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1.
J Adolesc Health ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987725

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the associations of meeting physical activity (PA), sleep, and dietary guidelines with cardiometabolic risk factors and adiposity in adolescents. METHODS: The sample included adolescents aged 10-16 years. Accelerometry was used to measure PA and sleep over 7 days, 24 h/d. The PA guideline was defined as ≥60 min/d of moderate-to-vigorous PA. The sleep guideline was 9-11 hours (10-13 years) or 8-10 hours (14-16 years) per night. The dietary guideline was based on the Healthy Eating Index calculated from dietary recalls. Cardiometabolic risk factors and adiposity were assessed in an in-patient setting. Linear regression was used to examine the association between meeting each guideline and cardiometabolic risk factors/adiposity, adjusted for confounders and meeting other guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 342 participants, 251 (73%) provided complete measurements. Adolescents were 12.5 ± 1.9 years (African American [37%] and white [57%], girls [54%], and overweight or obesity [48%]). Half met the sleep guideline (52%), few met the PA guideline (11%), and the top quintile was preselected as meeting the diet guideline (20%). Most met one (47%) or no guidelines (35%), and few met multiple guidelines (18%). Meeting the PA guideline was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factors and adiposity (p < .05 for all). Compared with meeting no guidelines, those who met multiple guidelines had lower cardiometabolic risk factors and adiposity (p < .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Few met the PA or multiple guidelines, and those not meeting guidelines were associated with adverse cardiometabolic factors and adiposity. Multidisciplinary strategies for improving multiple behaviors are needed to improve adolescent health.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801259

RESUMEN

Background: Sleep and dietary intake/quality can contribute to excess weight gain, but food cravings may influence these relationships. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of adolescents' sleep characteristics with dietary intake/quality and obesity and whether food cravings mediated these relationships. Methods: Sleep measures were calculated based on 24-h accelerometry, and height and weight were directly measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Food cravings were assessed by the Food Craving Inventory (FCI). Dietary intake and quality were calculated based on dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations among sleep, food cravings, dietary intake/quality, and obesity, adjusting for confounders. Results: In total, 256 adolescents (ages 10-16 years) had complete data; 42% were non-White and 45% were boys. Sleep efficiency was inversely associated with sweet cravings and FCI-28. Sleep duration, meeting the sleep duration guidelines, and fruit/vegetable cravings were each positively associated with dietary quality. Sleep duration was negatively associated with BMI z-score. Mediation models were not performed as no sleep parameter was associated with both cravings and dietary intake/quality or BMI z-score. Conclusions: Associations existed among poor sleep, quantity and quality, with more frequent food cravings and worse dietary quality. Sleep may underlie adolescent obesogenic behaviors.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802116

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Eating habits and food craving are strongly correlated with weight status. It is currently not well understood how psychological and behavioral factors influence both weight loss and weight regain. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between psychological and behavioral predictors with weight changes and energy intake in a randomized controlled trial on weight loss. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDSLOST) is a dietary intervention trial, which examined the efficacy of four diets on weight loss over 2 years. Participants were 811 overweight (BMI: 25-40.9 kg/m2, age: 30-70 years) otherwise healthy adults. RESULTS: Every 1-point increase in craving score for high-fat foods at baseline was associated with greater weight loss (-1.62kg, P=0.0004) and a decrease in energy intake (r = -0.10, P =0.01) and fat intake (r = -0.16, P <0.0001) during the weight loss period. In contrast, craving for carbohydrates/starches was associated with both less weight loss (P <0.0001) and more weight regain (P =0.04).Greater cognitive restraint of eating at baseline was associated with both less weight loss (0.23kg, P <0.0001) and more weight regain (0.14kg, P =0.0027) whereas greater disinhibition of eating was only associated with more weight regain (0.12kg, P =0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Craving for high-fat foods is predictive of greater weight loss while craving for carbohydrates is predictive of less weight loss. Cognitive restraint is predictive of less weight loss and more weight regain. Interventions targeting different psychological and behavioral factors can lead to greater success in weight loss.

4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610152

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Obesity disproportionately affects more women than men. The loss of ovarian function during the menopause transition coincides with weight gain, increases in abdominal adiposity, and impaired metabolic health. Racial differences in obesity prevalence that results from the menopause transition are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To assess longitudinal changes in body composition and cardiometabolic risk among Black and White women during the menopausal transition. STUDY DESIGN: In a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational cohort study-the Healthy Transitions study-161 women aged 43 years and older with body mass index between 20 and 40 kg/m2 and who had not yet transitioned through menopause were enrolled at Pennington Biomedical Research Center. Women were seen annually for body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; abdominal adipose tissue distribution by computed tomography; sex steroid hormones; and cardiometabolic risk factors including fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids. Surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity were also calculated. RESULTS: Ninety-four women (25 Black, 69 White) transitioned through menopause and were included within the analyses. At menopause onset, Black women weighed more (77.8±3.0 vs. 70.8±1.8 kg), and had higher systolic (125±16 vs. 118±14 mmHg) and diastolic (80±8 vs. 74±7 mmHg) blood pressure compared to White women (all p≤0.05). No other differences in body composition, sex steroid hormones, or cardiometabolic risk factors were observed at menopause onset. Before menopause, White women gained significant weight (+3 kg), total body adiposity (+6% percent body fat, +9% fat mass, +12% trunk fat mass), and abdominal adipose tissue (+19% subcutaneous fat, +15% visceral fat, +19% total adipose tissue) which coincided with significant decreases in estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, and estrone sulfate, as well as increases in follicle-stimulating hormone, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conversely, Black women had more abdominal adipose tissue before menopause, which was maintained across the menopause transition. Black women also had significant decreases in estrone sulfate and total testosterone, as well as increases in follicle-stimulating hormone before menopause. In the postmenopausal years, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, total adipose tissue, follicle-stimulating hormone, total cholesterol, and low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased only in White women. CONCLUSIONS: White women gained more abdominal adiposity during the menopause transition compared to Black women, which may be due in part to differences in the pattern of sex steroid hormone changes between women of different racial backgrounds. The gains in abdominal adiposity in White women were observed in tandem with increased cardiometabolic risk factors. Future studies should consider comprehensive lifestyle approaches to target these increased gains in abdominal adiposity (i.e., nutrition and physical activity coaching), while also taking into account the potential interactions of race, body adiposity, sex steroid hormones, and their influence on cardiometabolic risk.

5.
J Nutr ; 149(10): 1742-1748, 2019 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174214

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The effects of dietary composition on weight loss are incompletely understood. In addition to energy intake, fiber intake, energy density, macronutrient composition, and demographic characteristics have all been suggested to contribute to weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this analysis was to assess the role of dietary fiber as a predictor of weight loss in participants who consumed calorie-restricted diets (-750 kcal/d from estimated energy needs) for 6 mo, using data from the POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) Study-a randomized trial that examined the effects of calorie-restricted diets varying in macronutrient composition on weight loss in adults. METHODS: Data were randomly partitioned to a training data set (70%) in which the effects of fiber and other weight-loss predictors were identified using adjusted Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator and model averaging. The retained predictors were then fit on the testing data set to assess predictive performance. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-five participants (53.9% female) provided dietary records at baseline and 6 mo. Mean ± SD age and BMI for the full sample was 52.5 ± 8.7 y and 32.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2, respectively. Mean ± SD (99% CI) weight change at 6 mo for the full sample was -7.27 ± 5.6 kg (-8.05, -6.48 kg). The final, best fit model (R2 = 0.41) included fiber, energy density, fat, age, adherence, baseline weight, race, and changes from baseline in carbohydrate, fiber, PUFA, and MUFA intake, but the most influential predictor was fiber intake ($\hat{\beta }$ = -0.37; P < 0.0001). In addition, fiber was strongly associated with adherence to the macronutrient prescriptions (P < 0.0001). Interactions between race and adherence, age, baseline weight, carbohydrate, energy density, and MUFAs were also retained in the final model. CONCLUSION: Dietary fiber intake, independently of macronutrient and caloric intake, promotes weight loss and dietary adherence in adults with overweight or obesity consuming a calorie-restricted diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

6.
J Nutr ; 149(5): 816-823, 2019 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034014

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urinary phosphorus excretion has been proposed as a recovery biomarker of dietary phosphorus intake. However, it is unclear whether phosphorus excretion is constant across a range of dietary and nondietary factors. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether percentage urinary phosphorus excretion is constant across 3 dietary patterns in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. METHODS: DASH is a completed feeding study of 459 prehypertensive and stage 1 hypertensive adults (52% male, 56% black). After a 3-wk run-in on a typical American (control) diet, participants were randomly assigned to the control diet, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables (FV diet), or a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy with reduced saturated fat and cholesterol (DASH diet) for 8 wk. We estimated the percentage phosphorus excretion as urinary phosphorus excretion (from 24 h urine) divided by phosphorus intake (from analyzed food composites). Differences between group means for all 3 diets were compared by ANOVA followed by pairwise comparisons with Tukey's honest significant difference test. RESULTS: At the end of the intervention, the mean phosphorus intake was 1176 mg/d (95% CI: 1119, 1233 mg/d), 1408 mg/d (1352, 1464 mg/d), and 2051 mg/d (1994, 2107 mg/d) in the control, FV, and DASH diet, respectively (P < 0.001, all comparisons). The mean phosphorus excretion was 734 mg/d (682, 787 mg/d), 705 mg/d (654, 756 mg/d), and 872 mg/d (820, 923 mg/d) in the control, FV, and DASH diet, respectively (P = 0.74 control vs. FV, P < 0.001 all other comparisons). The mean percentage phosphorus excretion was 63% (60%, 67%), 51% (48%, 54%), and 43% (39%, 46%) in the control, FV, and DASH diet, respectively (P < 0.001, all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: These findings in prehypertensive and stage 1 hypertensive adults strongly suggest that urinary phosphorus excretion should not be used as a recovery biomarker for dietary phosphorus intake, given the wide range of urinary phosphorus excretion across dietary patterns. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0000054.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861997

RESUMEN

Efforts to identify a preferable diet for weight management based on macronutrient composition have largely failed, but recent evidence suggests that satiety effects of carbohydrates may depend on the individual's insulin-mediated cellular glucose uptake. Therefore, using data from the POUNDS LOST trial, pre-treatment fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were studied as prognostic markers of long-term weight loss in four diets differing in carbohydrate, fat, and protein content, while assessing the role of dietary fiber intake. Subjects with FPG <100 mg/dL lost 2.6 (95% CI 0.9;4.4, p = 0.003) kg more on the low-fat/high-protein (n = 132) compared to the low-fat/average-protein diet (n = 136). Subjects with HOMA-IR ≥4 lost 3.6 (95% CI 0.2;7.1, p = 0.038) kg more body weight on the high-fat/high-protein (n = 35) compared to high-fat/average-protein diet (n = 33). Regardless of the randomized diet, subjects with prediabetes and FI below the median lost 5.6 kg (95% CI 0.6;10.6, p = 0.030) more when consuming ≥35 g (n = 15) compared to <35 g dietary fiber/10 MJ (n = 16). Overall, subjects with normal glycemia lost most on the low-fat/high-protein diet, subjects with high HOMA-IR lost most on the high-fat/high protein diet, and subjects with prediabetes and low FI had particular benefit from dietary fiber in the diet.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia , Dieta Reductora , Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Insulina/sangre , Valor Nutritivo , Pérdida de Peso , Grasas de la Dieta , Proteínas en la Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 222, 2019 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Existing research has documented inconsistent findings for the associations among breakfast frequency, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time in children. The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations among breakfast frequency and objectively-measured PA and sedentary time in a sample of children from 12 countries representing a wide range of human development, economic development and inequality. The secondary aim was to examine interactions of these associations between study sites. METHODS: This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6228 children aged 9-11 years from the 12 International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment sites. Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between self-reported habitual breakfast frequency defined using three categories (breakfast consumed 0 to 2 days/week [rare], 3 to 5 days/week [occasional] or 6 to 7 days/week [frequent]) or two categories (breakfast consumed less than daily or daily) and accelerometry-derived PA and sedentary time during the morning (wake time to 1200 h) and afternoon (1200 h to bed time) with study site included as an interaction term. Model covariates included age, sex, highest parental education, body mass index z-score, and accelerometer waking wear time. RESULTS: Participants averaged 60 (s.d. 25) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), 315 (s.d. 53) min/day in light PA and 513 (s.d. 69) min/day sedentary. Controlling for covariates, breakfast frequency was not significantly associated with total daily or afternoon PA and sedentary time. For the morning, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with a higher proportion of time in MVPA (0.3%), higher proportion of time in light PA (1.0%) and lower min/day and proportion of time sedentary (3.4 min/day and 1.3%) than rare breakfast consumption (all p ≤ 0.05). No significant associations were found when comparing occasional with rare or frequent breakfast consumption, or daily with less than daily breakfast consumption. Very few significant interactions with study site were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this multinational sample of children, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with higher MVPA and light PA time and lower sedentary time in the morning when compared with rare breakfast consumption, although the small magnitude of the associations may lack clinical relevance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) is registered at (Identifier NCT01722500 ).


Asunto(s)
Desayuno , Ejercicio , Estilo de Vida , Obesidad Pediátrica , Conducta Sedentaria , Acelerometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis Multinivel , Obesidad Pediátrica/etiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Autoinforme
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 1129-1134, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475961

RESUMEN

Background: Obesity is closely associated with bone health. Although diet and weight loss produce many metabolic benefits, studies of weight loss diets on bone health are conflicting. Genetic variations, such as vitamin D levels, may partly account for these conflicting observations by regulating bone metabolism. Objective: We investigated whether the genetic variation associated with vitamin D concentration affected changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in response to a weight-loss diet intervention. Design: In the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) trial, BMD was measured for 424 participants who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient intakes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 3 genetic variants [i.e., 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) rs12785878, cytochrome P450 2R1 (CYP2R1) rs10741657 and group-specific component globulin (GC) rs2282679] related to circulating vitamin D levels. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed to assess changes in whole-body BMD over 2 y. The final analysis included 370 participants at baseline. Results: We found a significant interaction between dietary fat intake and vitamin D GRS on 2-y changes in whole-body BMD (P-interaction = 0.02). In the high-fat diet group, participants with higher GRS showed significantly less reduction in whole-body BMD than those with lower GRS, whereas the genetic associations were not significant in the low-fat diet group. We also found a significant interaction between dietary fat intake and the GRS on 6-mo change in femur neck BMD (P-interaction = 0.02); however, the interaction became nonsignificant at 2 y. Conclusion: Our data indicate that dietary fat intake may modify the effect of vitamin D-related genetic variation on changes in BMD. Overweight or obese patients predisposed to sufficient vitamin D may benefit more in maintaining BMD along with weight loss by eating a low-fat diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03258203.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea/genética , Dieta Reductora , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Obesidad/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Vitamina D/genética , Pérdida de Peso/genética , Absorciometría de Fotón/métodos , Adulto , Colestanotriol 26-Monooxigenasa/genética , Familia 2 del Citocromo P450/genética , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Fémur/metabolismo , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estado Nutricional/genética , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/metabolismo , Oxidorreductasas actuantes sobre Donantes de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Vitamina D/sangre , Proteína de Unión a Vitamina D/genética
11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 946-952, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475973

RESUMEN

Background: Young adulthood is a critical period for excessive weight gain. The extent to which young adults' sedentary time (ST) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) relate to adiposity and weight gain remains unclear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relation of ST and MVPA with adiposity and change in adiposity in healthy, nonobese young adults over a 2-y period. Design: Participants were 71 adults aged 20-35 y. Measurements included ST and MVPA by accelerometry and reported energy intake at baseline, and anthropometry (%FM) and fat mass (FM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline, year 1, and year 2. Associations of baseline ST and MVPA with adiposity were examined with the use of repeated-measures linear regression models, controlling for age, sex, and reported energy intake. The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was used to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results: Participants [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 22.6 ± 2.4] engaged in 8.5 ± 1.5 h ST/d and 0.4 ± 0.3 h MVPA/d. At baseline, adults who engaged in ST for ≥8 h/d had higher FM, %FM, and lower MVPA, whereas those who engaged in MVPA for ≥30 min/d had lower FM and %FM. In fully adjusted models, ST was significantly associated with baseline body weight, hip circumference, BMI, FM, and %FM and with year-1 body weight, waist and hip circumference, FM, and %FM, but not with any year-2 adiposity indicators. MVPA was not significantly associated with any adiposity indicators at baseline, year 1, or year 2 in fully adjusted models. Over 2 y, participants significantly increased waist circumference, BMI, FM, and %FM (all P-values <0.05), but there were no associations among baseline ST and MVPA with change in adiposity. Conclusions: Among nonobese young adults, high ST and low MVPA were related to elevated adiposity but did not predict change in adiposity over time. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00945633.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo , Adiposidad , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ejercicio/fisiología , Obesidad/etiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Aumento de Peso , Absorciometría de Fotón/métodos , Acelerometría/métodos , Adulto , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporales , Peso Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Cadera , Humanos , Masculino , Circunferencia de la Cintura , Adulto Joven
12.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 50(10): 993-1004, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172700

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the Special Operations Forces Human Performance Program dining facility (DFAC) intervention on patron diet quality and meal satisfaction. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, controlled time series study using digital food photography and surveys pre-post intervention (0, 4, 8, and 12 months). SETTING: Two Fort Bragg, NC military installation DFACs. PARTICIPANTS: Volunteers (n = 688 total; n = 573 complete dataset) were US Army active duty soldiers. INTERVENTION: The DFAC intervention included food choice architecture, new performance-optimizing food recipes to increase nutrient density, revised menus to offer more performance foods daily, and nutrition labeling to influence food choice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily DFAC nutrient intake and Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 scores. ANALYSIS: Descriptive and ANOVA statistical analyses were performed between control and intervention groups and from baseline to 4, 8, and 12 months postintervention (α = .05; 80% power). RESULTS: The intervention resulted in a higher posttest HEI score (60.1 ± 8.8 points; +3.4%; P = .005) and DFAC satisfaction compared with control (49.0 ± 10.4 points; P > .05). Improved intervention HEI scores were attributed to changes in citrus and melon fruit (+46%), red and orange vegetables (+35%), whole grains (+181%), legumes (65%), yogurt (+45%), oils (-26%), and solid fat (-18%) consumption (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These data illustrate that the Special Operations Forces Human Performance Program military DFAC nutrition intervention was feasible to implement and was associated with diet quality improvements. Access to high-quality ingredients and recipes may improve soldier meal quality and acceptance in other settings and warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Personal Militar , Satisfacción Personal , Adulto , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Comidas , Instalaciones Militares , North Carolina , Adulto Joven
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(9): 1565-1573, 2018 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568104

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut microbiome regulates host energy metabolism and adiposity. A recent study identified a genome-wide significant variant in the lactase (LCT) gene that determines gut-microbiome abundance. We investigated whether the LCT variant influenced long-term changes in adiposity among overweight and obese individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We included 583 whites with LCT variant rs4988235 (G allele as Bifidobacterium-abundance-increasing allele) who were randomly assigned to one of four weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient contents. Two-year changes in adiposity measures were assessed according to the LCT genotype and weight-loss diets. RESULTS: We observed a significant interaction between the LCT genotype and dietary protein intake on changes in whole body total fat mass %, trunk fat %, superficial adipose tissue mass (SAT), visceral adipose tissue mass (VAT), and total adipose tissue mass (TAT) (Pinteraction < 0.05 for all). In response to high-protein diet, carrying the G allele of LCT variant rs4988235 was associated with greater reduction of whole body total fat mass % (ß [SE] -0.9 [0.43], P = 0.04), trunk fat % (-1.06 [0.58], P = 0.07), SAT (-0.89 [0.42], P = 0.04), VAT (-0.63 [0.27], P = 0.03), and TAT (-1.69 [0.76], P = 0.03). Conversely, increasing numbers of the G allele tended to be related to less reduction of these outcomes in response to low-protein diet. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term improvement of body fat composition and distribution was significantly influenced by the Bifidobacterium-related LCT genotype and dietary protein intake. Overweight and obese individuals with the G allele of LCT variant rs4988235 may benefit improving adiposity by eating a low-calorie, high-protein diet.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Composición Corporal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Lactasa/genética , Adulto , Bifidobacterium/enzimología , Bifidobacterium/genética , Dieta Rica en Proteínas , Dieta con Restricción de Proteínas , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
14.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 14(1): 106-111, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100900

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Achieving weight loss after bariatric surgery depends on the individual's ability to sustain lifestyle changes involving dietary modifications. Presurgical dietary assessment is critical to evaluate usual dietary habits and identify the need for intervention before surgery. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify usual dietary habits of black and white women seeking bariatric surgery and to examine potential differences between these ethnic groups. An additional aim was to describe participants' plans to change dietary behaviors after surgery. SETTING: This study examined data from an observational study sponsored by a benefits management group in Louisiana. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a presurgical dietary assessment interview questionnaire collected information on dietary habits. Participants (n = 200) were adult women being screened for bariatric surgery; 54% were white, and 46% were black. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differences between groups were tested using 2-way analysis of the variance. RESULTS: Participants reported consuming fast food 2.9 ± 2.6 times per week, fried foods 2.1 ± 1.8 times per week, and desserts 3.4 ± 3.2 times per week. Blacks reported more frequent consumption of fast food (P<.01), sugar-sweetened sodas (P<.05), and sugar-sweetened tea (P<.01) compared with whites. Plans for changing dietary behaviors after surgery were similar between ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicated that frequent consumption of fast foods, fried foods, desserts, and sugar-sweetened beverages was common among women seeking bariatric surgery. Blacks tended to consume these foods and beverages more often than whites. Current dietary habits and future plans to change dietary behaviors should be addressed before surgery for success. Follow-up studies investigating the assessment instrument's ability to predict dietary adherence and weight loss after surgery are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Cirugía Bariátrica/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria , Obesidad Mórbida/psicología , Afroamericanos/etnología , Cirugía Bariátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Culinaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Comida Rápida/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Humanos , Intención , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad Mórbida/etnología , Obesidad Mórbida/cirugía , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/etnología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Pérdida de Peso/etnología
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 106(5): 1321-1326, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931532

RESUMEN

Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention.Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used general linear models to test changes in glycemic traits in groups randomly assigned to high- and low-fat diets according to tertiles of the GRS.Results: We observed significant interactions between the GRS and low compared with high dietary fat intake on 6-mo changes in fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P-interaction = 0.023 and 0.022, respectively), adjusting for age, sex, race, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, seasonal variation, and baseline values of the respective outcomes. Participants with a higher GRS of habitual coffee consumption showed a greater reduction in fasting insulin and a marginally greater decrease in HOMA-IR in the low-fat diet intervention group.Conclusions: Our data suggest that participants with genetically determined high coffee consumption may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet in improving fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in a short term. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995 and NCT03258203.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Café , Dieta Reductora , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Análisis por Conglomerados , Dieta con Restricción de Grasas , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Ejercicio , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Insulina/sangre , Resistencia a la Insulina , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente
16.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 25(8): 1343-1348, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28618170

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Food cravings are thought to be the result of conditioning or pairing hunger with consumption of certain foods. METHODS: In a 2-year weight loss trial, subjects were randomized to one of four diets that varied in macronutrient content. The Food Craving Inventory (FCI) was used to measure cravings at baseline and at 6 and 24 months. Food intake was also measured at those time points. To measure free-living consumption of food items measured in the FCI, items on the FCI were matched to the foods consumed from the food intake assessments. Secondarily, the amount of food consumed on food intake assessments from foods on the FCI was analyzed. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty-seven subjects with overweight and obesity were included. There was an association between change from baseline FCI item consumption and change in cravings at months 6 (P < 0.001) and 24 (P < 0.05). There was no association between change from baseline amount of energy consumed per FCI item and change in cravings. CONCLUSIONS: Altering frequency of consuming craved foods is positively associated with cravings; however, changing the amount of foods consumed does not appear to alter cravings. These results support the conditioning model of food cravings and provide guidance on how to reduce food cravings.


Asunto(s)
Ansia , Conducta Alimentaria , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Anciano , Dieta , Registros de Dieta , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuerdo Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación Nutricional , Obesidad , Sobrepeso
17.
Appetite ; 116: 389-394, 2017 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of dietary intake continues to challenge researchers, especially in field, or non-laboratory settings. OBJECTIVE: In this study, digital food photography (DFP) methodology was used to assess nutritional intake (NI) of Soldiers participating in the US Army's Ranger Selection and Assessment Program (RASP). METHODS: During this high-intensity six-week course, Soldiers complete simulated operational missions, perform various military tasks, and importantly, eating time is severely limited. Therefore, this study provided an opportunity to evaluate the utility of DFP methods for accurate assessment of energy balance in conditions where consumption of large numbers of subjects must be completed in a very short periods of time (≤20 min). NI of 131 male, enlisted Soldiers (21 ± 4 years, 178±7 cm, and 78±8 kg) enrolled in the RASP course was assessed in their garrison dining facility using DFP utilizing visual estimation of pre- and post-meal photos of participant meals concurrently with photos of weighed, standardized portions. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was assessed using doubly-labeled water (2H218O) in a sub-group of 19 volunteers. RESULTS: During the study, data loss (i.e., missing meal photos) was less than 5% per meal, and during the visual estimation process discrepancies in food identification averaged less than 10% per meal, while approximately a third of serving size estimations required a third party adjudication prior to finalization and calculation NI. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the use of DFP allows an adequately reliable approach for quantifying NI in real-world scenarios involving large numbers of participants who must be assessed very rapidly, and researchers must have a small footprint.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Evaluación Nutricional , Fotograbar , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Registros de Dieta , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Metabolismo Energético , Estudios de Factibilidad , Servicios de Alimentación , Humanos , Masculino , Comidas , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Personal Militar , Tamaño de la Porción de Referencia , Adulto Joven
18.
Br J Nutr ; 117(9): 1257-1269, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534446

RESUMEN

Military personnel generally under-consume n-3 fatty acids and overconsume n-6 fatty acids. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we investigated whether a diet suitable for implementation in military dining facilities and civilian cafeterias could benefit n-3/n-6 fatty acid status of consumers. Three volunteer groups were provided different diets for 10 weeks. Control (CON) participants consumed meals from the US Military's Standard Garrison Dining Facility Menu. Experimental, moderate (EXP-Mod) and experimental-high (EXP-High) participants consumed the same meals, but high n-6 fatty acid and low n-3 fatty acid containing chicken, egg, oils and food ingredients were replaced with products having less n-6 fatty acids and more n-3 fatty acids. The EXP-High participants also consumed smoothies containing 1000 mg n-3 fatty acids per serving, whereas other participants received placebo smoothies. Plasma and erythrocyte EPA and DHA in CON group remained unchanged throughout, whereas EPA, DHA and Omega-3 Index increased in EXP-Mod and EXP-High groups, and were higher than in CON group after 5 weeks. After 10 weeks, Omega-3 Index in EXP-High group had increased further. No participants exhibited changes in fasting plasma TAG, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, mood or emotional reactivity. Replacing high linoleic acid (LA) containing foods in dining facility menus with similar high oleic acid/low LA and high n-3 fatty acid foods can improve n-6/n-3 blood fatty acid status after 5 weeks. The diets were well accepted and suitable for implementation in group feeding settings like military dining facilities and civilian cafeterias.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Omega-6/administración & dosificación , Lípidos/sangre , Adulto , Dieta , Emociones/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Análisis de los Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Personal Militar , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
19.
Clin Rehabil ; 31(3): 299-309, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27090265

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the types and effectiveness of interventions to increase the knowledge about, attitudes towards, and use of standardized outcome measures in rehabilitation professionals. DATA SOURCES: An electronic search using Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Ergonomics Abstracts, Sports Discus. The search is current to February 2016. STUDY SELECTION: All study designs testing interventions were included as were all provider and patient types. Two reviewers independently conducted a title and abstract review, followed by a full-text review. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently extracted a priori variables and used consensus for disagreements. Quality assessment was conducted using the Assessment of Quantitative Studies published by the Effective Public Health Practice Group. DATA SYNTHESIS: We identified 11 studies involving at least 1200 providers. Nine of the studies showed improvements in outcome measure use rates but only three of these studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design. Eight of the studies used an educational approach in the intervention and three used audit and feedback. Poor intervention description and quality of studies limited recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Increased attention to testing interventions focused on known barriers, matched to behavior change techniques, and with stronger designs is warranted.


Asunto(s)
/normas , Medicina Física y Rehabilitación/normas , Investigación en Rehabilitación/normas , Humanos , /estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina Física y Rehabilitación/métodos , Investigación en Rehabilitación/métodos
20.
Nutrients ; 8(12)2016 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916866

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Gaseosas/efectos adversos , Obesidad/etiología , Niño , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología
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