Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580310

RESUMEN

While latrine coverage is increasing in India, not all household members use their latrines. Cost-effective, culturally appropriate, and theory-informed behavior change interventions are necessary to encourage sustained latrine use by all household members. We qualitatively examined community perceptions of sanitation interventions broadly, along with specific impressions and spillover of community-level activities of the Sundara Grama latrine use behavior change intervention in rural Odisha, India. We conducted sixteen sex-segregated focus group discussions (n = 152) in three intervention and three nonintervention villages and thematically analyzed the data. We found Sundara Grama was well-received by community members and considered educative, but perceptions of impact on latrine use were mixed and varied by activity. Intervention recruitment challenges prevented some, such as women and households belonging to lower castes, from attending activities. Spillover occurred in one of two nonintervention villages, potentially due to positive relations within and between the nonintervention village and nearby intervention village. Community-level sanitation initiatives can be hindered by community divisions, prioritization of household sanitation over community cleanliness, and perceptions of latrine use as a household and individual issue, rather than common good. Community-centered sanitation interventions should assess underlying social divisions, norms, and perceptions of collective efficacy to adapt intervention delivery and activities.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429238

RESUMEN

Qualitative research has documented menstruator's challenges, particularly in water and sanitation poor environments, but quantitative assessment is limited. We created and validated a culturally-grounded measure of Menstrual Insecurity to assess women's menstruation-related concerns and negative experiences. With cross-sectional data from 878 menstruating women in rural Odisha, India, we carried out Exploratory (EFA) and Confirmatory (CFA) Factor Analyses to reduce a 40-item pool and identify and confirm the scale factor structure. A 19-item, five factor model best fit the data (EFA: root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.027; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.994; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.989; CFA: RMSEA = 0.058; CFI = 0.937; TLI = 0.925). Sub-scales included: Management, Menstrual Cycle Concerns, Symptoms, Restrictions, and Menstruation-Related Bodily Concerns. Those without access to a functional latrine, enclosed bathing space, water source within their compound, or who used reusable cloth had significantly higher overall Menstrual Insecurity scores (greater insecurity) than those with these facilities or using disposable pads. Post-hoc exploratory analysis found that women reporting experiencing tension at menstrual onset or difficulty doing work had significantly higher Menstrual Insecurity scores. This validated tool is useful for measuring Menstrual Insecurity, assessing health inequities and correlates of Menstrual Insecurity, and informing program design.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 1094-1103, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124727

RESUMEN

Exposure to fecal pathogens contributes to childhood diarrhea and stunting, causing harmful short- and long-term impacts to health. Understanding pathways of child fecal exposure and nutritional deficiencies is critical to informing interventions to reduce stunting. Our aim was to explore determinants of latrine use, disposal of child feces, and perceptions and provisions of a safe and clean child play environment among families with children under two (CU2) years to inform the design of a behavior change intervention to address water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and nutrition behaviors. In 2016, we conducted a mixed-methods formative research in western Kenya. We conducted 29 key informant interviews with community leaders, health workers, and project staff; 18 focus group discussions with caregivers of CU2 years; and 24 semi-structured household observations of feeding, hygiene, and sanitation behaviors. We used the capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior model as our theoretical framework to map caregiver behavioral determinants. Latrine use barriers were lack of latrines, affordability of lasting materials, and social acceptability of unobserved open defecation. Barriers to safe disposal of child feces were lack of latrines, time associated with safe disposal practices, beliefs that infant feces were not harmful, and not knowing where children had defecated. Primary barriers of clean play environments were associated with creating and maintaining play spaces, and shared human and animal compounds. The immediate cost to practicing behaviors was perceived as greater than the long-term potential benefits. Intervention design must address these barriers and emphasize facilitators to enable optimal WASH behaviors in this context.


Asunto(s)
Juego e Implementos de Juego , Cuartos de Baño , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Preescolar , Heces , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Lactante , Entrevistas como Asunto , Kenia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 136169, 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905545

RESUMEN

Safe child feces management (CFM) is likely critical for reducing exposure to fecal pathogens in and around the home, but the effectiveness of different CFM practices in reducing fecal contamination is not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional study of households with children <6 years in rural Odisha, India, using household surveys (188 households), environmental sample analysis (373 samples for 80 child defecation events), and unstructured observation (33 households) to characterize practices and measure fecal contamination resulting from CFM-related practices, including defecation, feces handling and disposal, defecation area or tool cleaning, anal cleansing, and handwashing. For environmental sampling, we developed a sampling strategy that involved collecting samples at the time and place of child defecation to capture activity-level fecal contamination for CFM practices. Defecating on the floor or ground, which was practiced by 63.7% of children <6 years, was found to increase E. coli contamination on finished floors (p < 0.001) or earthen ground surfaces (p = 0.008) after feces were removed, even if paper was laid down prior to defecation. Use of unsafe tools (e.g., paper, plastic bag, straw/hay) to pick up child feces increased E. coli contamination on caregiver hands after feces handling (p < 0.0001), whereas the use of safe tools (e.g., potty, hoe, scoop) did not increase hand contamination. Points of contamination from cleaning CFM hardware and anal cleansing were also identified. The most common disposal location for feces of children <6 years was to throw feces into an open field (41.6%), with only 32.3% disposed in a latrine. Several households owned scoops or potties, but use was low and we identified shortcomings of these CFM tools and proposed alternative interventions that may be more effective. Overall, our results demonstrate the need for CFM interventions that move beyond focusing solely on feces disposal to address CFM as a holistic set of practices.


Asunto(s)
Heces , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Escherichia coli , Humanos , India , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Cuartos de Baño
6.
Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract ; 25(2): 383-399, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686293

RESUMEN

Health sciences education is increasingly focusing on building students' skills to work collaboratively. Therefore, instructors must intentionally incorporate team-based skill building into their courses, using teaching strategies like team-based learning (TBL). An assumption of TBL is that team dynamics facilitate learning; however, limited research has examined this connection. The primary purposes of this mixed-methods evaluation were: (a) to describe the characteristics of team dynamics in a graduate-level research methods course that employs a modified TBL approach, and (b) to examine the association between team dynamics and student grades. Given the importance of preparing health professional students to work collaboratively in their careers, a secondary aim was to examine how team skills developed through a team-based learning approach could be transferred to other courses and to future jobs. We conducted surveys on team dynamics at mid-semester (n = 64) and the end of the semester (n = 66), collected students' grades for the final paper and overall course, and conducted 4 focus groups with Master of Public Health students (n = 25). Paired t tests were used to examine change in team dynamics and correlations were conducted to assess the relationship between team dynamics and grades. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to team dynamics from the focus group data. Overall, students reported experiencing positive and beneficial team dynamics. The findings support two main underlying categories of team dynamics, interpersonal team processes and task orientation, and the linkages between the categories that allow teams to function. Team dynamics scores were not associated with student grades. However, students recognized the value of practicing team skills in preparation for future group work and jobs. These findings suggest that active learning approaches, such as TBL, can help to facilitate the acquisition of collaborative skills.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220114, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369595

RESUMEN

There has been growing recognition of menstrual hygiene management (MHM) as a significant public health issue. However, research has predominately focused on the experiences of adolescent girls in school settings. The purpose of this research is to examine detailed accounts of menstruation for women in rural Odisha, India at various life stages with a view toward improving international monitoring of MHM. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted to understand women's experiences of menstruation across four life stages (unmarried women, recently married women, married women, and older women). Thematic analysis was used to identify menstruation-related challenges and needs. We found women voiced needs that aligned with those captured by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) definition for MHM: access to clean materials, privacy for changing materials, soap and water for bathing, and disposal facilities for materials. However, we also found women require materials that are not only clean but comfortable and reliable; soap and water for more than bathing; privacy for the full spectrum of menstruation-related practices, not just when changing; and disposal facilities that are private and safe, not just accessible. Additionally, we identified needs that extend beyond the existing definition: pain management, social support, and an enabling sociocultural environment. Overall, women representing all life stages discussed menstruation challenges, including bathing, pain, and washing, drying, and storing cloth materials. Cloth management challenges were most acute for unmarried and recently married women, who were concerned that practices could reveal their menstrual status and harm their reputations, thus informing their preference for disposable materials, if attainable. We propose a revised definition of adequate MHM for this population that more comprehensively captures their needs. This definition may also prove useful for other populations, future research, creating measures of assessment, and guiding interventions and program priorities.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Higiene/normas , Productos para la Higiene Menstrual/normas , Menstruación/psicología , Saneamiento/normas , Apoyo Social , Abastecimiento de Agua/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Higiene/educación , India , Productos para la Higiene Menstrual/provisión & distribución , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural , Adulto Joven
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 801, 2019 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unimproved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviors are key drivers of infectious disease transmission and influencers of mental well-being. While WASH is seen as a critical enabler of health, important knowledge gaps related to the content and delivery of effective, holistic WASH programming exist. Corresponding impacts of WASH on mental well-being are also underexplored. There is a need for more robust implementation research that yields information regarding whether and how community-based, demand-side interventions facilitate progressive and sustained adoption of improved sanitation and hygiene behaviors and downstream health impacts. The purpose of this protocol is to detail the rationale and design of a cluster-randomized trial evaluating the impact of a demand-side sanitation and hygiene intervention on sustained behavior change and mental well-being in rural and peri-urban Amhara, Ethiopia. METHODS: Together with partners, we developed a theoretically-informed, evidence-based behavioral intervention called Andilaye. We randomly selected and assigned 50 sub-districts (kebeles) from three purposively selected districts (woredas); half to receive the Andilaye intervention, and half the standard of care sanitation and hygiene programming (i.e., community-led total sanitation and hygiene [CLTSH]). During baseline, midline, and endline, we will collect data on an array of behavioral factors, potential moderators (e.g., water and sanitation insecurity, collective efficacy), and our primary study outcomes: sanitation and hygiene behaviors and mental well-being. We will perform a process evaluation to assess intervention fidelity and related attributes. DISCUSSION: While CLTSH has fostered sanitation and hygiene improvements in Ethiopia, evidence of behavioral slippage, or regression to unimproved practices in communities previously declared open defecation free exists. Other limitations of CLTSH, such as its focus on disgust, poor triggering, and over-saturation of Health Extension Workers have been documented. We employed rigorous formative research and practically applied social and behavioral theory to develop Andilaye, a scalable intervention designed to address these issues and complement existing service delivery within Ethiopia's Health Extension Program. Evidence from this trial may help address knowledge gaps related to scalable alternatives to CLTSH and inform sanitation and hygiene programming and policy in Ethiopia and beyond. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT03075436 ) on March 9, 2017.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Higiene/normas , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural , Saneamiento/normas , Población Suburbana , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Proyectos de Investigación , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Suburbana/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 322, 2019 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885158

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite health benefits of sanitation, an estimated 12% of the global population practices open defecation, including an estimated 50% of the population of India. Current estimates, however, do not include households that own toilets but do not use them, suggesting that the actual number of people defecating in the open is underestimated. This protocol describes a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate an intervention specifically designed to increase latrine use, including the safe disposal of child feces, in rural Odisha, India. METHODS: The trial engages 66 villages in Puri district, 33 randomly allocated to receive the intervention and 33 to serve as controls. The primary outcome is latrine use and is recorded at baseline and endline for all members of all households that own latrines in all trial vilalges. Additional data on determinants of latrine use and safe child feces disposal are also collected to assess change based on the intervetntion. A process evaluation assesses the delivery of the intervention and qualiative research takes place in non-trial villages as well as post-endline in trial villages to help explain trial findings. DISCUSSION: This is one of four trials taking place simultaneously in rural India with latrine use as the primary outcome. All four studies use the same outcome to gerenate comparable data across sites that can serve the government of India. The trial in Odisha is unique in that it collects latrine use data from all potential users in all households that own latrines, enabling a thorough view of the sanitation situation and factors that influence use at the community level. That latrine use is collected via self-report is a limitation, however any bias in reporting should be the same across villages and not impact the overall assessment of intervention impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03274245 .


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos/métodos , Población Rural , Seguridad , Saneamiento , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Defecación , Composición Familiar , Heces , Femenino , Humanos , India , Masculino , Análisis Multinivel , Investigación Cualitativa , Proyectos de Investigación , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30274212

RESUMEN

Impact evaluations of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have demonstrated lower than expected health gains, in some cases due to low uptake and sustained adoption of interventions at a community level. These findings represent common challenges for public health and development programmes relying on collective action. One possible explanation may be low collective efficacy (CE)-perceptions regarding a group's ability to execute actions related to a common goal. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a metric to assess factors related to CE. We conducted this research within a cluster-randomised sanitation and hygiene trial in Amhara, Ethiopia. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to examine underlying structures of CE for men and women in rural Ethiopia. We produced three CE scales: one each for men and women that allow for examinations of gender-specific mechanisms through which CE operates, and one 26-item CE scale that can be used across genders. All scales demonstrated high construct validity. CE factor scores were significantly higher for men than women, even among household-level male-female dyads. These CE scales will allow implementers to better design and target community-level interventions, and examine the role of CE in the effectiveness of community-based programming.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia Organizacional , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Higiene , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Saneamiento/métodos , Adulto , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Objetivos Organizacionales , Desarrollo de Programa
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217011

RESUMEN

Exposure to fecal pathogens results in both acute and chronic sequalae in young children. Diarrhea causes nearly 20% of all under-five mortality, while even sub-clinical enteric infections may lead to growth shortfalls. Stunting affects nearly 165 million children globally and results in lifelong and intergenerational effects for the world's poorest populations. Caregiver hygiene behaviors, such as those surrounding handwashing and food preparation, play a critical role in exposure to fecal pathogens; standard metrics to assess these behaviors are warranted to provide a means of quantifying the impact these behaviors have on enteric infections and to evaluate the success or failure of interventions and programs. This paper documents the development of three novel caregiver hygiene behavior measures: hygienic food preparation and storage, handwashing at key times, and provision of a safe play environment for children under two years. We developed these measures using formative qualitative work, survey creation and deployment theoretically underpinned by the COM-B model of behavior change, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The final measure for hygienic food preparation and storage includes 10 items across two factors; the final measure for handwashing at key times includes 15 items across three factors; and the final measure for safe play environment contains 13 items across three factors. Future researchers may employ these measures to assess caregiver behaviors in other populations, identify specific behavioral dimensions that should be the focus of interventions, and evaluate interventions and programs.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Higiene , Preescolar , Femenino , Manipulación de Alimentos , Humanos , Kenia , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Población Rural
15.
SSM Popul Health ; 5: 257-266, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094321

RESUMEN

Emerging qualitative research suggests women's sanitation experiences may impact mental health. However, specific associations remain unclear. We aimed to determine if sanitation access and sanitation experiences were associated with mental health among women in rural Odisha, India. Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated the association between sanitation access and sanitation experiences and selected mental health outcomes. Data were collected from 1347 randomly selected women across four life course stages in 60 rural communities (December 2014-February 2015). Our four primary outcomes included: mental well-being, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and distress. The primary exposures were (1) access to a functional latrine within the household compound and (2) sanitation insecurity (SI), evaluated using a seven domain measure assessing women's negative sanitation experiences and concerns. We used hierarchical linear modeling to determine associations between the exposures and mental health outcomes, adjusting for covariates (life stage, poverty, current health status, social support). Mean well-being scores were moderate and mean anxiety, depression, and distress scores were above a threshold indicating the potential presence of any of the three conditions. Access to a functional household latrine was associated with higher well-being scores, but not with anxiety, depression or distress. Women's SI domains were associated with all four outcomes: four domains were significantly associated with lower well-being scores, two were significantly associated with higher anxiety scores, three were significantly associated with higher depression scores, and three were significantly associated with higher distress scores, all independent of functional household latrine access. Women in rural Odisha, India may suffer assaults to their well-being and have higher symptoms of anxiety, depression, and distress when urinating and defecating, even if they have an available facility. These findings suggest that sanitation-related interventions should consider how to accommodate women's experiences beyond excreta management to comprehensively impact health.

17.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(2): e000405, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225941

RESUMEN

Girls and women experience numerous types of vaginal bleeding. These include healthy reproductive processes, such as menstruation and bleeding after childbirth, but also bleeding related to health conditions, such as fibroids or cancer. In most societies, the management of menstruation is handled covertly, something girls are often instructed about at menarche. The management of other vaginal bleeding is often similarly discreet, although behaviours are not well documented. In many societies, cultural taboos frequently hinder open discussion around vaginal bleeding, restricting information and early access to healthcare. Additionally, the limited availability of clean, accessible water and sanitation facilities in many low and middle-income countries augments the challenges girls and women face in conducting daily activities while managing vaginal bleeding, including participating in school or work, going to the market or fetching water. This paper aims to highlight the key vaginal bleeding experiences throughout a woman's life course and the intersection of these bleeding experiences with their access to adequate water and sanitation facilities, information and education sources, and supplies. The aim is to address the silence around girls and women's vaginal bleeding and their related social, physical and clinical management needs across the life course; and highlight critical gaps that require attention in research, practice and policy around this neglected topic of health and gender equality.

18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(4): e000414, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29071131

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the lived experience of inadequate sanitation may contribute to poor health outcomes above and beyond pathogen exposure, particularly among women. The goal of this research was to understand women's lived experiences of sanitation by documenting their urination-related, defecation-related and menstruation-related concerns, to use findings to develop a definition of sanitation insecurity among women in low-income settings and to develop a conceptual model to explain the factors that contribute to their experiences, including potential behavioural and health consequences. METHODS: We conducted 69 Free-List Interviews and eight focus group discussions in a rural population in Odisha, India to identify women's sanitation concerns and to build an understanding of sanitation insecurity. FINDINGS: We found that women at different life stages in rural Odisha, India have a multitude of unaddressed urination, defecation and menstruation concerns. Concerns fell into four domains: the sociocultural context, the physical environment, the social environment and personal constraints. These varied by season, time of day, life stage and toilet ownership, and were linked with an array of adaptations (ie, suppression, withholding food and water) and consequences (ie, scolding, shame, fear). Our derived definition and conceptual model of sanitation insecurity reflect these four domains. DISCUSSION: To sincerely address women's sanitation needs, our findings indicate that more is needed than facilities that change the physical environment alone. Efforts to enable urinating, defecating and managing menstruation independently, comfortably, safely, hygienically, privately, healthily, with dignity and as needed require transformative approaches that also address the gendered, sociocultural and social environments that impact women despite facility access. This research lays the groundwork for future sanitation studies to validate or refine the proposed definition and to assess women's sanitation insecurity, even among those who have latrines, to determine what may be needed to improve women's sanitation circumstances.

19.
J Urban Health ; 94(6): 835-846, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875308

RESUMEN

Access to adequate water and sanitation is limited in informal settlements, contributing to girls' challenges managing menstruation at school, especially when they cannot access materials to absorb menstrual blood and appropriate facilities for hygiene. This study documents differences between girls' experience of menstruation at public schools (where the Kenyan government provides menstrual pads) and private schools (where pads are not provided) in two informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Results showed that supply chains to public schools were not reliable, and equitable pad provision was not assured. Girls in private schools struggled to access pads because they were not provided. Sanitation facilities were physically available, but Muslim girls were unable to practice ablution due to the design of toilets in our study schools. Girls experienced fear and anxiety due to harassment from male peers and had incomplete information about menstruation from teachers. Findings suggest that practitioners and policy-makers should acknowledge the diversity of school populations and monitor programs to ensure efforts do not contribute to inequity.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Productos para la Higiene Menstrual/provisión & distribución , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud del Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia , Menstruación/psicología , Áreas de Pobreza , Servicios de Salud Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696405

RESUMEN

Lack of access to acceptable sanitation facilities can expose individuals, particularly women, to physical, social, and mental health risks. While some of the challenges have been documented, standard metrics are needed to determine the extent to which women have urination- and defecation-related concerns and negative experiences. Such metrics also are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions to mitigate them. We developed a sanitation insecurity measure to capture the range and frequency of women's sanitation-related concerns and negative experiences. Research was conducted in rural Odisha, India with women across various life course stages to reflect a range of perspectives. This paper documents the mixed data collection methods and the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses we employed to arrive at a final measure. The final sanitation insecurity measure includes 50 items across seven factors that reflect the physical environment, the social environment, and individual-level constraints. Most factor scores were significantly higher for unmarried women and for women who lacked access to functional latrines, indicating social and environmental influence on experiences. This measure will enable researchers to evaluate how sanitation insecurity affects health and to determine if and how sanitation interventions ameliorate women's concerns and negative experiences associated with sanitation.


Asunto(s)
Saneamiento/normas , Cuartos de Baño/normas , Adulto , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , India , Salud Mental , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Saneamiento/métodos , Medio Social
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA