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1.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331378

RESUMEN

We used data-driven approaches to identify independent diet exposures among 45 candidate variables, for which we then probed cross-sectional associations with cardiometabolic risk (CMR). We derived average daily caloric intake and macronutrient composition, daily meal frequencies, and irregularity of energy and macronutrient intake from 7-day food diaries in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study participants (N = 8090). We used K-means and hierarchical clustering to identify non-redundant diet exposures with representative exposures for each cluster chosen by silhouette value. We then used multi-variable adjusted logistic regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for CMR (≥3 criteria: dyslipidemia, hypertension, central adiposity, inflammation and impaired glucose control) across diet exposure quartiles. We identified four clusters: i) fat intake, ii) carbohydrate intake, iii) protein intake and intake regularity, and iv) meal frequencies and energy intake. Of these clusters, higher carbohydrate intake was associated with lower likelihood of CMR (PR = 0.89, 95%CI = 0.81-0.98; ptrend = 0.02), as was higher fiber intake (PR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.68-0.85; ptrend < 0.001). Higher meal frequency was also associated with lower likelihood of CMR (PR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.68-0.85; ptrend < 0.001). Our results highlight a novel, data-driven approach to select non-redundant, minimally collinear, primary exposures across a host of potentially relevant exposures (including diet composition, temporal distribution, and regularity), as often encountered in nutritional epidemiology.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192157

RESUMEN

A lower-than-recommended potassium intake is a well-established risk factor for increased blood pressure. Although the Japanese diet is associated with higher sodium intake and lower potassium intake, few studies have examined the source foods quantitatively. Studies on dietary patterns in association with potassium intake will be useful to provide dietary advice to increase potassium intake. Twenty-four-hour (hr) dietary recall data and 24-hr urinary potassium excretion data from Japanese participants (574 men and 571 women) in the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) were used to calculate food sources of potassium and compare food consumption patterns among quartiles of participants categorized according to 24-hr urinary potassium excretion per unit of body weight (UK/BW). The average potassium intake was 2791 mg/day per participant, and the major sources were vegetables and fruits (1262 mg/day), fish (333 mg/day), coffee and tea (206 mg/day), and milk and dairy products (200 mg/day). Participants in the higher UK/BW quartile consumed significantly more vegetables and fruits, fish, and milk and dairy products, and ate less rice and noodles. Conclusion: Advice to increase the intake of vegetables and fruits, fish, and milk may be useful to increase potassium intake in Japan.

3.
Vaccine ; 38(16): 3280-3291, 2020 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151463

RESUMEN

The Chlamydial outer membrane complex (COMC) from the elementary body (EB) is a protein rich insoluble outer membrane shell from which cytosolic proteins have been extracted with detergent. In this study we conducted mass spectrometry experiments to detect proteins in the COMC prepared from C. muridarum EB. Proteomic analysis showed that the COMC contained 75 proteins that included 10 outer membrane proteins (OMPs) such as the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) that were previously identified as CD4 T cell vaccine candidates. We tested the vaccine efficacy of COMC in comparison to individual or combination of recombinant OMPs formulated with Th1 polarizing adjuvant DDA/MPL in two murine genital tract models (C. muridarum and C. trachomatis) by measuring organismal shedding, tubal pathology and immune responses including neutralizing antibodies. In the C. muridarum model, the COMC vaccine generated broadly reactive immune responses against multiple outer membrane proteins, high levels of EB binding and neutralizing antibody and exhibited superior protection against genital infection and pathology when compared to the recombinant PmpG vaccine. Denaturing the COMC by boiling significantly reduced protection. In the C. trachomatis model, the COMC vaccine also conferred greater protection compared to individual or multiple recombinant outer membrane proteins. Immunization with multiple COMCs from C. trachomatis serovars D, F and J generated neutralizing antibodies against multiple C. trachomatis serovars. We conclude that broader immunogenicity and generation of neutralizing antibody may explain the superior efficacy of COMC vaccine. The study suggests that conformationally intact proteins will be necessary for a successful recombinant OMP vaccine.

4.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies have reported associations between higher potato intake and higher blood pressure (BP) and/or risk of hypertension and obesity. These studies rarely considered preparation methods of potatoes, overall dietary pattern or the nutrient quality of the meals. These factors may affect the association of potato intake with BP and body mass index (BMI). This study investigated potato consumption by amount, type of processing, overall dietary pattern, and nutrient quality of the meals in relation to BP and BMI. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2696 participants aged 40-59 y in the US and UK samples of the International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Nutrient quality of individual food items and the overall diet was assessed with the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) index. RESULTS: No associations with BP or BMI were found for total potato intake nor for boiled, mashed, or baked potatoes or potato-based mixed dishes. In US women, higher intake of fried potato was associated with 2.29 mmHg (95% CI: 0.55, 3.83) higher systolic BP and with 1.14 mmHg (95% CI: 0.10, 2.17) higher diastolic BP, independent of BMI. Higher fried potato consumption was directly associated with a +0.86 kg/m2 difference in BMI (95% CI: 0.24, 1.58) in US women. These associations were not found in men. Higher intakes of fried potato meals with a lower nutritional quality (NRF index≤ 2) were positively associated with systolic (3.88 mmHg; 95% CI: 2.63, 5.53) and diastolic BP (1.62 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.48, 2.95) in US women. No associations with BP were observed for fried potato meals with a higher nutritional quality (NRF index> 2). CONCLUSIONS: Fried potato was directly related to BP and BMI in women, but non-fried potato was not. Poor-nutrient quality meals were associated with intake of fried potatoes and higher BP, suggesting that accompanied dietary choices are key mediators of these associations.

5.
Cancer Imaging ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969196

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a growing need for a reproducible and effective imaging method for the quantitative differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid nodules. This study aimed to investigate the performances of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules derived from the most repeatable region of interest (ROI) delineation. METHODS: Forty-three patients with 46 pathologically confirmed thyroid nodules underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with 8 b values. Two observers measured the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters (D, f and D*) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), ADC600 and ADC990 values using whole-lesion (W-L) ROI and IVIM parameters using single-section (S-S) ROI delineation. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the intra- and interobserver variability. The diagnostic performance of these parameters was evaluated by generating receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: The ICC values of all IVIM with W-L ROI delineation were higher than those with S-S ROI delineation, and excellent intra- and interobserver reproducibility was obtained. According to the Bland-Altman plots, the 95% limits of agreement of the IVIM parameters determined by the W-L ROIs revealed smaller absolute intra- and interobserver variability than those determined by S-S ROIs. The D and ADC600 values obtained from the W-L ROIs were the most powerful parameters in differentiating benign from the malignant nodules [area under the ROC curve = 0.962 and 0.970, P = 0.771]. CONCLUSIONS: The W-L ROI of the thyroid was considered an effective method for obtaining IVIM measurements with excellent reproducibility for differentiating benign from malignant nodules.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 221(5): 841-850, 2020 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599954

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum are intracellular bacterial pathogens of mucosal epithelial cells. CD4 T cells and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are essential for protective immunity against them. Antigens presented by dendritic cells (DCs) expand naive pathogen-specific T cells (inductive phase), whereas antigens presented by epithelial cells identify infected epithelial cells as targets during the effector phase. We previously showed that DCs infected by C trachomatis or C muridarum present epitopes from a limited spectrum of chlamydial proteins recognized by Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells from immune mice. METHODS: We hypothesized that Chlamydia-infected DCs and epithelial cells present overlapping sets of Chlamydia-MHC class II epitopes to link inductive and effector phases to generate protective immunity. We tested that hypothesis by infecting an oviductal epithelial cell line with C muridarum, followed by immunoaffinity isolation and sequencing of MHC class I- and II-bound peptides. RESULTS: We identified 26 class I-bound and 4 class II-bound Chlamydia-derived peptides from infected epithelial cells. We were surprised to find that none of the epithelial cell class I- and class II-bound chlamydial peptides overlapped with peptides presented by DCs. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest the discordance between the DC and epithelial cell immunoproteomes has implications for delayed clearance of Chlamydia and design of a Chlamydia vaccine.

7.
Adv Nutr ; 11(1): 10-24, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209464

RESUMEN

Healthy dietary habits are the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Numerous researchers have developed diet quality indices to help evaluate and compare diet quality across and within various populations. The availability of these new indices raises questions regarding the best selection relevant to a given population. In this perspective, we critically evaluate a priori-defined dietary indices commonly applied in epidemiological studies of CVD risk and mortality. A systematic literature search identified 59 observational studies that applied a priori-defined diet quality indices to CVD risk factors and/or CVD incidence and/or CVD mortality. Among 31 different indices, these scores were categorized as follows: 1) those based on country-specific dietary patterns, 2) those adapted from distinct dietary guidelines, and 3) novel scores specific to key diet-related factors associated with CVD risk. The strengths and limitations of these indices are described according to index components, calculation methods, and the application of these indices to different population groups. Also, the importance of identifying methodological challenges faced by researchers when applying an index are considered, such as selection and weighting of food groups within a score, since food groups are not necessarily equivalent in their associations with CVD. The lack of absolute cutoff values, emphasis on increasing healthy food without limiting unhealthy food intake, and absence of validation of scores with biomarkers or other objective diet assessment methods further complicate decisions regarding the best indices to use. Future research should address these limitations, consider cross-cultural and other differences between population groups, and identify translational challenges inherent in attempting to apply a relevant diet quality index for use in CVD prevention at a population level.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 280-290, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782492

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Results from observational studies regarding associations between fish (including shellfish) intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure (BP) and BMI, are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations of fish consumption and associated urinary metabolites with BP and BMI in free-living populations. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), including 4680 men and women (40-59 y) from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and United States. Dietary intakes were assessed by four 24-h dietary recalls and BP from 8 measurements. Urinary metabolites (2 timed 24-h urinary samples) associated with fish intake acquired from NMR spectroscopy were identified. Linear models were used to estimate BP and BMI differences across categories of intake and per 2 SD higher intake of fish and its biomarkers. RESULTS: No significant associations were observed between fish intake and BP. There was a direct association with fish intake and BMI in the Japanese population sample (P trend = 0.03; fully adjusted model). In Japan, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and taurine, respectively, demonstrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.81 and 0.78 in discriminating high against low fish intake, whereas homarine (a metabolite found in shellfish muscle) demonstrated an AUC of 0.80 for high/nonshellfish intake. Direct associations were observed between urinary TMAO and BMI for all regions except Japan (P < 0.0001) and in Western populations between TMAO and BP (diastolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.28; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.02 mmHg; P = 0.0006, systolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.67; 95% CI: 0.60, 2.73 mmHg; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary TMAO showed a stronger association with fish intake in the Japanese compared with the Western population sample. Urinary TMAO was directly associated with BP in the Western but not the Japanese population sample. Associations between fish intake and its biomarkers and downstream associations with BP/BMI appear to be context specific. INTERMAP is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271.

9.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 2(4): e00074, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592155

RESUMEN

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is multifactorial involving lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors. This study aims to investigate the impact of genetic interactions with alcohol and diet quality on glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) independent of obesity, in a British population. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 14 089 white British participants from Airwave Health Monitoring Study and a subsample of 3733 participants with dietary data. A T2D genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed, and its interactions with diet on HbA1c were assessed. Results: GRS was associated with a higher HbA1c% (ß = 0.03, P < 0.0001) and a higher risk of prediabetes (OR = 1.09, P < 0.0001) and T2D (OR = 1.14, P = 0.006). The genetic effect on HbA1c% was significantly higher in obese participants (ß = 1.88, P interaction = 0.03). A high intake of wholegrain attenuated the effect on HbA1c% in high-risk individuals P interaction = 0.04. Conclusion: The genetic effect on HbA1c was almost doubled in obese individuals, compared with those with a healthy weight, and independent of weight, there was a modest offset on HbA1c in high-genetic-risk individuals consuming a diet high in wholegrain. This supports the importance of a healthy diet high in wholegrains and along with maintaining a healthy weight in controlling HbA1c among high-genetic-risk groups.

10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398891

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between intakes of fibre from the main food sources of fibre in the UK diet with body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Participants enrolled in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (2007-2012) with 7-day food records (n = 6898; 61% men) were included for cross-sectional analyses. General linear models evaluated associations across fifths of fibre intakes (total, vegetable, fruit, potato, whole grain and non-whole grain cereal) with BMI, %BF, WC and CRP. Fully adjusted analyses showed inverse linear trends across fifths of total fibre and fibre from fruit with all outcome measures (ptrend < 0.0001). Vegetable fibre intake showed an inverse association with WC (ptrend 0.0156) and CRP (ptrend 0.0005). Fibre from whole grain sources showed an inverse association with BMI (ptrend 0.0002), %BF (ptrend 0.0007) and WC (ptrend 0.0004). Non-whole grain cereal fibre showed an inverse association with BMI (Ptrend 0.0095). Direct associations observed between potato fibre intake and measures of body composition and inflammation were attenuated in fully adjusted analyses controlling for fried potato intake. Higher fibre intake has a beneficial association on body composition, however, there are differential associations based on the food source.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Adulto , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Policia/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido , Circunferencia de la Cintura
11.
Acad Radiol ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324577

RESUMEN

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the additional value of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in the characterization of cervical carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients (56.9 ± 13.4 years) with histologic-confirmed cervical carcinoma were included. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was acquired on a 3T MRI with five b values (0, 500, 800, 1000, and 1500 s/mm2). Data were analyzed based on DKI model (5 b values) and conventional DWI (0 and 1000 s/mm2). Largest single-slice region of interest (ROI) and volume of interest (VOI) were drawn around the tumor. Mean diffusivity (MD), mean kurtosis (MK), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of cervical carcinoma and normal myometrium were measured and compared. MD, MK, and ADC of cervical carcinoma were compared among histologic subtypes, tumor grades, and FIGO stages. RESULTS: ROI- and VOI-derived DKI parameters and ADC were all in excellent consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC > 0.90, respectively). Cervical carcinoma had significantly lower MD, ADC, and higher MK than normal myometrium (p < 0.001). MD and ADC showed significant differences between histologic subtypes and FIGO stages, lower in squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma and higher in FIGO I-II than FIGO III-IV (p < 0.050), but not with tumor grade. No difference was observed in MK for different clinicopathologic features tested. CONCLUSION: ROI and VOI analyses were in excellent consistency. MD and ADC were able to distinguish histologic subtypes and separating FIGO stages, MK could not. DKI showed no clear added value over conventional DWI in the characterization of cervical carcinoma.

12.
Cognition ; 191: 103952, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302321

RESUMEN

This article examines speech errors in Cantonese with the aim of fleshing out a larger speech production architecture for encoding phonological tone. A corpus was created by extracting 2462 speech errors, including 668 tone errors, from audio recordings of natural conversations. The structure of these errors was then investigated in order to distinguish two contemporary approaches to tone in speech production. In the tonal frames account, tone is encoded like metrical stress, represented in abstract structural frames for a word. Because tone cannot be mis-selected in tonal frames, tone errors are expected to be rare and non-contextual, as observed with stress. An alternative is that tone is actively selected in phonological encoding like phonological segments. This approach predicts that tone errors will be relatively common and exhibit the contextual patterns observed with segments, like perseveration and anticipation. In our corpus, tone errors are the second most common type of error, and the majority of errors exhibit contextual patterns that parallel segmental errors. Building on prior research, a two-stage model of phonological tone encoding is proposed, following the patterns seen in tone errors: Tone is phonologically selected concurrently with segments, but then sequentially assigned after segments to a syllable.

13.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(6): e270-e279, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229002

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Air pollution in Beijing has been improving through implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (2013-17), but its implications for respiratory morbidity have not been directly investigated. We aimed to assess the potential effects of air-quality improvements on respiratory health by investigating the number of cases of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) advanced by air pollution each year. METHODS: Daily city-wide concentrations of PM10, PM2·5, PMcoarse (particulate matter >2·5-10 µm diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) in 2013-17 were averaged from 35 monitoring stations across Beijing. A generalised additive Poisson time-series model was applied to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs for hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD associated with pollutant concentrations. FINDINGS: From Jan 18, 2013, to Dec 31, 2017, 161 613 hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of COPD were recorded. Mean ambient concentrations of SO2 decreased by 68% and PM2·5 decreased by 33% over this 5-year period. For each IQR increase in pollutant concentration, RRs for same-day hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD were 1·029 (95% CI 1·023-1·035) for PM10, 1·028 (1·021-1·034) for PM2·5, 1·018 (1·013-1·022) for PMcoarse, 1·036 (1·028-1·044) for NO2, 1·019 (1·013-1·024) for SO2, 1·024 (1·018-1·029) for CO, and 1·027 (1·010-1·044) for O3 in the warm season (May to October). Women and patients aged 65 years or older were more susceptible to the effects of these pollutants on hospitalisation risk than were men and patients younger than 65 years. In 2013, there were 12 679 acute exacerbations of COPD cases that were advanced by PM2·5 pollution above the expected number of cases if daily PM2·5 concentrations had not exceeded the WHO target (25 µg/m3), whereas the respective figure in 2017 was 7377 cases. INTERPRETATION: Despite improvement in overall air quality, increased acute air pollution episodes were significantly associated with increased hospitalisations for acute exacerbations of COPD in Beijing. Stringent air pollution control policies are important and effective for reducing COPD morbidity, and long-term multidimensional policies to safeguard public health are indicated. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council.

14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(1): 34-40, 2019 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that dietary salt intake may be an independent risk factor for overweight/obesity, but results from previous studies are controversial, reflecting study limitations such as use of a single spot urine or dietary recall to estimate daily salt intake rather than 24-h urine collections, and population samples from only a single country or center. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use data from the International Study of Macro-/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP Study) to explore the relation between dietary salt intake estimated from 2 timed 24-h urine collections and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) as well as prevalence of overweight/obesity in Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. METHODS: Data were from a cross-sectional study of 4680 men and women aged 40-59 y in Japan (n = 1145), China (n = 839), the United Kingdom (n = 501), and the United States (n = 2195). General linear models were used to obtain the regression coefficients (ß) of salt intake associated with BMI. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine the ORs and 95% CIs of overweight/obesity associated with a 1-g/d higher dietary salt intake. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounding factors including energy intake, salt intake 1 g/d higher was associated with BMI higher by 0.28 in Japan, 0.10 in China, 0.42 in the United Kingdom, and 0.52 in the United States, all P values < 0.001. Salt intake 1 g/d higher was associated with odds of overweight/obesity 21% higher in Japan, 4% higher in China, 29% higher in the United Kingdom, and 24% higher in the United States, all P values < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Salt intake is positively associated with BMI and the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This association needs to be further confirmed in well-designed prospective studies with repeated dietary and BMI measurements.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
16.
Hypertens Res ; 42(10): 1590-1598, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996260

RESUMEN

The Na/K ratio may be more strongly related to blood pressure and cardiovascular disease than sodium or potassium. The casual urine Na/K ratio can provide prompt on-site feedback, and with repeated measurements, may provide useful individual estimates of the 24-h ratio. The World Health Organization has published guidelines for sodium and potassium intake, but no generally accepted guideline prevails for the Na/K ratio. We used standardized data on 24 h and casual urinary electrolyte excretion obtained from the INTERSALT Study for 10,065 individuals aged 20-59 years from 32 countries (52 populations). Associations between the casual urinary Na/K ratio and the 24-h sodium and potassium excretion of individuals were assessed by correlation and stratification analyses. The mean 24-h sodium and potassium excretions were 156.0 mmol/24 h and 55.2 mmol/24 h, respectively; the mean 24-h urinary Na/K molar ratio was 3.24. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) for the casual urinary Na/K ratio with 24-h sodium and potassium excretions were 0.42 and -0.34, respectively, and these were 0.57 and -0.48 for the 24-h ratio. The urinary Na/K ratio predicted a 24-h urine Na excretion of <85 mmol/day (the WHO recommended guidelines) with a sensitivity of 99.7% and 94.0%, specificity of 39.5% and 48.0%, and positive predictive value of 96.3% and 61.1% at the cutoff point of 1 in 24 h and casual urine Na/K ratios, respectively. A urinary Na/K molar ratio <1 may be a useful indicator for adherence to the WHO recommended levels of sodium and, to a lesser extent, the potassium intake across different populations; however, cutoff points for Na/K ratio may be tuned for localization.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3169, 2019 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816187

RESUMEN

The Zag meteorite which is a thermally-metamorphosed H ordinary chondrite contains a primitive xenolithic clast that was accreted to the parent asteroid after metamorphism. The cm-sized clast contains abundant large organic grains or aggregates up to 20 µm in phyllosilicate-rich matrix. Here we report organic and isotope analyses of a large (~10 µm) OM aggregate in the Zag clast. The X-ray micro-spectroscopic technique revealed that the OM aggregate has sp2 dominated hydrocarbon networks with a lower abundance of heteroatoms than in IOM from primitive (CI,CM,CR) carbonaceous chondrites, and thus it is distinguished from most of the OM in carbonaceous meteorites. The OM aggregate has high D/H and 15N/14N ratios (δD = 2,370 ± 74‰ and δ15N = 696 ± 100‰), suggesting that it originated in a very cold environment such as the interstellar medium or outer region of the solar nebula, while the OM is embedded in carbonate-bearing matrix resulting from aqueous activities. Thus, the high D/H ratio must have been preserved during the extensive late-stage aqueous processing. It indicates that both the OM precursors and the water had high D/H ratios. Combined with 16O-poor nature of the clast, the OM aggregate and the clast are unique among known chondrite groups. We further propose that the clast possibly originated from D/P type asteroids or trans-Neptunian Objects.

18.
J Hypertens ; 37(4): 814-819, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817463

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare 24-h dietary recalls with 24-h urine collections for the estimation of sodium intake at both population and individual levels in China, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), using data from the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). METHODS: Mean differences between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections were calculated for their agreement in estimating sodium intake at the population level; relative and absolute differences as well as misclassification of salt intake groups (salt intake <6, 6-8.9, 9-11.9, 12-14.9, and ≥15 g/day) were used to determine the agreement at the individual level. RESULTS: The mean differences (95% CI) between dietary recalls and urine collections for China, Japan, UK, and USA were -54.0 (-59.8, -48.3), 3.9 (0.6, 7.2), 2.9 (-1.8, 7.6), and -3.5 (-5.8, -1.1) mmol/day, respectively. The proportions of individual relative differences beyond ±40% were 34.3% for China, 16.9% for Japan, 24.2% for UK, and 21.3% for USA; the proportions of individual absolute differences greater than 51.3 mmol/day (3 g salt) were 58.6% for China, 32.8% for Japan, 25.4% for UK, and 31.9% for USA. The rate for misclassification of salt intake groups at individual level for China, Japan, UK, and USA were 71.4, 60.9, 58.7, and 60.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 24-h dietary recalls demonstrate greater agreement with the 24-h urine collections in estimating population sodium intake for Japan, UK, and USA, compared with China. The 24-h dietary recall has poor performance in assessing individual sodium intake in these four countries.

19.
Acad Radiol ; 26(7): e134-e140, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268719

RESUMEN

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and multiphase dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) quantitative parameters in patients with rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven patients with rectal cancer were included in this study. All pelvic MRI examinations were performed in a 3.0 T MR unit, including diffusion-weighted imaging with 16 b values, DCE-MRI with two different flip angles (5° and 10°, respectively), and T1-fast field echo sequences as the reference. The IVIM perfusion-related parameters (f, perfusion fraction; D*, pseudo-diffusion coefficient; f·D*, the multiplication of the two parameters) were calculated by biexponential analysis. Quantitative DCE-MRI parameters were transfer constant (Ktrans) between blood plasma and extravascular extracellular space), Kep (rate between extravascular extracellular space and blood plasma), Ve (extravascular volume fraction), Vp (plasma volume fraction), and area under the gadolinium concentration curve. Interobserver agreements were evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. A p value <0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. RESULTS: The study included 75 males and 22 females with a median age of 58.8 years (range, 26-85years). Interobserver reproducibility for IVIM perfusion-related parameters and DCE-MRI quantitative parameters was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.8618-0.9181, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.7826-0.9088, respectively). Moderate correlations were found between f·D* and Ktrans (r = 0.533; p < 0.001), and relatively weak correlations between D* and Ktrans (r = 0.389; p < 0.001), D* and Vp (r = 0.442; p < 0.001), f·D* and Vp (r = 0.466; p < 0.001), and f and Vp (r = -0.234; p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: IVIM perfusion-related parameters, especially f·D*, demonstrated moderate correlations with DCE-MRI quantitative parameters in rectal cancer.

20.
J Hum Hypertens ; 33(3): 229-236, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420643

RESUMEN

Several studies demonstrated that visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure (BP) predicted future events of total death, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Little is known about factors associated with visit-to-visit BP variability in different countries. We recruited participants aged 40-59 years from four countries (Japan, the People's Republic of China [PRC], the United Kingdom [UK] and the United States [US]). At each study visit, BP was measured twice by trained observers using random zero sphygmomanometers after five minutes resting. We defined visit-to-visit BP variability as variation independent of mean (VIM) by using average systolic BP of 1st and 2nd measurement across four study visits. Data on 4680 men and women were analyzed. Mean ± standard deviation of VIM values among participants in Japan, the PRC, the UK and the US were 5.44 ± 2.88, 6.85 ± 3.49, 5.65 ± 2.81 and 5.84 ± 3.01, respectively; VIM value in the PRC participants was significantly higher. Sensitivity analyses among participants without antihypertensive treatment or past history of cardiovascular disease yielded similar results. Higher VIM value was associated with older age, female gender, lower pulse rate and urinary sodium excretion and use of antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. The difference of visit-to-visit BP variability between PRC and other countries remained significant after adjustment for possible confounding factors. In this large international study across four countries, visit-to-visit BP variability in the PRC was higher than in the other three countries. Reproducibility and mechanisms of these findings remain to be elucidated.

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