Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300511, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598465

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The response to antipsychotic therapy is highly variable. Pharmacogenomic (PGx) factors play a major role in deciding the effectiveness and safety of antipsychotic drugs. A hybrid type 2 effectiveness-implementation research will be conducted to evaluate the clinical utility (safety and efficacy), cost-effectiveness, and facilitators and barriers in implementing PGx-assisted management compared to standard of care in patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. METHODS: In part 1, a randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Adult patients with schizophrenia will be randomized (2: 1) to receive PGx-assisted treatment (drug and regimen selection depending on the results of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes DRD2, HTR1A, HTR2C, ABCB1, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and CYP1A2) or the standard of care. Serum drug levels will be measured. The patients will be followed up for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint is the difference in the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side-Effect Rating Scale score between the two arms. In part 2, the cost-effectiveness of PGx-assisted treatment will be evaluated. In part 3, the facilitators and barriers to implementing PGx-assisted treatment for schizophrenia will be explored using a qualitative design. EXPECTED OUTCOME: The study findings will help in understanding whether PGx-assisted management has a clinical utility, whether it is cost-effective, and what are the facilitators and barriers to implementing it in the management of schizophrenia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered with the Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI/2023/08/056210).


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Humanos , Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , India , Farmacogenética , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética
2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2024 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several factors shape the neurodevelopmental trajectory. A key area of focus in neurodevelopmental research is to estimate the factors that have maximal influence on the brain and can tip the balance from typical to atypical development. METHODS: Utilizing a dissimilarity maximization algorithm on the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) of the resting state functional MRI data, we classified subjects from the cVEDA neurodevelopmental cohort (n = 987, aged 6-23 years) into homogeneously patterned DMD (representing typical development in 809 subjects) and heterogeneously patterned DMD (indicative of atypical development in 178 subjects). RESULTS: Significant DMD differences were primarily identified in the default mode network (DMN) regions across these groups (p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). While the groups were comparable in cognitive performance, the atypical group had more frequent exposure to adversities and faced higher abuses (p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). Upon evaluating brain-behavior correlations, we found that correlation patterns between adversity and DMN dynamic modes exhibited age-dependent variations for atypical subjects, hinting at differential utilization of the DMN due to chronic adversities. CONCLUSION: Adversities (particularly abuse) maximally influence the DMN during neurodevelopment and lead to the failure in the development of a coherent DMN system. While DMN's integrity is preserved in typical development, the age-dependent variability in atypically developing individuals is contrasting. The flexibility of DMN might be a compensatory mechanism to protect an individual in an abusive environment. However, such adaptability might deprive the neural system of the faculties of normal functioning and may incur long-term effects on the psyche.

3.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 89: 103790, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839154

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic and the resultant lockdown could have negatively impacted adolescent mental health. The synthesised burden of mental health illness among adolescents during or after the pandemic is unknown in Low Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). The objective was to ascertain the pooled prevalence of mental health disorders among adolescents aged 10 - 19 years and to systematically review & conduct a descriptive synthesis of community-based mental health intervention measures in addressing adolescent mental health disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. METHODS: The literature was searched in Embase, PubMed, and Scopus and selected the relevant studies. The data was extracted from the selected studies, and its quality was assessed using adapted Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scales. Meta-analysis was performed using random effects model to pool the prevalence of mental health disorders. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated through Cochran's Q test & I2 statistic. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies were selected out of 7955 identified studies. Most of the studies (n = 7, each) were from India and Iran. The majority of research works were community-based (n = 18), conducted in 2020 (23 articles), and participant interviews were conducted through online mode (n = 21). Varied instruments were used to measure the burden of mental health in different settings. Pooled prevalence (95% confidence intervals) of anxiety, depression and stress was found to be 43.69 (18.58-68.80)%, 47.02 (31.72-62.32)% and 39.97 (30.53-49.40)%, respectively, with high heterogeneity between the studies. No studies reported community-based mental health interventions. CONCLUSION: There has been a higher prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, and other mental health illnesses, among adolescents in LMICs during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to note that no existing literature directly addresses community-based interventions for these common mental health illnesses. It is imperative to prepare the health system for early identification and management of common mental health illness among the adolescent age group in the event of any future disaster.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Humanos , Países en Desarrollo , Salud Mental , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ansiedad/epidemiología
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2312810, 2023 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37171822

RESUMEN

Importance: Arsenic, a contaminant of groundwater and irrigated crops, is a global public health hazard. Exposure to low levels of arsenic through food extends well beyond the areas with high arsenic content in water. Objective: To identify cognitive impairments following commonly prevalent low-level arsenic exposure and characterize their underlying brain mechanisms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter population-based cohort study analyzed cross-sectional data of the Indian Consortium on Vulnerability to Externalizing Disorders and Addictions (cVEDA) cohort, recruited between November 4, 2016, and May 4, 2019. Participants aged 6 to 23 years were characterized using deep phenotyping measures of behavior, neuropsychology, psychopathology, brain neuroimaging, and exposure to developmental adversities and environmental neurotoxins. All analyses were performed between June 1, 2020, and December 31, 2021. Exposure: Arsenic levels were measured in urine as an index of exposure. Main Outcomes and Measures: Executive function measured using the cVEDA neuropsychological battery, gray matter volume (GMV) from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and functional network connectivity measures from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results: A total of 1014 participants aged 6 to 23 years (589 male [58.1%]; mean [SD] age, 14.86 [4.79] years) were included from 5 geographic locations. Sparse-partial least squares analysis was used to describe a negative association of arsenic exposure with executive function (r = -0.12 [P = 5.4 × 10-4]), brain structure (r = -0.20 [P = 1.8 × 10-8]), and functional connectivity (within network, r = -0.12 [P = 7.5 × 10-4]; between network, r = -0.23 [P = 1.8 × 10-10]). Alterations in executive function were partially mediated by GMV (b = -0.004 [95% CI, -0.007 to -0.002]) and within-network functional connectivity (b = -0.004 [95% CI, -0.008 to -0.002]). Socioeconomic status and body mass index moderated the association between arsenic and GMV, such that the association was strongest in participants with lower socioeconomic status and body mass index. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that low-level arsenic exposure was associated with alterations in executive functioning and underlying brain correlates. These results indicate potential detrimental consequences of arsenic exposure that are below the currently recommended guidelines and may extend beyond endemic risk areas. Precision medicine approaches to study global mental health vulnerabilities highlight widespread but potentially modifiable risk factors and a mechanistic understanding of the impact of low-level arsenic exposure on brain development.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Encefalopatías , Humanos , Masculino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Función Ejecutiva , Estudios Transversales , Estudios de Cohortes , Encéfalo/patología
6.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 82: 103475, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36736106

RESUMEN

Cognitive abilities are markers of brain development and psychopathology. Abilities, across executive, and social domains need better characterization over development, including factors that influence developmental change. This study is based on the cVEDA [Consortium on Vulnerability to Externalizing Disorders and Addictions] study, an Indian population based developmental cohort. Verbal working memory, visuo-spatial working memory, response inhibition, set-shifting, and social cognition (faux pas recognition and emotion recognition) were cross-sectionally assessed in > 8000 individuals over the ages 6-23 years. There was adequate representation across sex, urban-rural background, psychosocial risk (psychopathology, childhood adversity and wealth index, i.e. socio-economic status). Quantile regression was used to model developmental change. Age-based trajectories were generated, along with examination of the impact of determinants (sex, childhood adversity, and wealth index). Development in both executive and social cognitive abilities continued into adulthood. Maturation and stabilization occurred in increasing order of complexity, from working memory to inhibitory control to cognitive flexibility. Age related change was more pronounced for low quantiles in response inhibition (ß∼4 versus  -1 versus -0.25 for lower quantiles). Wealth index had the largest influence on developmental change across cognitive abilities. Sex differences were prominent in response inhibition, set-shifting and emotion recognition. Childhood adversity had a negative influence on cognitive development. These findings add to the limited literature on patterns and determinants of cognitive development. They have implications for understanding developmental vulnerabilities in young persons, and the need for providing conducive socio-economic environments.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Habilidades Sociales , Demografía , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología
7.
Dev Psychopathol ; 35(2): 800-808, 2023 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393927

RESUMEN

Developmental adversities early in life are associated with later psychopathology. Clustering may be a useful approach to group multiple diverse risks together and study their relation with psychopathology. To generate risk clusters of children, adolescents, and young adults, based on adverse environmental exposure and developmental characteristics, and to examine the association of risk clusters with manifest psychopathology. Participants (n = 8300) between 6 and 23 years were recruited from seven sites in India. We administered questionnaires to elicit history of previous exposure to adverse childhood environments, family history of psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives, and a range of antenatal and postnatal adversities. We used these variables to generate risk clusters. Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-5 was administered to evaluate manifest psychopathology. Two-step cluster analysis revealed two clusters designated as high-risk cluster (HRC) and low-risk cluster (LRC), comprising 4197 (50.5%) and 4103 (49.5%) participants, respectively. HRC had higher frequencies of family history of mental illness, antenatal and neonatal risk factors, developmental delays, history of migration, and exposure to adverse childhood experiences than LRC. There were significantly higher risks of any psychiatric disorder [Relative Risk (RR) = 2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.3], externalizing (RR = 4.8, 95% CI 3.6-6.4) and internalizing disorders (RR = 2.6, 95% CI 2.2-2.9), and suicidality (2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.8) in HRC. Social-environmental and developmental factors could classify Indian children, adolescents and young adults into homogeneous clusters at high or low risk of psychopathology. These biopsychosocial determinants of mental health may have practice, policy and research implications for people in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Psicopatología , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Niño , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Embarazo , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Neuroinformatics ; 21(2): 287-301, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434478

RESUMEN

With the growth of decentralized/federated analysis approaches in neuroimaging, the opportunities to study brain disorders using data from multiple sites has grown multi-fold. One such initiative is the Neuromark, a fully automated spatially constrained independent component analysis (ICA) that is used to link brain network abnormalities among different datasets, studies, and disorders while leveraging subject-specific networks. In this study, we implement the neuromark pipeline in COINSTAC, an open-source neuroimaging framework for collaborative/decentralized analysis. Decentralized exploratory analysis of nearly 2000 resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets collected at different sites across two cohorts and co-located in different countries was performed to study the resting brain functional network connectivity changes in adolescents who smoke and consume alcohol. Results showed hypoconnectivity across the majority of networks including sensory, default mode, and subcortical domains, more for alcohol than smoking, and decreased low frequency power. These findings suggest that global reduced synchronization is associated with both tobacco and alcohol use. This proof-of-concept work demonstrates the utility and incentives associated with large-scale decentralized collaborations spanning multiple sites.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Humanos , Adolescente , Vías Nerviosas/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Etanol , Fumar , Mapeo Encefálico
9.
Wellcome Open Res ; 7: 240, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37274452

RESUMEN

Background: Achieving ethical and meaningful mental health research in diverse global settings requires approaches to research design, conduct, and dissemination that prioritise a contextualised approach to impact and local relevance. Method: Through three case studies presented at the 2021 Global Forum on Bioethics in Research meeting on the ethical issues arising in research with people with mental health conditions, we consider the nuances to achieving ethical and meaningful mental health research in three diverse settings. The case studies include research with refugees Rwanda and Uganda; a neurodevelopmental cohort study in a low resource setting in India, and research with Syrian refugees displaced across the Middle East. Results: Key considerations highlighted across the case studies include how mental health is understood and experienced in diverse contexts to ensure respectful engagement with communities, and to inform the selection of contextually-appropriate and feasible research methods and tools to achieve meaningful data collection.  Related to this is a need to consider how communities understand and engage with research to avoid therapeutic misconception, exacerbating stigma, or creating undue inducement for research participation, whilst also ensuring meaningful benefit for research participation. Central to achieving these is the meaningful integration of the views and perspectives of local stakeholders to inform research design, conduct, and legacy. The case studies foreground the potential tensions between meeting local community needs through the implementation of an intervention, and attaining standards of scientific rigor in research design and methods; and between adherence to procedural ethical requirements such as ethical review and documenting informed consent, and ethical practice through attention to the needs of the local research team. Conclusions: We conclude that engagement with how to achieve local relevance and social, practice, and academic impact offer productive ways for researchers to promote ethical research that prioritises values of solidarity, inclusion, and mutual respect.

10.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(10): e0089121, 2021 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339280

RESUMEN

Mutagenesis is integral for bacterial evolution and the development of antibiotic resistance. Environmental toxins and stressors are known to elevate the rate of mutagenesis through direct DNA toxicity, known as stress-associated mutagenesis, or via a more general stress-induced process that relies on intrinsic bacterial pathways. Here, we characterize the spectra of mutations induced by an array of different stressors using high-throughput sequencing to profile thousands of spectinomycin-resistant colonies of Bacillus subtilis. We found 69 unique mutations in the rpsE and rpsB genes, and that each stressor leads to a unique and specific spectrum of antibiotic-resistance mutations. While some mutations clearly reflected the DNA damage mechanism of the stress, others were likely the result of a more general stress-induced mechanism. To determine the relative fitness of these mutants under a range of antibiotic selection pressures, we used multistrain competitive fitness experiments and found an additional landscape of fitness and resistance. The data presented here support the idea that the environment in which the selection is applied (mutagenic stressors that are present), as well as changes in local drug concentration, can significantly alter the path to spectinomycin resistance in B. subtilis.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus subtilis , Espectinomicina , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Daño del ADN/genética , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Mutación , Espectinomicina/farmacología
11.
Neuroinformatics ; 19(4): 553-566, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462781

RESUMEN

There has been an upward trend in developing frameworks that enable neuroimaging researchers to address challenging questions by leveraging data across multiple sites all over the world. One such open-source framework is the Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite Toolkit for Anonymous Computation (COINSTAC) that works on Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems and leverages containerized analysis pipelines to analyze neuroimaging data stored locally across multiple physical locations without the need for pooling the data at any point during the analysis. In this paper, the COINSTAC team partnered with a data collection consortium to implement the first-ever decentralized voxelwise analysis of brain imaging data performed outside the COINSTAC development group. Decentralized voxel-based morphometry analysis of over 2000 structural magnetic resonance imaging data sets collected at 14 different sites across two cohorts and co-located in different countries was performed to study the structural changes in brain gray matter which linked to age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking. Results produced by the decentralized analysis were consistent with and extended previous findings in the literature. In particular, a widespread cortical gray matter reduction (resembling a 'default mode network' pattern) and hippocampal increase with age, bilateral increases in the hypothalamus and basal ganglia with BMI, and cingulate and thalamic decreases with smoking. This work provides a critical real-world test of the COINSTAC framework in a "Large-N" study. It showcases the potential benefits of performing multivoxel and multivariate analyses of large-scale neuroimaging data located at multiple sites.


Asunto(s)
Factores de Edad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Sustancia Gris , Neuroimagen , Fumar , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Sustancia Gris/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética
12.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(18): 5164-5175, 2020 12 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845057

RESUMEN

Anatomical brain templates are commonly used as references in neurological MRI studies, for bringing data into a common space for group-level statistics and coordinate reporting. Given the inherent variability in brain morphology across age and geography, it is important to have templates that are as representative as possible for both age and population. A representative-template increases the accuracy of alignment, decreases distortions as well as potential biases in final coordinate reports. In this study, we developed and validated a new set of T1w Indian brain templates (IBT) from a large number of brain scans (total n = 466) acquired across different locations and multiple 3T MRI scanners in India. A new tool in AFNI, make_template_dask.py, was created to efficiently make five age-specific IBTs (ages 6-60 years) as well as maximum probability map (MPM) atlases for each template; for each age-group's template-atlas pair, there is both a "population-average" and a "typical" version. Validation experiments on an independent Indian structural and functional-MRI dataset show the appropriateness of IBTs for spatial normalization of Indian brains. The results indicate significant structural differences when comparing the IBTs and MNI template, with these differences being maximal along the Anterior-Posterior and Inferior-Superior axes, but minimal Left-Right. For each age-group, the MPM brain atlases provide reasonably good representation of the native-space volumes in the IBT space, except in a few regions with high intersubject variability. These findings provide evidence to support the use of age and population-specific templates in human brain mapping studies.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Atlas como Asunto , Encéfalo/anatomía & histología , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagen/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , India , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(8): 1618-1630, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203154

RESUMEN

The global burden of disease attributable to externalizing disorders such as alcohol misuse calls urgently for effective prevention and intervention. As our current knowledge is mainly derived from high-income countries such in Europe and North-America, it is difficult to address the wider socio-cultural, psychosocial context, and genetic factors in which risk and resilience are embedded in low- and medium-income countries. c-VEDA was established as the first and largest India-based multi-site cohort investigating the vulnerabilities for the development of externalizing disorders, addictions, and other mental health problems. Using a harmonised data collection plan coordinated with multiple cohorts in China, USA, and Europe, baseline data were collected from seven study sites between November 2016 and May 2019. Nine thousand and ten participants between the ages of 6 and 23 were assessed during this time, amongst which 1278 participants underwent more intensive assessments including MRI scans. Both waves of follow-ups have started according to the accelerated cohort structure with planned missingness design. Here, we present descriptive statistics on several key domains of assessments, and the full baseline dataset will be made accessible for researchers outside the consortium in September 2019. More details can be found on our website [cveda.org].


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Control Interno-Externo , Adolescente , Niño , China , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , India , Estudios Longitudinales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 2, 2020 01 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898525

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Low and middle-income countries like India with a large youth population experience a different environment from that of high-income countries. The Consortium on Vulnerability to Externalizing Disorders and Addictions (cVEDA), based in India, aims to examine environmental influences on genomic variations, neurodevelopmental trajectories and vulnerability to psychopathology, with a focus on externalizing disorders. METHODS: cVEDA is a longitudinal cohort study, with planned missingness design for yearly follow-up. Participants have been recruited from multi-site tertiary care mental health settings, local communities, schools and colleges. 10,000 individuals between 6 and 23 years of age, of all genders, representing five geographically, ethnically, and socio-culturally distinct regions in India, and exposures to variations in early life adversity (psychosocial, nutritional, toxic exposures, slum-habitats, socio-political conflicts, urban/rural living, mental illness in the family) have been assessed using age-appropriate instruments to capture socio-demographic information, temperament, environmental exposures, parenting, psychiatric morbidity, and neuropsychological functioning. Blood/saliva and urine samples have been collected for genetic, epigenetic and toxicological (heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) studies. Structural (T1, T2, DTI) and functional (resting state fMRI) MRI brain scans have been performed on approximately 15% of the individuals. All data and biological samples are maintained in a databank and biobank, respectively. DISCUSSION: The cVEDA has established the largest neurodevelopmental database in India, comparable to global datasets, with detailed environmental characterization. This should permit identification of environmental and genetic vulnerabilities to psychopathology within a developmental framework. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological data from this study are already yielding insights on brain growth and maturation patterns.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta Adictiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico por imagen , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/psicología , Medio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Temperamento/fisiología
17.
Lancet Glob Health ; 5(4): e458-e466, 2017 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28153514

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of unexplained illness frequently remain under-investigated. In India, outbreaks of an acute neurological illness with high mortality among children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, the country's largest litchi cultivation region. In 2014, we aimed to investigate the cause and risk factors for this illness. METHODS: In this hospital-based surveillance and nested age-matched case-control study, we did laboratory investigations to assess potential infectious and non-infectious causes of this acute neurological illness. Cases were children aged 15 years or younger who were admitted to two hospitals in Muzaffarpur with new-onset seizures or altered sensorium. Age-matched controls were residents of Muzaffarpur who were admitted to the same two hospitals for a non-neurologic illness within seven days of the date of admission of the case. Clinical specimens (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine) and environmental specimens (litchis) were tested for evidence of infectious pathogens, pesticides, toxic metals, and other non-infectious causes, including presence of hypoglycin A or methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG), naturally-occurring fruit-based toxins that cause hypoglycaemia and metabolic derangement. Matched and unmatched (controlling for age) bivariate analyses were done and risk factors for illness were expressed as matched odds ratios and odds ratios (unmatched analyses). FINDINGS: Between May 26, and July 17, 2014, 390 patients meeting the case definition were admitted to the two referral hospitals in Muzaffarpur, of whom 122 (31%) died. On admission, 204 (62%) of 327 had blood glucose concentration of 70 mg/dL or less. 104 cases were compared with 104 age-matched hospital controls. Litchi consumption (matched odds ratio [mOR] 9·6 [95% CI 3·6 - 24]) and absence of an evening meal (2·2 [1·2-4·3]) in the 24 h preceding illness onset were associated with illness. The absence of an evening meal significantly modified the effect of eating litchis on illness (odds ratio [OR] 7·8 [95% CI 3·3-18·8], without evening meal; OR 3·6 [1·1-11·1] with an evening meal). Tests for infectious agents and pesticides were negative. Metabolites of hypoglycin A, MCPG, or both were detected in 48 [66%] of 73 urine specimens from case-patients and none from 15 controls; 72 (90%) of 80 case-patient specimens had abnormal plasma acylcarnitine profiles, consistent with severe disruption of fatty acid metabolism. In 36 litchi arils tested from Muzaffarpur, hypoglycin A concentrations ranged from 12·4 µg/g to 152·0 µg/g and MCPG ranged from 44·9 µg/g to 220·0 µg/g. INTERPRETATION: Our investigation suggests an outbreak of acute encephalopathy in Muzaffarpur associated with both hypoglycin A and MCPG toxicity. To prevent illness and reduce mortality in the region, we recommended minimising litchi consumption, ensuring receipt of an evening meal and implementing rapid glucose correction for suspected illness. A comprehensive investigative approach in Muzaffarpur led to timely public health recommendations, underscoring the importance of using systematic methods in other unexplained illness outbreaks. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatía Aguda Febril/diagnóstico , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Frutas/toxicidad , Litchi/toxicidad , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/diagnóstico , Encefalopatía Aguda Febril/epidemiología , Encefalopatía Aguda Febril/etiología , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Ciclopropanos/análisis , Femenino , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/análisis , Humanos , Hipoglicinas/análisis , India , Masculino , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/epidemiología , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/etiología , Oportunidad Relativa
18.
Indian J Med Res ; 146(4): 468-475, 2017 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434060

RESUMEN

Background & objectives: Pioglitazone was suspended for manufacture and sale by the Indian drug regulator in June 2013 due to its association with urinary bladder carcinoma, which was revoked within a short period (July 2013). The present questionnaire-based nationwide study was conducted to assess its impact on prescribing behaviour of physicians in India. Methods: Between December 2013 and March 2014, a validated questionnaire was administered to physicians practicing diabetes across 25 centres in India. Seven hundred and forty questionnaires fulfilling the minimum quality criteria were included in the final analysis. Results: Four hundred and sixteen (56.2%) physicians prescribed pioglitazone. Of these, 281 used it in less than the recommended dose of 15 mg/day. Most physicians (94.3%) were aware of recent regulatory events. However, only 333 (44.8%) changed their prescribing pattern. Seventeen of the 416 (4.1%) physicians who prescribed pioglitazone admitted having come across at least one type 2 diabetes mellitus patient (T2DM) who had urinary bladder carcinoma, and of these 13 said that it was in patients who took pioglitazone for a duration of more than two years. Only 7.8 per cent of physicians (n=58) categorically advocated banning pioglitazone, and the rest opined for its continuation or generating more evidence before decision could be taken regarding its use in T2DM. Interpretation & conclusions: Majority of the physicians though were aware of the regulatory changes with regard to pioglitazone, but their prescribing patterns were not changed for this drug. However, it was being used at lower than the recommended dose. There is a need for generating more evidence through improved pharmacovigilance activities and large-scale population-based prospective studies regarding the safety issues of pioglitazone, so as to make effectual risk-benefit analysis for its continual use in T2DM.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Hipoglucemiantes/efectos adversos , Médicos/ética , Tiazolidinedionas/efectos adversos , Adulto , Anciano , Carcinoma/inducido químicamente , Carcinoma/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Médicos/psicología , Pioglitazona , Prescripciones/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología
19.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 15(7): 1485-1494, 2016 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27196775

RESUMEN

Standard therapies used for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are cytotoxic agents that target rapidly proliferating cells. Unfortunately, this therapeutic approach has limited efficacy and significant toxicity and the majority of AML patients still die of their disease. In contrast to the poor prognosis of most AML patients, most individuals with a rare subtype of AML, acute promyelocytic leukemia, can be cured by differentiation therapy using regimens containing all-trans retinoic acid. GSK3 has been previously identified as a therapeutic target in AML where its inhibition can lead to the differentiation and growth arrest of leukemic cells. Unfortunately, existing GSK3 inhibitors lead to suboptimal differentiation activity making them less useful as clinical AML differentiation agents. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel GSK3 inhibitor, GS87. GS87 was discovered in efforts to optimize GSK3 inhibition for AML differentiation activity. Despite GS87's dramatic ability to induce AML differentiation, kinase profiling reveals its high specificity in targeting GSK3 as compared with other kinases. GS87 demonstrates high efficacy in a mouse AML model system and unlike current AML therapeutics, exhibits little effect on normal bone marrow cells. GS87 induces potent differentiation by more effectively activating GSK3-dependent signaling components including MAPK signaling as compared with other GSK3 inhibitors. GS87 is a novel GSK3 inhibitor with therapeutic potential as a differentiation agent for non-promyelocytic AML. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1485-94. ©2016 AACR.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Diferenciación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3/antagonistas & inhibidores , Glucógeno Sintasa Quinasa 3/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patología , Animales , Biomarcadores , Ciclo Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamiento farmacológico , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Células Madre Neoplásicas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Madre Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Ensayos Antitumor por Modelo de Xenoinjerto
20.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 11(3): 383-93, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000123

RESUMEN

Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Asia/epidemiología , Coinfección/terapia , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Hepatitis C/terapia , Humanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...