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1.
Acta Trop ; 216: 105828, 2021 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465353

RESUMEN

Malaria is the world's deadliest parasitic disease. Great progress has been made in the fight against malaria over the past two decades, but this has recently begun to plateau, in part due to the global development of antimalarial drug resistance. The ability to track drug resistance is necessary to achieve progress in treatment, disease surveillance and epidemiology, which has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic methods. These new methods provide unprecedented access to information that can help to guide public health policies. Development of new technologies increases the potential for high throughput and reduced costs of diagnostic tests; improving the accessibility of tools to investigate the forces driving disease dynamics and, ultimately, clinical outcomes for malaria patients and public health. This literature review provides a summary of the methods currently available for the detection of antimalarial drug resistance from the examination of patients' blood samples. While no single method is perfect for every application, many of the newly developed methods give promise for more reliable and efficient characterisation of Plasmodium resistance in a range of settings. By exploiting the strengths of the tools available, we can develop a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and spatiotemporal dynamics of this disease. This will translate into more effective disease control, better-informed policy, and more timely and successful treatment for malaria patients.

2.
Parasitol Int ; 82: 102288, 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515742

RESUMEN

Fasciola gigantica is considered to be a major pathogen causing fasciolosis in the Indian subcontinent, resulting in production losses of millions of dollars in the livestock industry. Understading the dispersal origin and the patterns of spread of F. gigantica is important. A total of 53 Fasciola flukes collected from buffaloes and goats in Punjab, Pakistan between 2017 and 2018 were identified as F. gigantica based on the multiplex PCR for the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for DNA polymerase delta (pold). A significant genetic difference between F. gigantica from buffaloes and goats was indicated by the genetic analyses of mitochondrial markers, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Phylogenetic analysis of the seventeen nad1 haplotypes of F. gigantica from Pakistan with those in neighbouring countries of the Indian subcontinent revealed that all the haplotypes identified in Pakistan were clustered in haplogroup A. fasciola gigantica with the eight haplotypes might be expanded in Pakistan from Indian origin, along with the migration of the domestic animals, since they were related to Indian haplotypes. In contrast, the remaining nine haplotypes were not shared with any neighbouring countries, suggesting independent origin, probably from neighbouring Middle East countries. However, cautious interpretation is required due to the very limited samples size of this study. Our study provides a proof of concept for a method that could be used to investigate the epidemiology of F. gigantica.

3.
Acta Trop ; 215: 105821, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406444

RESUMEN

Pyrimethamine was first introduced for the treatment of malaria in Asia and Africa during the early 1980s, replacing chloroquine, and has become the first line of drugs in many countries. In recent years, development of pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium vivax has become a barrier to effective malaria control strategies. Here, we describe the use of meta-barcoded deep amplicon sequencing technology to assess the evolutionary origin of pyrimethamine resistance by analysing the flanking region of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus. The genetic modelling suggests that 58R and 173L single mutants and 58R/117N double mutants are present on a single lineage; suggesting a single origin of these mutations. The triple mutants (57L/58R/117N, 58R/61M/117N and 58R/117N/173L) share the lineage of 58R/117N, suggesting a common origin. In contrast, the 117N mutant is present on two separate lineages suggesting that there are multiple origins of this mutation. We characterised the allele frequency of the P. vivax dhfr locus. Our results support the view that the single mutation of 117N and double mutations of 58R/117N arise commonly, whereas the single mutation of 173L and triple mutations of 57L/58R/117N, 58R/61M/117N and 58R/117N/173L are less common. Our work will help to inform mitigation strategies for pyrimethamine resistance in P. vivax.

4.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(1): 101595, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113478

RESUMEN

A study was designed to improve understanding of the genetics of Theileria annulata populations in sympatric cattle and Asian buffalo (Bubalus bubalus). The study was undertaken in the Punjab province of Pakistan, where the prevalence of tropical theileriosis is high. Parasite materials were collected from infected animals in defined regions, where cattle and Asian buffalo are kept together. Six satellite DNA markers and a mitochondrial cytochrome b marker were used to explore the multiplicity of T. annulata infection and patterns of emergence and spread of different parasite genotypes. The results show differences in the numbers of unique satellite locus alleles, suggesting that T. annulata is genetically more diverse in cattle- than in buffalo-derived populations. Heterozygosity (He) indices based on satellite and cytochrome b loci data show high levels of genetic diversity among the cattle- and buffalo-derived T. annulata populations. When considered in the context of high parasite transmission rates and frequent animal movements between different regions, the predominance of multiple T. annulata genotypes and multiple introductions of infection may have practical implications for the spread of parasite genetic adaptations; such as those conferring vaccine cross-protection against different strains affecting cattle and Asian buffalo, or resistance to antiprotozoal drugs.

5.
Parasitol Int ; 81: 102276, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370606

RESUMEN

Lancet liver flukes of the genus Dicrocoelium (Trematoda: Digenea) are recognised parasites of domestic and wild herbivores. The aim of the present study was to confirm the species identity of Dicrocoeliid flukes collected from the Chitral valley in the Himalayan ranges of Pakistan. The morphology of 48 flukes belonging to eight host populations was examined; but overlapping traits prevented accurate species designation. Phylogenetic comparison of published D. dendriticum ribosomal cistron DNA, and cytochrome oxidase-1 (COX-1) mitochondrial DNA sequences with those from D. chinensis was performed to assess within and between species variation and re-affirm the use of species-specific single nucleotide polymorphism markers. PCR and sequencing of 34 corresponding fragments of ribosomal DNA and 14 corresponding fragments of mitochondrial DNA from the Chitral valley flukes, revealed 10 and 4 unique haplotypes, respectively. These confirmed for the first time the molecular species identity of Pakistani lancet liver flukes as D. dendriticum. This work provides a preliminary illustration of a phylogenetic approach that could be developed to study the ecology, biological diversity, and epidemiology of Dicrocoeliid lancet flukes when they are identified in new settings.

6.
Vet Parasitol ; 289: 109339, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359968

RESUMEN

Our current understanding of differences in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) species in co-grazed sheep and goats is inadequate with reference to the development of sustainable control strategies. The next-generation metabarcoding sequencing method referred to as the 'nemabiome' allows some of these differences to be explored to describe the intensity of co-infecting GIN species. We applied this platform to study sheep and goats that were co-grazed on Guinea grass pasture in northeastern Brazil. Co-grazed goats and sheep were treated with a monepantel anthelmintic, then exposed to the same gastrointestinal nematode species. Overall, there were differences in the prevalence of GIN species identified in the sheep and goats; Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta predominated in goat kids, while Haemonchus contortus predominated in adult does, ewes and lambs once burdens became re-established after anthelmintic treatment. Description of the pattern of re-infection following anthelmintic treatment was prevented by the unpredicted poor efficacy of 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively, of monepantel against O. columbianum and T. circumcincta in lambs, and T. circumcincta adult does. Differences in drug efficacy between host age and species groups may be important when considering sustainable GIN control strategies for co-grazed animals. The aggregated FECs of the adult does and goat kids representing re-established GIN burdens, were higher than those of the co-grazed adult ewes and lambs. This implies that there are inherent differences in GIN species adaptation to the two naïve small ruminant host species, and shows the need for better understanding of the factors giving rise to this situation associated with exposure to infective larvae and host responses. At the start of the study, the adult does were co-infected with several GIN species, with the highest intensity of T. circumcincta, contrasting with the situation in the adult ewes, in which H. contortus predominated. However, once burdens became re-established after treatment, H. contortus predominated in both adult does and ewes. This demonstrates the potential for host burdens of H. contortus to establish and predominate after anthelmintic treatment when burdens of co-infecting GIN species are low.

7.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 656, 2020 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168940

RESUMEN

Haemonchus contortus is a globally distributed and economically important gastrointestinal pathogen of small ruminants and has become a key nematode model for studying anthelmintic resistance and other parasite-specific traits among a wider group of parasites including major human pathogens. Here, we report using PacBio long-read and OpGen and 10X Genomics long-molecule methods to generate a highly contiguous 283.4 Mbp chromosome-scale genome assembly including a resolved sex chromosome for the MHco3(ISE).N1 isolate. We show a remarkable pattern of conservation of chromosome content with Caenorhabditis elegans, but almost no conservation of gene order. Short and long-read transcriptome sequencing allowed us to define coordinated transcriptional regulation throughout the parasite's life cycle and refine our understanding of cis- and trans-splicing. Finally, we provide a comprehensive picture of chromosome-wide genetic diversity both within a single isolate and globally. These data provide a high-quality comparison for understanding the evolution and genomics of Caenorhabditis and other nematodes and extend the experimental tractability of this model parasitic nematode in understanding helminth biology, drug discovery and vaccine development, as well as important adaptive traits such as drug resistance.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2222-2235, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967592

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. The viruses have adapted to infect a large number of animal species, ranging from bats to camels. At present, seven CoVs infect humans, of which Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for causing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Since its emergence in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly across the globe. Healthcare systems around the globe have been stretched beyond their limits posing new challenges to emergency healthcare services and critical care. The outbreak continues to jeopardize human health, social life and economy. All known human CoVs have zoonotic origins. Recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 in pet, zoo and certain farm animals has highlighted its potential for reverse zoonosis. This scenario is particularly alarming, since these animals could be potential reservoirs for secondary zoonotic infections. In this article, we highlight interspecies SARS-CoV-2 infections and focus on the reverse zoonotic potential of this virus. We also emphasize the importance of potential secondary zoonotic events and the One-Health and One-World approach to tackle such future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Camelus/virología , Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 286: 109240, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950742

RESUMEN

The benzimidazoles are one of the most important broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug classes for parasitic nematode control in domestic animals and humans. They have been widely used in livestock, particularly in small ruminants for over 40 years. This has resulted in widespread resistance in small ruminant gastrointestinal nematode parasite species, especially Haemonchus contortus. Benzimidazole resistance mutations have also been reported in Haemonchus placei, but only at low frequencies, suggesting resistance is at a much earlier stage of emergence than is the case for H. contortus. Here, we investigate the haplotype diversity of isotype-1 ß-tubulin benzimidazole resistance mutations and the population genetic structure of H. contortus and H. placei populations from sheep and cattle from the southern USA. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a low level of genetic differentiation in six H.placei and seven H. contortus populations examined. This is consistent with several previous studies from other regions, mainly in H. contortus, supporting a model of high gene flow between parasite populations. There was a single F200Y(TAC) haplotype present in all six H. placei populations across Georgia, Florida and Arkansas. In contrast, there were at least two different F200Y(TAC) haplotypes (up to four) and two different F167Y(TAC) haplotypes across the seven H. contortus populations studied. These results provide further evidence to support a model for benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus spp, in which resistance mutations arise from a single, or the small number of locations, in a region during the early phases of emergence, and subsequently spread due to animal movement.

10.
Acta Trop ; 210: 105567, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504589

RESUMEN

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease that affects predominantly cloven-footed animal species within the order Artiodactyla. The potential of the virus to transmit, maintain and circulate itself across a wide range of susceptible hosts, including both domestic and wild ungulates, remains a single major obstacle in an effective eradication of disease worldwide, particularly in disease-endemic settings. Hence, a better understanding of virus transmission dynamics is very much crucial for an efficient control of the disease, particularly at places or regions where wildlife and livestock rearing co-exists. Both OIE and FAO have jointly launched the FMD-control program as FMD-Progressive Control Pathway (PCP) in various disease-endemic developing countries. Nevertheless, the propensity of virus to inter- and intra-species transmission may be a possible constraint in disease control and, hence, its subsequent eradication in such countries. Other than this, cross-species transmission, among domestic and wild ungulates living in close proximities, can undermine the conservation efforts for endangered species. We reviewed and summarized the so-far available information about inter- and intra-species disease transmission, and its impact on wildlife populations to better comprehend disease epidemiology and substantiate efforts for eventual disease eradication across the globe, particularly in settings where the disease is endemic.

11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 82: 104305, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247865

RESUMEN

Various PCR based methods have been described for the diagnosis of malaria, but most depend on the use of Plasmodium species-specific probes and primers; hence only the tested species are identified and there is limited available data on the true circulating species diversity. Sensitive diagnostic tools and platforms for their use are needed to detect Plasmodium species in both clinical cases and asymptomatic infections that contribute to disease transmission. We have recently developed for the first time a novel high throughput 'haemoprotobiome' metabarcoded DNA sequencing method and applied it for the quantification of haemoprotozoan parasites (Theleria and Babesia) of livestock. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method using an Illumina MiSeq platform to demonstrate the proportions of Plasmodium species in metabarcoded DNA samples derived from human malaria patients. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax positive control gDNA was used to prepare mock DNA pools of parasites to evaluate the detection threshold of the assay for each of the two species. The different mock pools demonstrate the accurate detection ability and to show the proportions of each of the species being present. We then applied the assay to malaria-positive human samples to show the species composition of Plasmodium communities in the Punjab province of Pakistan and in the Afghanistan-Pakistan tribal areas. The diagnostic performance of the deep amplicon sequencing method was compared to an immunochromatographic assay that is widely used in the region. The deep amplicon sequencing showed that P. vivax was present in 69.8%, P. falciparum in 29.5% and mixed infection in 0.7% patients examined. The immunochromatographic assay showed that P. vivax was present in 65.6%, P. falciparum in 27.4%, mixed infection 0.7% patients and 6.32% malaria-positive cases were negative in immunochromatographic assay, but positive in the deep amplicon sequencing. Overall, metabarcoded DNA sequencing demonstrates better diagnostic performance, greatly increasing the estimated prevalence of Plasmodium infection. The next-generation sequencing method using metabarcoded DNA has potential applications in the diagnosis, surveillance, treatment, and control of Plasmodium infections, as well as to study the parasite biology.

12.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105435, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142734

RESUMEN

An extended range of host susceptibility including camel has been evidenced for some of the important veterinary and public health pathogens, such as brucellosis, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and bluetongue (BT). However, in disease endemic settings across many parts of the globe, most of the disease control interventions accounts for small and large ruminants, whereas unusual hosts and/or natural reservoirs, such as camels, remain neglected for disease control measures including routine vaccination. Such a policy drawback not only plays an important role in disease epizootiology particularly in settings where disease is endemic, but also serves an obstacle in disease control and subsequent eradication in future. With this background, using pre-validated ELISA and molecular assays [multiplex PCR, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and real-time (rt)-PCR], we conducted a large-scale pathogen- and antibody-based surveillance for brucellosis, peste des petits ruminants and bluetongue in camel population (n = 992) originating from a wide geographical region in southern part of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Varying in each of the selected districts, the seroprevalence was found to be maximum for bluetongue [n = 697 (70.26%, 95% CI: 67.29-73.07)], followed by PPR [n = 193 (19.46%, 95% CI: 17.07-22.09)] and brucellosis [n = 66 (6.65%, 95% CI: 5.22-8.43)]. Odds of seroprevalence were more significantly associated with pregnancy status (non-pregnant, OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.86-5.63, p<0.01), farming system (mixed-animal, OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.56-4.29, p<0.01), breed (Desi, OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.28-4.03, p<0.01) and farmer education (illiterate, OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.45-6.93, p<0.01) for BTV, body condition (normal, OR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.92-6.54, p<0.01) and breed (Desi, OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.09-4.40, p<0.01) for brucellosis, and feeding system for PPR (grazing, OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.79-4.22, p<0.01). Among the total herds included (n = 74), genome corresponding to BT virus (BTV) and brucellosis was detected in 14 (18.92%, 95 CI: 11.09-30.04) and 19 herds (25.68%, 95% CI: 16.54-37.38), respectively. None of the herds was detected with genome of PPR virus (PPRV). Among the positive herds, serotype 1, 8 and 11 were detected for BTV while all the herds were exclusively positive to B. abortus. Taken together, the study highlights the role of potential disease reservoirs in the persistence and transmission of selected diseases in their susceptible hosts and, therefore, urges necessary interventions (e.g., inclusion of camels for vaccine etc.) for the control of diseases from their endemic setting worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Lengua Azul/epidemiología , Brucelosis/veterinaria , Camelus/microbiología , Peste de los Pequeños Rumiantes/epidemiología , Animales , Brucelosis/epidemiología , Brucelosis/microbiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Femenino , Pakistán/epidemiología , Embarazo , Salud Pública , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Serogrupo
13.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 125-143, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029179

RESUMEN

Internal parasites are a major concern in livestock production because they can impact the health and well-being of animals clinically and subclinically, and ultimately cause significant production loss. Among these internal parasites are nematodes, tapeworms, flukes, and coccidian protozoans. This review focuses on the diagnostic tests that are routinely performed by veterinarians and diagnostic laboratories, but also highlights recently developed tools that may improve diagnostic capabilities, including molecular and immunodiagnostic tests. Overall, diagnostic tests for parasites of livestock are an integral part of health management practices, and for assessing individual animal and herd health.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas y Procedimientos Diagnósticos/veterinaria , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/diagnóstico , Animales , Heces/parasitología , Ganado/parasitología , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/parasitología
14.
Parasitol Int ; 76: 102071, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045674

RESUMEN

Fasciola spp. are responsible for over 3 billion US dollars of production loss annually in livestock and cause widespread zoonotic disease. Nevertheless, understating of the emergence and spread of the trematode species is poor. The multiplicity of F. gigantica infection and its spread is potentially influenced by multiple factors, including the abundance of suitable intermediate hosts, climatic conditions favouring the completion of the parasite's lifecycle, and translocation of infected animals, or free-living parasite stages between regions. Here we describe the development of a 'tremabiome' metabarcoding sequencing method to explore the numbers of F. gigantica genotypes per infection and patterns of parasite spread, based on genetic characteristics of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mt-ND-1) locus. We collected F. gigantica from three abattoirs in the Punjab and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan, and our results show a high level of genetic diversity in 20 F. gigantica populations derived from small and large ruminants consigned to slaughter in both provinces. This implies that F. gigantica can reproduce in its definitive hosts through meiosis involving cross- and self-breeding, as described in the closely related species, Fasciola hepatica. The genetic diversity between the 20 populations derived from different locations also illustrates the impact of animal movements on gene flow. Our results demonstrate the predominance of single haplotypes, consistent with a single introduction of F. gigantica infection in 85% of the hosts from which the parasite populations were derived. This is consistent with clonal reproduction in the intermediate snail hosts.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Fasciola/aislamiento & purificación , Fascioliasis/veterinaria , Variación Genética , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Fasciola/clasificación , Fascioliasis/epidemiología , Fascioliasis/parasitología , Genotipo , Enfermedades de las Cabras/parasitología , Cabras , Pakistán/epidemiología , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología
15.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 11: 93-102, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970056

RESUMEN

Varestrongylus eleguneniensis (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae) is a recently described species of lungworm that infects caribou (Rangifer tarandus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and moose (Alces americanus) across northern North America. Herein we explore the geographic distribution of V. eleguneniensis through geographically extensive sampling and discuss the biogeography of this multi-host parasite. We analyzed fecal samples of three caribou subspecies (n = 1485), two muskox subspecies (n = 159), and two moose subspecies (n = 264) from across northern North America. Protostrongylid dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) were found in 23.8%, 73.6%, and 4.2% of these ungulates, respectively. A portion of recovered DSL were identified by genetic analyses of the ITS-2 region of the nuclear rDNA or the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) region of the mtDNA. We found V. eleguneniensis widely distributed among caribou and muskox populations across most of their geographic prange in North America but it was rare in moose. Parelaphostrongylus andersoni was present in caribou and moose and we provide new geographic records for this species. This study provides a substantial expansion of the knowledge defining the current distribution and biogeography of protostrongylid nematodes in northern ungulates. Insights about the host and geographic range of V. eleguneniensis can serve as a geographically extensive baseline for monitoring current distribution and in anticipating future biogeographic scenarios under a regime of accelerating climate and anthropogenic perturbation.

16.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101276, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473098

RESUMEN

Piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne haemoprotozoa of the genera Theileria and Babesia. These parasitic infections can seriously impact on the health of livestock and production. Piroplasms of multiple species can be present in a single host, but reliable molecular diagnostic tools are needed in order to understand the composition of these complex parasite communities. Theileria and Babesia vary in their epidemiology, drug sensitivity, pathogenicity and interaction with co-infecting species, but are similar in that infected animals become persistent carriers after recovery from primary infection, acting as reservoir hosts. Here, we describe for the first time the use of a deep amplicon sequencing platform to identify proportions of piroplasm species in co-infecting communities and develop the concept of a "haemoprotobiome". First, four phenotypically-verified species of Theileria and Babesia were used to prepare mock DNA pools with random numbers of the parasites amplified by four different numbers of PCR cycles to assess sequence representation for each species. Second, we evaluated the detection threshold of the deep amplicon sequencing assay for each of the four species and to assess the accuracy of proportional quantification of all four species. Finally, we applied the assay to the field samples to afford insight of the species composition of piroplasm communities in small and large ruminants in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The "haemoprotobiome" concept has several potential applications in veterinary and human research, including understanding of responses to drug treatment; parasite epidemiology and ecology; species interactions during mixed infections; and parasite control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Babesia/clasificación , Babesiosis/epidemiología , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/veterinaria , Microbiota , Theileria/clasificación , Theileriosis/epidemiología , Animales , Babesia/aislamiento & purificación , Búfalos , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Pakistán/epidemiología , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Theileria/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 171: 104752, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479849

RESUMEN

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a serious concern for sheep producers worldwide. However, there is a paucity of evidence describing the epidemiology of GIN on modern UK sheep farms. The aim of this paper was to understand whether expected seasonal variations of infection are still found in ewes and lambs under varying management strategies in temperate climates. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted on freshly voided samples collected from groups of ewes and lambs every third week for twelve months on three farms in southeast Scotland. The patterns of egg output have been described here in relation to management practices undertaken on the farms. Despite changes in farming practice and climatic conditions, the findings complement historical studies detailing the epidemiology of GIN. Findings include a periparturient rise in ewe FEC on two of the farms, while lambing time treatment appeared to suppress this on the third farm. On the same two farms lamb FEC increased during the summer, reaching a peak in the autumn. The work also highlights how the ad hoc use of anthelmintics does little to impact these patterns.


Asunto(s)
Animales Lactantes/parasitología , Infecciones por Nematodos/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Antihelmínticos/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Granjas , Heces/parasitología , Infecciones por Nematodos/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Nematodos/epidemiología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Escocia/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/tratamiento farmacológico
18.
Avian Pathol ; 48(6): 610-621, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403322

RESUMEN

Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects a wide range of avian species worldwide. Recently, several AAvVs of diverse genotypes have emerged with varying genomic and residue substitutions, and subsequent clinical impact on susceptible avian species. We assessed the clinico-pathological influence of two different AAvV 1 pathotypes [wild bird originated-velogenic strain (sub-genotype VIIi, MF437287) and feral pigeon originated-mesogenic strain (sub-genotype VIm, KU885949)] in commercial broiler chickens and pigeons. The velogenic strain caused 100% mortality in both avian species while the mesogenic strain caused 0% and 30% mortality in chickens and pigeons, respectively. Both strains showed tissue tropism for multiple tissues including visceral organs; however, minor variances were observed according to host and pathotype. The observed gross and microscopic lesions were typical of AAvV 1 infection. Utilizing oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, a comparable pattern of viral shedding was observed for both strains from each of the infected individuals of both avian species. The study concludes a varying susceptibility of chickens and pigeons to different wild bird-originated AAvV 1 pathotypes and, therefore, suggests continuous monitoring and surveillance of currently prevailing strains for effective control of the disease worldwide, particularly in disease-endemic countries.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Avulavirus/veterinaria , Avulavirus/genética , Enfermedades de las Aves/patología , Pollos/virología , Columbidae/virología , Enfermedad de Newcastle/patología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/patología , Animales , Avulavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Avulavirus/patología , Infecciones por Avulavirus/virología , Enfermedades de las Aves/virología , Genómica , Genotipo , Enfermedad de Newcastle/virología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Tasa de Supervivencia
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425900

RESUMEN

Anthelmintic resistant gastrointestinal helminths have become a major cause of poor health in sheep and goats. Sensitive and specific molecular markers are needed to monitor the genotypic frequency of resistance in field parasite populations. Gastrointestinal nematode resistance to benzimidazole is caused by a mutation in one of three positions within the isotype 1 ß-tubulin gene. In the absence of markers for resistance to the other broad spectrum anthelmintic classes, these provide a relevant study example. Determination of the prevalence of these single nucleotide polymorphisms in field nematode populations can be impractical using conventional molecular methods to examine individual parasites; which can be laborious and lack sensitivity in determining low levels of resistance in parasite populations. Here, we report the development of a novel method based on an Illumina MiSeq deep amplicon sequencing platform to sequence the isotype 1 ß-tubulin locus of the small ruminant gastrointestinal nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta, and determine the frequency of the benzimidazole resistance mutations. We validated the method by assessing sequence representation bias, comparing the results of Illumina MiSeq and pyrosequencing, and applying the method to populations containing known proportions of resistant and susceptible larvae. We applied the method to field samples collected from ewes and lambs on over a period of one year on three farms, each highlighting different aspects of sheep management and approaches to parasite control. The results show opportunities to build hypotheses with reference to selection pressures leading to differences in resistance allele frequencies between sampling dates, farms and ewes or lambs, and to consider the impact of their genetic fixation or otherwise. This study provides proof of concept of a practical, accurate, sensitive and scalable method to determine frequency of anthelmintic resistance mutations in gastrointestinal nematodes in field studies and as a management tool for livestock farmers.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Bencimidazoles/farmacología , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Tracto Gastrointestinal/parasitología , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Infecciones por Strongylida/veterinaria , Estrongílidos/efectos de los fármacos , Estrongílidos/genética , Animales , Frecuencia de los Genes/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas del Helminto/genética , Filogenia , Ovinos , Estrongílidos/clasificación , Estrongílidos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Strongylida/parasitología , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125837

RESUMEN

Anthelmintic resistance is a threat to global food security. In order to alleviate the selection pressure for resistance and maintain drug efficacy, management strategies increasingly aim to preserve a proportion of the parasite population in 'refugia', unexposed to treatment. While persuasive in its logic, and widely advocated as best practice, evidence for the ability of refugia-based approaches to slow the development of drug resistance in parasitic helminths is currently limited. Moreover, the conditions needed for refugia to work, or how transferable those are between parasite-host systems, are not known. This review, born of an international workshop, seeks to deconstruct the concept of refugia and examine its assumptions and applicability in different situations. We conclude that factors potentially important to refugia, such as the fitness cost of drug resistance, the degree of mixing between parasite sub-populations selected through treatment or not, and the impact of parasite life-history, genetics and environment on the population dynamics of resistance, vary widely between systems. The success of attempts to generate refugia to limit anthelmintic drug resistance are therefore likely to be highly dependent on the system in hand. Additional research is needed on the concept of refugia and the underlying principles for its application across systems, as well as empirical studies within systems that prove and optimise its usefulness.


Asunto(s)
Antihelmínticos/farmacología , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Helmintos/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Refugio de Fauna
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