonised women. Maternal and infant blood and the bacterial isolates for 15 newborns who developed invasive group B streptococcal disease during the study period were collected (serotype distribution: 29% III, 29% II, 21% Ia, 7% Ib, 7% IV and 7% V). LIMITATIONS: Recruitment and sample collection were dependent on the presence of research midwives rather than the whole clinical team. In addition, individualised consent limited the number of women who could be approached each day, and site set-up for the national surveillance study and the limited time period of this feasibility study limited recruitment of all eligible participants. CONCLUSIONS: We have verified the feasibility of collecting and processing rectovaginal swabs and blood samples in pregnant women, as well as samples from those with invasive group B streptococcal disease. We have made recommendations for the recruitment of cases within the proposed GBS3 study and for controls both within GBS3 and as an extension of this feasibility study. FUTURE WORK: A large case-control study comparing specific immunoglobulin G levels in mothers whose infants develop invasive group B streptococcal disease with those in colonised mothers whose infants do not develop invasive group B streptococcal disease is recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN49326091; IRAS project identification number 246149/REC reference number 18/WM/0147. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 67. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

Profilaxis Antibiótica , Serogrupo , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/prevención & control , Vacunas Estreptocócicas/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Sangre Fetal , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Suero , Streptococcus agalactiae/aislamiento & purificación , Reino Unido
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(6S Suppl 1): S72-S76, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205250


Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is estimated to have caused 319,000 cases of neonatal disease resulting in 90,000 infant deaths globally in 2015. It is also associated with maternal sepsis, preterm births, stillbirths and neonatal encephalopathy. There is a significant burden of neurologic impairment among survivors of infant GBS disease. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis strategies have reduced the incidence of newborn early-onset GBS (occurring days 0-6) in some settings, but they are not feasible in many low and middle-income countries. A maternal vaccine given to pregnant women to stimulate passive transplacental transfer of protective antibodies has the potential to reduce maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and newborn disease. Phase I and II vaccine studies are occurring, but conducting phase III efficacy studies of a GBS vaccine candidate would require very large numbers due to the relatively low incidence of invasive GBS disease. It has therefore been proposed that alternative pathways to vaccine licensure should be explored, for example, through use of a regulatory approved correlate of protection and safety evaluation in mothers, fetuses and infants. These studies would then be followed-up with post-licensure phase IV studies in which vaccine effectiveness is evaluated.

Infecciones Estreptocócicas/inmunología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/prevención & control , Streptococcus agalactiae/inmunología , Factores de Edad , Profilaxis Antibiótica , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Sepsis Neonatal/epidemiología , Sepsis Neonatal/inmunología , Sepsis Neonatal/microbiología , Sepsis Neonatal/prevención & control , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/inmunología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/microbiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Vacunas Estreptocócicas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Estreptocócicas/inmunología , Vacunación