Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1081-1086, 2019 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751322

RESUMEN

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). CDC has published recommendations for health care providers regarding EVALI (2-4). Recently, researchers from Utah and New York published proposed diagnosis and treatment algorithms for EVALI (5,6). EVALI remains a diagnosis of exclusion because, at present, no specific test or marker exists for its diagnosis, and evaluation should be guided by clinical judgment. Because patients with EVALI can experience symptoms similar to those associated with influenza or other respiratory infections (e.g., fever, cough, headache, myalgias, or fatigue), it might be difficult to differentiate EVALI from influenza or community-acquired pneumonia on initial assessment; EVALI might also co-occur with respiratory infections. This report summarizes recommendations for health care providers managing patients with suspected or known EVALI when respiratory infections such as influenza are more prevalent in the community than they have been in recent months (7). Recommendations include 1) asking patients with respiratory, gastrointestinal, or constitutional symptoms about the use of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; 2) evaluating those suspected to have EVALI with pulse oximetry and obtaining chest imaging, as clinically indicated; 3) considering outpatient management for clinically stable EVALI patients who meet certain criteria; 4) testing patients for influenza, particularly during influenza season, and administering antimicrobials, including antivirals, in accordance with established guidelines; 5) using caution when considering prescribing corticosteroids for outpatients, because this treatment modality has not been well studied among outpatients, and corticosteroids could worsen respiratory infections; 6) recommending evidence-based treatment strategies, including behavioral counseling, to help patients discontinue using e-cigarette, or vaping, products; and 7) emphasizing the importance of annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months, including patients who use e-cigarette, or vaping products.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Lesión Pulmonar/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Humanos , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1076-1080, 2019 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751326

RESUMEN

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). As of November 13, 2019, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands) have reported 2,172 EVALI cases to CDC, including 42 (1.9%) EVALI-associated deaths. To inform EVALI surveillance, including during the 2019-20 influenza season, case report information supplied by states for hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients with EVALI were analyzed using data collected as of November 5, 2019. Among 2,016 EVALI patients with available data on hospitalization status, 1,906 (95%) were hospitalized, and 110 (5%) were not hospitalized. Demographic characteristics of hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients were similar; most were male (68% of hospitalized versus 65% of nonhospitalized patients), and most were aged <35 years (78% of hospitalized versus 74% of nonhospitalized patients). These patients also reported similar use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products (83% of hospitalized versus 84% of nonhospitalized patients). Given the similarity between hospitalized and nonhospitalized EVALI patients, the potential for large numbers of respiratory infections during the emerging 2019-20 influenza season, and the potential difficulty in distinguishing EVALI from respiratory infections, CDC will no longer collect national data on nonhospitalized EVALI patients. Further collection of data on nonhospitalized patients will be at the discretion of individual state, local, and territorial health departments. Candidates for outpatient management of EVALI should have normal oxygen saturation (≥95% while breathing room air), no respiratory distress, no comorbidities that might compromise pulmonary reserve, reliable access to care, strong social support systems, and should be able to ensure follow-up within 24-48 hours of initial evaluation and to seek medical care promptly if respiratory symptoms worsen. Health care providers should emphasize the importance of annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months, including persons who use e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2,3).


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Lesión Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 985-989, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671085

RESUMEN

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, state and local health departments, and other public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a national outbreak of electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). As of October 22, 2019, 49 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and the U.S. Virgin Islands have reported 1,604 cases of EVALI to CDC, including 34 (2.1%) EVALI-associated deaths in 24 states. Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, this report updates data on patient characteristics and substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2) and describes characteristics of EVALI-associated deaths. The median age of EVALI patients who survived was 23 years, and the median age of EVALI patients who died was 45 years. Among 867 (54%) EVALI patients with available data on use of specific e-cigarette, or vaping, products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset, 86% reported any use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products, 64% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, and 52% reported use of both. Exclusive use of THC-containing products was reported by 34% of patients and exclusive use of nicotine-containing products by 11%, and for 2% of patients, no use of either THC- or nicotine-containing products was reported. Among 19 EVALI patients who died and for whom substance use data were available, 84% reported any use of THC-containing products, including 63% who reported exclusive use of THC-containing products; 37% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, including 16% who reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products. To date, no single compound or ingredient used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products has emerged as the cause of EVALI, and there might be more than one cause. Because most patients reported using THC-containing products before symptom onset, CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC. In addition, because the specific compound or ingredient causing lung injury is not yet known, and while the investigation continues, persons should consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Lesión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Vapeo/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Dronabinol/toxicidad , Femenino , Humanos , Lesión Pulmonar/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(1): 11-13, 2019 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629573

RESUMEN

In February 2018, a typhoid fever outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, was reported in Pakistan. During November 2016-September 2017, 339 cases of this extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi strain were reported in Pakistan, mostly in Karachi and Hyderabad; one travel-associated case was also reported from the United Kingdom (1). More cases have been detected in Karachi and Hyderabad as surveillance efforts have been strengthened, with recent reports increasing the number of cases to 5,372 (2). In the United States, in response to the reports from Pakistan, enhanced surveillance identified 29 patients with typhoid fever who had traveled to or from Pakistan during 2016-2018, including five with XDR Typhi. Travelers to areas with endemic disease, such as South Asia, should be vaccinated against typhoid fever before traveling and follow safe food and water practices. Clinicians should be aware that most typhoid fever infections in the United States are fluoroquinolone nonsusceptible and that the XDR Typhi outbreak strain associated with travel to Pakistan is only susceptible to azithromycin and carbapenems.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Salmonella typhi/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Fiebre Tifoidea/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , Salmonella typhi/aislamiento & purificación , Fiebre Tifoidea/tratamiento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(1): 10-18, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989463

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVES: In April 2015, a multistate outbreak of illness linked to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use was unprecedented in magnitude and severity. We identified Mississippi cases in near-real time, collected information on cases to characterize the outbreak, and identified the causative SC. METHODS: A case was defined as any patient of a Mississippi healthcare facility who was suspected of SC use and presenting with ≥2 of the following symptoms: sweating, severe agitation, or psychosis during April 2-May 3, 2015. Clinicians reported cases to the Mississippi Poison Control Center (MPCC). We used MPCC data to identify cases at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) to characterize in further detail, including demographics and clinical findings. Biologic samples were tested for known and unknown SCs by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS). RESULTS: Clinicians reported 721 cases (11 deaths) statewide; 119 (17%) were UMMC patients with detailed data for further analysis. Twelve (10%) were admitted to an intensive care unit and 2 (2%) died. Aggression (32%), hypertension (33%), and tachycardia (42%) were common. SCs were identified in serum from 39/56 patients (70%); 33/39 patients (85%) tested positive for MAB-CHMINACA (N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) or its metabolites. Compared to all patients tested for SCs, those positive for MAB-CHMINACA were more likely to have altered mental status on examination (OR = 3.3, p = .05). CONCLUSION: SC use can cause severe health effects. MAB-CHMINACA was the most commonly detected SC in this outbreak. As new SCs are created, new strategies to optimize surveillance and patient care are needed to address this evolving public health threat.


Asunto(s)
Cannabinoides/toxicidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Drogas Sintéticas/toxicidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Centros de Control de Intoxicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 66(suppl_1): S11-S16, 2017 12 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293923

RESUMEN

Background: Botulism is a rare, potentially fatal paralytic illness caused by neurotoxins. To inform the evaluation of patients with suspected botulism, we conducted a systematic review to describe the clinical features of botulism. Methods: We searched Medline Ovid, Embase Dialog, Embase Ovid, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) EBSCO, Global Health Ovid, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English language articles through May 2015. Information abstracted included demographics, signs and symptoms, laboratory results, and clinical outcome for foodborne and wound botulism patients confirmed by laboratory testing, epidemiologic link, or association with an outbreak. The review followed PRISMA guidelines and was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015024784). Results: We identified 402 patients from 233 articles published in English between 1932 and 2015. Most cases (n = 346 [86%]) were foodborne botulism and most (n = 263 [65%]) were associated with an outbreak. The median incubation period was 1 day, and the median time from illness onset to hospital admission was 2 days. Shortness of breath, dyspnea, or respiratory distress or failure at hospital admission was reported in 169 (42%) patients; 71 (42%) reported respiratory involvement without report of extremity weakness. Among 154 patients for whom the hospital day of intubation was reported, 134 (87%) were intubated on the first or second hospital day. Conclusions: Botulism patients can experience a range of signs and symptoms. Respiratory involvement may occur early in the illness and can occur without preceding extremity weakness. Clinicians and public health departments preparing for and responding to botulism events should use this information to guide the evaluation of suspected botulism patients.


Asunto(s)
Botulismo/diagnóstico , Heridas y Traumatismos/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 66(suppl_1): S38-S42, 2017 12 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293926

RESUMEN

Effective treatment for botulism requires early clinical recognition. Diagnosis of botulism, including during outbreaks, can be challenging. We assessed combinations of signs and symptoms among confirmed cases and identified sensitive clinical criteria to trigger suspicion. We produced a tool that may facilitate rapid identification of sporadic and outbreak-associated cases.


Asunto(s)
Botulismo/diagnóstico , Botulismo/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Evaluación de Síntomas/normas , Diagnóstico Precoz , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 66(suppl_1): S73-S81, 2017 12 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293934

RESUMEN

Background: We performed a systematic review of foodborne botulism outbreaks to describe their clinical aspects and descriptive epidemiology in order to inform public health response strategies. Methods: We searched seven databases for reports of foodborne botulism outbreaks published in English from database inception to May 2015. We summarized descriptive characteristics and analyzed differences in exposure and toxin types by geographic region. We performed logistic regression to assess correlations between exposure source, implicated food, and outbreak size. Results: There were 197 outbreaks reported between 1920 and 2014. The median number of cases per outbreak was 3 (range 2-97). The majority of reported outbreaks (109; 55%) occurred in the United States. Toxin types A, B, E, and F were identified as the causative agent in 34%, 16%, 17%, and 1% of outbreaks, respectively. The median duration between exposure and symptom onset was approximately 1 day. The mean percentage of cases requiring mechanical ventilation per outbreak was 34%. Seventy percent of all outbreaks and 77% of small outbreaks (≤11 cases) originated from point source exposures, while commercial foods were significantly (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-21.1) associated with large outbreaks (≥12 cases). Conclusions: Toxin type A accounted for half of outbreaks, and these outbreaks had a higher proportion of patient ventilatory failure. Most outbreaks were due to point source exposures, while outbreaks due to commercial food were larger. For effective responses to foodborne botulism outbreaks, these findings demonstrate the need for timely outbreak investigation and hospital surge capacity.


Asunto(s)
Botulismo/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Botulismo/terapia , Humanos
15.
Drug Test Anal ; 9(1): 68-74, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27367536

RESUMEN

In September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of seven adults who developed acute hepatitis after taking OxyELITE Pro™, a weight loss and sports dietary supplement. CDC assisted HDOH with their investigation, then conducted case-finding outside of Hawaii with FDA and the Department of Defense (DoD). We defined cases as acute hepatitis of unknown etiology that occurred from April 1, 2013, through December 5, 2013, following exposure to a weight loss or muscle-building dietary supplement, such as OxyELITE Pro™. We conducted case-finding through multiple sources, including data from poison centers (National Poison Data System [NPDS]) and FDA MedWatch. We identified 40 case-patients in 23 states and two military bases with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology and exposure to a weight loss or muscle building dietary supplement. Of 35 case-patients who reported their race, 15 (42.9%) reported white and 9 (25.7%) reported Asian. Commonly reported symptoms included jaundice, fatigue, and dark urine. Twenty-five (62.5%) case-patients reported taking OxyELITE Pro™. Of these 25 patients, 17 of 22 (77.3%) with available data were hospitalized and 1 received a liver transplant. NPDS and FDA MedWatch each captured seven (17.5%) case-patients. Improving the ability to search surveillance systems like NPDS and FDA MedWatch for individual and grouped dietary supplements, as well as coordinating case-finding with DoD, may benefit ongoing surveillance efforts and future outbreak responses involving adverse health effects from dietary supplements. This investigation highlights opportunities and challenges in using multiple sources to identify cases of suspected supplement associated adverse events. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Asunto(s)
Anabolizantes/toxicidad , Fármacos Antiobesidad/toxicidad , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/etiología , Suplementos Dietéticos/toxicidad , Hepatitis/etiología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/terapia , Femenino , Hepatitis/patología , Hepatitis/terapia , Hospitalización , Humanos , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
J Med Toxicol ; 12(4): 350-357, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352081

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. METHODS: We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. RESULTS: Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401 in April 2014, and declined to 295 in December 2014. Monthly conventional cigarette calls during the same period ranged from 302 to 514. E-cigarette calls were more likely than conventional cigarette calls to report adverse health effects, including vomiting, eye irritation, and nausea. Five e-cigarette calls reported major health effects, such as respiratory failure, and there were two deaths associated with e-cigarette calls. CONCLUSION: E-cigarette calls to U.S. poison centers increased over the study period, and were more likely than conventional cigarettes to report adverse health effects. It is important for health care providers and the public to be aware of potential acute health effects from e-cigarettes. Developing strategies to monitor and prevent poisonings from these novel devices is critical.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Centros de Control de Intoxicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/efectos adversos , Masculino , Nicotina/efectos adversos , Salud Pública , Fumar/efectos adversos , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
17.
Drug Test Anal ; 8(3-4): 319-27, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26538199

RESUMEN

Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases' medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and traceback, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/etiología , Suplementos Dietéticos/efectos adversos , Hepatitis/etiología , Fallo Hepático/inducido químicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/epidemiología , Femenino , Hawaii , Hepatitis/epidemiología , Humanos , Fallo Hepático/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(39): 1121-2, 2015 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26447715

RESUMEN

On April 2, 2015, four patients were evaluated at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) in Jackson, Mississippi, for agitated delirium after using synthetic cannabinoids. Over the next 3 days, 24 additional persons went to UMMC with illnesses suspected to be related to synthetic cannabinoid use; one patient died. UMMC notified the Mississippi State Department of Health, which issued a statewide alert via the Health Alert Network on April 5, requesting that health care providers report suspected cases of synthetic cannabinoid intoxication to the Mississippi Poison Control Center (MPCC). A suspected case was defined as the occurrence of at least two of the following symptoms: sweating, severe agitation, or psychosis in a person with known or suspected synthetic cannabinoid use. A second statewide alert was issued on April 13, instructing all Mississippi emergency departments to submit line lists of suspected patients to MPCC each day. By April 21, 16 days after the first alert was issued, MPCC had received reports of approximately 400 cases, including eight deaths possibly linked to synthetic cannabinoid use; in contrast, during April 2012­March 2015, the median number of telephone calls to MPCC regarding synthetic cannabinoid use was one per month (range = 0­11). The Mississippi State Department of Health, with the assistance of CDC, initiated an investigation to better characterize the outbreak, identify risk factors associated with severe illness, and prevent additional illnesses and deaths.


Asunto(s)
Cannabinoides/envenenamiento , Drogas Diseñadas/envenenamiento , Brotes de Enfermedades , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Centros Médicos Académicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mississippi/epidemiología , Centros de Control de Intoxicaciones , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(26): 714-8, 2015 Jul 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26158352

RESUMEN

As of July 1, 2015, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have reported a total of 27,443 confirmed, probable, and suspected Ebola virus disease (Ebola) cases and 11,220 deaths. Guinea and Sierra Leone have yet to interrupt transmission of Ebola virus. In January, 2016, Liberia successfully achieved Ebola transmission-free status, with no new Ebola cases occurring during a 42-day period; however, new Ebola cases were reported beginning June 29, 2015. Local cultural practices and beliefs have posed challenges to disease control, and therefore, targeted, timely health messages are needed to address practices and misperceptions that might hinder efforts to stop the spread of Ebola. As early as September 2014, Ebola spread to most counties in Liberia. To assess Ebola-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in the community, CDC epidemiologists who were deployed to the counties (field team), carried out a survey conducted by local trained interviewers. The survey was conducted in September and October 2014 in five counties in Liberia with varying cumulative incidence of Ebola cases. Survey results indicated several findings. First, basic awareness of Ebola was high across all surveyed populations (median correct responses = 16 of 17 questions on knowledge of Ebola transmission; range = 2-17). Second, knowledge and understanding of Ebola symptoms were incomplete (e.g., 61% of respondents said they would know if they had Ebola symptoms). Finally, certain fears about the disease were present: >90% of respondents indicated a fear of Ebola patients, >40% a fear of cured patients, and >50% a fear of treatment units (expressions of this last fear were greater in counties with lower Ebola incidence). This survey, which was conducted at a time when case counts were rapidly increasing in Liberia, indicated limited knowledge of Ebola symptoms and widespread fear of Ebola treatment units despite awareness of communication messages. Continued efforts are needed to address cultural practices and beliefs to interrupt Ebola transmission.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola , Características de la Residencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/psicología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Liberia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
20.
Environ Res ; 132: 379-83, 2014 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24853976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of lead from toxic waste sites on children in low and middle income countries has not been calculated due to a lack of exposure data. We sought to calculate this impact in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model, we converted soil and drinking water lead levels from sites in the Blacksmith Institute's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) into mean blood lead levels (BLLs). We then calculated the incidence of mild mental retardation (MMR) and DALYs resulting from these BLLs. RESULTS: The TSIP included 200 sites in 31 countries with soil (n=132) or drinking water (n=68) lead levels, representing 779,989 children younger than 4 years of age potentially exposed to lead. Environmental lead levels produced a range of BLLs from 1.56 to 104.71 µg/dL. These BLLs equated to an estimated loss of 5.41-8.23 IQ points, resulting in an incidence of MMR of 6.03 per 1000 population and 76.1 DALYs per 1000 population. DISCUSSION: Soil and water lead levels at toxic waste sites predict BLLs that lower the intelligence quotient (IQ), with the resulting MMR potentially limiting individual- and country-level development. The preventable burden of disease produced by these sites highlights the need for toxic waste sites to be systematically identified, evaluated, and remediated.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Sitios de Residuos Peligrosos , Plomo/sangre , Preescolar , Costo de Enfermedad , Humanos , Lactante
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA