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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068221

RESUMEN

The objective of this article was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to contrast the existing evidence regarding the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with the possibly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as to establish a hypothesis that explains the ways in which this interaction could take place. A literature search up from 1 January 2020 to 21 March 2021 was conducted in three electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, in order to identify studies on periodontal disease alone or in conjunction with diabetes mellitus, reporting any relation with SARS-CoV-2 infection as a primary outcome. Only articles published in the English language were included. Due to the lack of studies, we decided to collect all the theoretical and clinical evidence suggesting a possible biological pathway evidencing the relationship among PD, DM, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. From a total of 29 articles, 12 were included for final review studies (five reviews, two hypotheses, one Special Issue, one perspective, one commentary, one case-control study, and one case report). In addition, this systematic review article hypothesizes the correlation between PD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in periodontal tissue and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels resulting from altered insulin secretion or action. Likewise, periodontitis and T2DM are inflammatory disorders with a bidirectional association, and both diseases have a similar immunomodulatory cascade and cytokine profile. ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the key factor of entry in the cells by the new SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is widely distributed in the lung and kidneys, and interestingly has a great distribution in the oral cavity, principally in the tongue and periodontal tissue. ACE2 in periodontal tissue plays a crucial role between health and disease. Moreover, the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis is downregulated in the dysbiotic and inflammatory periodontal environment. Nevertheless, the balance of ACE2 activity is modified in the context of concurrent diabetes, increasing the expression of ACE2 by the uncontrolled glycemia chronic in T2DM. Therefore, the uncontrolled hyperglycemia possibly increases the risk of developing periodontitis and triggering overexpression of ACE2 in periodontal tissue of T2DM patients, with these events potentially being essential to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of mild-to-severe form of COVID-19. In this sense, we would like to point out that the need for randomized controlled trials is imperative to support this association.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Enfermedades Periodontales , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades Periodontales/complicaciones , Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070998

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current data about the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its entry factors in oral tissues and cells. Materials and Methods: This systematic review was carried out based on the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Three databases were analyzed (Pubmed, Web of science and Scopus) by three independent researchers. From the 18 identified studies, 10 of them met the inclusion criteria. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 or its entry factors (angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), transmembrane serine proteases (TMPRSS), and furin) was analyzed in these 10 studies during the pandemic. Results: ACE2 expression was analyzed in 9 of the 10 studies. ACE2 is expressed mainly in the tongue, oral mucosa, salivary glands and epithelial cells. The expression of the TMPRSS2 gene or protein was analyzed in 6 studies. These studies reported that the expression of TMPRSS2 was mainly in the salivary glands, tongue, sulcular epithelium and oral mucosa; as well as in cells of the salivary glands (ductal, acinar and myoepithelial cells) and the tongue (the spinous-based cell layer, horny layer and the epithelial surface). Other TMPRSS were also reported. The expression of TMPRSS3, TMPRSS4, TMPRSS5, TMPRSS7 and TMPRSS11D was reported mainly in salivary glands and in epithelial-type cells. Furan expression was analyzed in three studies. The expression of furin was detected mainly in epithelial cells of the tongue. A variety of methods were used to carry out the detection of SARS-CoV-2 or its input molecules. Conclusions: These results show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect a wide variety of oral tissues and cells, and that together with the theories dedicated to explaining the oral symptoms present in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, it provides us with a good scientific basis for understanding the virus infection in the oral cavity and its consequences.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Furina , Humanos , Proteínas de la Membrana , Mucosa Bucal , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Pandemias , Serina Endopeptidasas
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917276

RESUMEN

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has become a global ongoing pandemic. This pandemic represents a great work risk for all health professionals, it includes dental professionals who are in constant contact with saliva, which represents one of the main routes of transmission of the disease. This is due to the fact that a wide variety of oral tissues and cells are susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2 and that they express the ACE2 receptor, which is the main route of entry of the virus into cells, as well as the proteins TMPRSS and furin that contributes to the binding of the virus to the host cells. According to recent studies, some of the oral cells most susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2 are the epithelial cells of the salivary glands. This explains the presence of the virus in the saliva of infected patients and provides scientific evidence that supports the use of saliva as a biofluid that offers the opportunity to develop new detection and diagnostic techniques. This is because saliva is much easier to collect compared to nasopharyngeal swab. However, the presence of the virus in saliva, also represents a great source of transmission, since the main form of infection is through microscopic drops that are generated when infected people cough or sneeze. Likewise, health professionals, such as dentists are exposed to contagion through saliva. The objective of this review article is to provide a perspective on the main cells and tissues that can be affected by the virus, the risk of contagion that the presence of the virus in saliva represents for dentists; and the new techniques developed from saliva samples for the diagnosis and surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review is expected to contribute to the knowledge of oral health professionals about the risk of saliva in the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but also its advantages as a diagnostic tool for pandemic control. In conclusion, the authors can mention that information that provides more scientific evidence of the mechanisms of infection of the coronavirus in oral cells and tissues is being published continually. This also explains the presence of the virus in the saliva of infected people and the risk of contagion that this means. It also provides scientific evidence of the use of saliva as a biofluid for the detection, diagnosis, monitoring, and control of the spread of the virus.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Odontólogos , Humanos , Rol Profesional , Saliva
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670181

RESUMEN

Background: on 7 January 2020, a new type of coronavirus was isolated, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2), the organism causing the outbreak that has affected the lives of all humans and has modified the rules of coexistence around the world. In Mexico, from 3 January 2020 to 9 January 2021, there have been 1439, 569 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 131,031 deaths. The World Health Organization reported that Mexico was ranked twelfth, in terms of confirmed cases of COVID-19 by country. Aim: the objective of this study was to determine what modifications dentists from the Mexican Republic have made to their dental practice during theCOVID-19 pandemic. Methods: the study was conducted based on a questionnaire to evaluate the dentists' response and knowledge on the modifications in their dental practice to combat the new coronavirus's cross-transmission. The questionnaire was piloted before it was distributed. The questionnaire was disseminated through the social network Facebook. The questionnaire was distributed to groups of dentists on Facebook, in each of the Mexican Republic states. The survey was carried out during June 2020. Results and Conclusions: from the 32 states of the Mexican Republic, 29 participated with at least one respondent. The results of the applied survey suggest that dentists, at least the population of surveyed ones, have proper knowledge of detection methods of patients suspected of COVID-19, preventive measures that must be applied in the dental office to decrease the risk of infection, and the appropriate procedures and solutions for dental office disinfection.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Odontólogos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Control de Infecciones , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Competencia Profesional , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169940, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122038

RESUMEN

Molds are filamentous fungi able to grow on a variety of surfaces, including constructed surfaces, food, rotten organic matter, and humid places. Mold growth is characterized by having an unpleasant odor in enclosed or non-ventilated places and a non-aesthetic appearance. They represent a health concern because of their ability to produce and release mycotoxins, compounds that are toxic to animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate commercial nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used as an additive in coatings and paints to effectively control the growth of harmful molds. Four different NPs were screened for their antifungal activities against the mycotoxin producing mold strains Aspergillus flavus and A. fumigatus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the NPs were determined in broth media, whereas an agar diffusion test was used to assess the antimold activity on acrylic- and water-based paints. The cytotoxic activity and the inflammatory response of the NPs were also evaluated using the established human derived macrophage cell line THP-1. Results showed that a combination of mix metallic- and ZnO-NPs (50:10 µg/mL) effectively inhibited the fungal growth when exposed to fluorescent light. Neither cytotoxic effect nor inflammatory responses were recorded, suggesting that this combination can be safely used in humid or non-ventilated environments without any health concerns.


Asunto(s)
Aspergillus flavus/efectos de los fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/efectos de los fármacos , Fungicidas Industriales/farmacología , Pintura/microbiología , Acrilatos , Aspergillus flavus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aspergillus flavus/efectos de la radiación , Aspergillus fumigatus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aspergillus fumigatus/efectos de la radiación , Línea Celular , Medios de Cultivo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco , Fluorescencia , Fungicidas Industriales/toxicidad , Oro/farmacología , Oro/toxicidad , Humanos , Inflamación/inducido químicamente , Activación de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/inmunología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nanopartículas , Pintura/análisis , Tamaño de la Partícula , Plata/farmacología , Plata/toxicidad , Agua , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología , Óxido de Zinc/toxicidad
6.
Bioinorg Chem Appl ; 2016: 1057260, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965525

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to synthetize europium-doped nanohydroxyapatite using a simple aqueous precipitation method and, thereafter, characterize and impregnate selected samples with 5-fluorouracil in order to explore the properties and the releasing capacity of this material. The nanohydroxyapatite was doped with 3, 5, 10, and 20 wt% of europium. The obtained samples were characterized after they were dried at 80°C and hydrothermal treated at 120°C by 2 hours. The samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Also, impregnation and release of 5-fluorouracil were assessed in PBS. The toxicity effects of all samples were studied using viability assays on human fibroblasts cells (HGF-1) in vitro. The sizes of the crystallites were about 10-70 nm with irregular morphology and present the phase corresponding to the JCPDS card 9-0432 for hydroxyapatite. The results of the toxicity experiments indicated that doped and undoped powders are biocompatible with fibroblasts cells. Hydroxyapatite samples doped with 5% of europium and loaded with 5-fluorouracil release almost 7 mg/L of the drug after 60 minutes in PBS and decrease the viability of HeLa cells after 24 hours.

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