Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
J Interprof Care ; 33(5): 590-592, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444153

RESUMEN

Interprofessional education (IPE) is vital in university clinical settings to prepare graduate students to engage in today's health care system. However, few university programs have successfully implemented IPE into existing clinical programs. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an interprofessional (IP) training and clinical experience on graduate students' and caregivers perceptions on quality of care in a pre-existing clinical program. Speech-language pathology (SLP) and Physical Therapy (PT) faculty, worked to coordinate and develop an IP training and clinical experience. Graduate students from both disciplines participated in the IP training and completed a pre-post training questionnaire. Students then participated in an IP clinical experience with three preschool-age children with complex sensory motor needs and completed the questionnaire again following this experience. Students' attitudes and perceptions of readiness for IP engagement following IPE training showed a positive trend but not following an IP clinical experience. Subjective feedback from students and caregivers was highly favorable. The results provide further evidence of the benefits of IP training and clinical experience. More effective qualitative and quantitative tools must be developed to capture the effectiveness of direct IP clinical collaboration.

2.
J Geriatr Phys Ther ; 42(4): 249-255, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095771

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several measures of fall risk have been previously developed and include forward walking, turning, and stepping motions. However, recent research has demonstrated that backwards walking is more sensitive at identifying age-related changes in mobility and balance compared with forward walking. No clinical test of backwards walking currently exists. Therefore, this article describes a novel clinical test of backwards walking, the 3-m backwards walk (3MBW), and assessed whether it was associated with 1-year retrospective falls in a population of healthy older adults. Diagnostic accuracy of the 3MBW was calculated at different cutoff points and compared with existing clinical tests. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study including residents of a retirement community without a history of neurological deficits. Demographics, medical history, and falls in the past year were collected, and clinical tests included the 3MBW and the Timed Up and Go (TUG), the 5 times sit-to-stand, and the 4-square step test. Frequency distributions and t tests compared baseline characteristics of people who reported falling with people who did not. Diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) was calculated for a series of cutoffs for the 3MBW, the TUG (≥8, 10, and 13.5 seconds), 5 times sit-to-stand (≥12 and ≥15 seconds), and 4-step square test (>15 seconds). Receiver operating curve analyses were used to define 3MBW optimal cutoffs, and the difference between the overall area under the curve (AUC) was statistically tested. SPSS 24.0 and MedCalc 17.1 were used for all analyses. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Fifty-nine adults with a mean (SD) age of 71.5 (7.6) years participated, with 25 people reporting falls in the past year. The mean (SD) time for the 3MBW was 4.0 (2.1) seconds. People who fell had a significantly slower 3MBW time (4.8 vs 3.5 seconds for people who did not fall, P = .015), but not a significantly slower 4-step square test (9.5 vs 8.1 seconds, P = .056), TUG (9.3 vs 8.0 seconds, P = .077), and 5 times sit-to-stand (12.5 vs 10.3 seconds, P = .121). The highest overall AUC for any measure was for the 3MBW at 3.5 seconds (0.707, 95% confidence interval = 0.570-0.821; sensitivity = 74%, specificity = 61%), which was significantly higher than the TUG at 8 seconds (AUC = 0.560, P = .023) and 13.5 seconds (AUC = 0.528, P = .011), the 4-step square test (AUC = 0.522, P = .004), but not significantly higher than the TUG at 10 seconds (P = .098) and the 5 times sit-to-stand at 12 (P = .092) or 15 seconds (P = .276). On the 3MBW, more than 75% of people who were faster than 3.0 seconds did not report any falls, and 94% of people who did not report falling were faster than 4.5 seconds. Of the people who were slower than 4.5 seconds, 81% reported falling. CONCLUSIONS: In a study of healthy older adults, the 3MBW demonstrated similar or better diagnostic accuracy for falls in the past year than most commonly used measures. People walking faster than 3.0 seconds on the 3MBW were unlikely to have reported falling, whereas people slower than 4.5 seconds were very likely to have reported falling. Further validation of the 3MBW in prospective studies, larger samples, and clinical populations is recommended.

3.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0145504, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26727382

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the FDA issued a warning that omeprazole--a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)--reduces the antithrombotic effect of clopidogrel by almost half when taken concomitantly. This study aims to analyze the impact of the FDA Safety Communications on prescribing clopidogrel together with PPIs. METHODS: This retrospective study identified clopidogrel users from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Databases (01/2006-12/2012). Rates of clopidogrel-PPI combination therapy were estimated in 6-month intervals for patients with ≥1 clopidogrel prescription fill, then were analyzed pre- and post-safety communication (11/17/2009). Analyses were also conducted by grouping PPIs into CYP2C19 inhibitors (omeprazole and esomeprazole) and CYP2C19 non-inhibitors (pantoprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, and rabeprazole). RESULTS: Overall, 483,074 patients met the selection criteria; of these, 157,248 used a clopidogrel-PPI combination. On average, 30.5% of patients in the pre- and 19.9% in the post-communication period used a clopidogrel-PPI combination therapy. Among clopidogrel users, the probability of using clopidogrel-PPI combinations fell by over 40% in the post-communication period (OR = 0.57; p<0.001); the proportion of patients using esomeprazole fell from 12.9% to 5.3%, and the proportion using omeprazole fell from 10.1% to 6.3%. Among combination therapy users, the probability of patients using a combination with a CYP2C19 inhibitor decreased by 53% (OR = 0.47; p<0.001); however, 31.5% of patients were still prescribed a clopidogrel-PPI combination therapy. Trends were similar for all and newly treated patients, regardless of clopidogrel indication and physician specialty. CONCLUSIONS: The FDA Safety Communication resulted in a reduction in the number of patients undergoing combination therapy; however approximately one-third of patients still used combination therapy post-communication.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de Agregación Plaquetaria/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones/administración & dosificación , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Anciano , Clopidogrel , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Seguridad del Paciente , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Ticlopidina/administración & dosificación , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
4.
J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 23(3): 157-66, 2014 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25320609

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the one-year period prevalence of stimulant combination therapy and switching in children/ adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Quebec, Canada. METHOD: Patients aged 6-17 years, with at least two ADHD diagnosis codes documented in different visits and at least 30 days' supply of a stimulant during their most recent one-year observation period were selected from the Regie de l'assurance maladie du Quebec database (03/2007-02/2012). Combination therapy was defined as at least 30 consecutive days of concomitant use of multiple stimulants with different active moieties, or use of a stimulant and another psychotropic medication. Therapy switching was defined as a prescription claim for a new psychotropic medication less than 30 days before or after the end of supply of a stimulant. The one-year period prevalence of therapy combination and switching was calculated. RESULTS: The one-year period prevalence of combination therapy and switching among 9,431 children and adolescents with ADHD treated with stimulants was 19.8% and 18.7%, respectively. The most frequent combination categories were atypical antipsychotics (AAP: 10.8%), atomoxetine (ATX: 5.5%) and clonidine (5.3%). The most frequent switched-to categories were other stimulants (7.9%), AAP (5.5%) and ATX (4.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one in five children/adolescents with ADHD on a stimulant experienced combination therapy or therapy switching; however, the majority of the medications used in combination or switching were not label-indicated for the treatment of ADHD in Canada. These results highlight the need for further research to evaluate the risk-benefit of stimulant combination and switching in children and adolescents with ADHD.

5.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 30(8): 1643-55, 2014 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24730586

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of long-acting injectables (LAIs) versus oral antipsychotics (OAs) on hospitalizations among patients with schizophrenia by conducting a systematic literature review of studies with different study designs and performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: Using the PubMed database and major psychiatric conference proceedings, a systematic literature review for January 2000 to July 2013 was performed to identify English-language studies evaluating schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Studies reporting hospitalization rates as a percentage of patients hospitalized or as the number of hospitalizations per person per year were selected. The primary meta-analysis assessed the percentage decrease in hospitalization rates before and after treatment initiation for matched time periods. The secondary meta-analysis assessed the absolute rate of hospitalization during follow-up. Pooled treatment-effect estimates were calculated using random-effects models. To account for differences in patient and study-level characteristics between studies, meta-regression analyses were used. Subset analyses further explored the heterogeneity across study designs. RESULTS: Fifty-eight studies evaluating 25 arms (LAIs: 13 arms, 4516 patients; OAs: 12 arms, 23,516 patients) in the primary meta-analysis and 78 arms (LAIs: 12 arms, 4481 patients; OAs: 66 arms, 96,230 patients) in the secondary meta-analysis were identified. Reduction in hospitalization rates for LAIs was 20.7 percentage points higher than that of OAs (random-effects estimates: LAIs = 56.2% vs. OAs = 35.5%, P = 0.023). Controlling for patient and study characteristics, the adjusted percentage reduction in hospitalization rates for LAIs was 26.4 percentage points higher than for OAs (95% CI: 3.3-49.5, P = 0.027). As for the secondary meta-analysis, no significant difference between LAIs and OAs was observed (random-effects estimate: -8.6, 95% CI: -18.1-1.0, P = 0.077). Subset analyses across type of study yielded consistent results. Limitations of this analysis include the long observation period, which may not reflect current treatment patterns, the use of all-cause hospitalization, which may not be solely related to schizophrenia, and the fact that most studies in the LAI cohort evaluated risperidone. CONCLUSION: The primary results of this meta-analysis, including studies with both interventional and non-interventional designs and using meta-regressions, suggest that LAIs are associated with higher reductions in hospitalization rates for schizophrenia patients compared to OAs.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos/administración & dosificación , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Administración Oral , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Humanos , Inyecciones , Modelos Estadísticos , Análisis de Regresión , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Healthc Q ; 15(2): 52-60, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22688206

RESUMEN

Although varenicline (Champix), a smoking-cessation treatment, was recommended for listing by the Common Drug Review (CDR) in 2007, only one CDR-participating drug insurance plan listed it in March 2011 (Saskatchewan). This study estimated the economic impact of delays in the public listing of varenicline in Canada. Using statistical data and peer-reviewed research, social costs and benefits of reimbursing varenicline were estimated. Flows of attempted and successful quitters were projected over a five-year period for three scenarios: immediate listing (2007), one- to four-year listing delays, and no reimbursement. Benefits of public reimbursement of varenicline would have been greatest in the first year ($271 million) and then decreased due to the erosion in smoking prevalence. The current three-year listing delay prevented a projected 17,729 current smokers from quitting, translating into a projected additional lifetime social burden of $700 million. The sizeable opportunity cost of delaying varenicline reimbursement implies broader economic issues for policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Servicios Farmacéuticos/economía , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco/economía , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Benzazepinas/economía , Benzazepinas/uso terapéutico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Costos de los Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Salud/economía , Seguro de Servicios Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Quinoxalinas/economía , Quinoxalinas/uso terapéutico , Saskatchewan/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/tratamiento farmacológico , Fumar/economía , Fumar/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Factores de Tiempo , Vareniclina , Adulto Joven
7.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 15(6): 586-92, 2008.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19158066

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe an approach that may benefit persons with severe hemiparesis following stroke. METHOD: The subjects were 3 stroke survivors who had experienced a stroke that left their dominant right extremity severely disabled (mean age 43 years, mean time since stroke 26.6 months, mean Fugl-Meyer UE motor score 14.3/66). A multiple baseline, preintervention-postintervention case series design was used. The intervention consisted of structured whole body, increased intensity, activity-dependent practice strategy, with 3 to 5 sessions lasting for more than 3 hours per day, for 1-5 weeks for an average of 170 hours of therapy over 2.5 years. Subjects completed therapies such as body weight-supported treadmill training, overground multidirectional gait training, balance retraining, upper extremity functional activity, and trunk and extremity mobility. RESULTS: The subjects experienced decreased fall risk (mean Timed Up and Go [TUG] scores decreased from 14.9 s to 6.8 s) and improved community safety (mean speed of gait in 10 m improved from 18.3 s to 8.3 s) and decreased impairment level as measured by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA: mean UE motor score from 14.3/66 to 53/66). Finally, subjects demonstrated an increase in their hemiparetic UE functional ability (mean amount of tasks completed in the Wolf Motor Function Test [WMFT] from 3.6/15 tasks to 15/15 tasks) following the intervention. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that hemiparetic optimal practice and evaluation (H.O.P.E) rehabilitation led to a decrease in the level of impairment along with a corresponding increase in function of the severely hemiparetic arm. The outcomes are significant: few treatment approaches have demonstrated an increase in the function of the severely affected arm in this population.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Mano/fisiología , Paresia/rehabilitación , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Paresia/fisiopatología , Calidad de Vida , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Accidente Cerebrovascular/fisiopatología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA