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1.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251090, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974633

RESUMEN

Noise-induced-hearing-loss(NIHL) is a common occupational disease caused by various environmental and biological factors. To investigate the association between TAB2 and the susceptibility of NIHL of people exposed to occupational environments, a genetic association study was performed on selected companies with 588 cases and 537 healthy control subjects. Five selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TAB2,incoluding rs2744434, rs521845, rs652921, rs7896, rs9485372, were genotyped after a collection of DNA samples. Evident differences in participants between the case group and the control group reveals the result that people with the TAB2 has a high probability of getting NIHL. The results show that rs521845 is deeply associated with the risk of NIHL and is available for the diagnosis in the future.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(20)2021 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975951

RESUMEN

Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are essential for gene regulation, but the number of known TFBSs remains limited. We aimed to discover and characterize unknown TFBSs by developing a computational pipeline for analyzing ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing) data. Applying it to the latest ENCODE ChIP-seq data for human and mouse, we found that using the irreproducible discovery rate as a quality-control criterion resulted in many experiments being unnecessarily discarded. By contrast, the number of motif occurrences in ChIP-seq peak regions provides a highly effective criterion, which is reliable even if supported by only one experimental replicate. In total, we obtained 2,058 motifs from 1,089 experiments for 354 human TFs and 163 motifs from 101 experiments for 34 mouse TFs. Among these motifs, 487 have not previously been reported. Mapping the canonical motifs to the human genome reveals a high TFBS density ±2 kb around transcription start sites (TSSs) with a peak at -50 bp. On average, a promoter contains 5.7 TFBSs. However, 70% of TFBSs are in introns (41%) and intergenic regions (29%), whereas only 12% are in promoters (-1 kb to +100 bp from TSSs). Notably, some TFs (e.g., CTCF, JUN, JUNB, and NFE2) have motifs enriched in intergenic regions, including enhancers. We inferred 142 cobinding TF pairs and 186 (including 115 completely) tethered binding TF pairs, indicating frequent interactions between TFs and a higher frequency of tethered binding than cobinding. This study provides a large number of previously undocumented motifs and insights into the biological and genomic features of TFBSs.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147316, 2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932675

RESUMEN

The conservation level of rare waterbirds reflects the quality of the regional ecological environment and wetlands, and suitable habitat patches and good environmental conditions are bases to support the activities of rare species in habitats. Establishing these conditions is also an important goal of habitat landscape and functional restoration. However, lack of these conditions limits population protection and habitat restoration of rare species. Based on the random forest (RF) algorithm and threshold indicator taxa analysis (TITAN), this paper performed habitat suitability assessment and environmental variable threshold analysis of rare waterbird species in Yancheng coastal wetlands. The results showed that the suitable area proportion of three waterbird species at different habitat sites was less than 20%. The unsuitable area proportions of red-crowned cranes and oriental storks at the CA habitat site were the highest, reaching 86.73% and 85.17%, respectively. In addition, analysis of the importance of environmental variables showed that the main influencing variables affecting the suitable habitat distribution of the three rare waterbirds were habitat type (T_hab), habitat area (A_hab), vegetation coverage (P_fvc), distance to farmland (D_far), distance to reeds (D_ree), ponds density (Ponds), distance to water surface (D_wat) and distance to main roads or seawalls (D_swa). These variables covered the type, area, coverage and distance indicators. With the exception of D_far, Ponds and D_swa, rare waterbirds had response thresholds to each environmental indicator, and these results supported the restoration of landscape structure and function of each habitat site. This study emphasized the importance of foods, water resources and hidden conditions for habitat selection in rare waterbirds. Finally, we proposed the maintenance and restoration patterns of the landscape structure and function of rare waterbird habitats, which are available for other coastal tidal wetlands.

4.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951328

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different intervention measures to prevent falls in elderly osteoporotic patients. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in our outpatient ward from August 2014 to September 2015. A total of 420 patients over 60 years of age were assigned to four groups. NA VitD group took 800 mg calcium and 800 IU non-active vitamin D. P-NA VitD group took 800 mg calcium, 800 IU non-active vitamin D, and received physical exercise. A VitD group took 800 mg calcium and 0.5 µg active vitamin D. P-A VitD took 800 mg calcium, 0.5 µg active vitamin D, and received physical exercise. Physical exercise includes guidance in improving muscle strength and balance ability. Short physical performance battery (SPPB), grip strength, modified falls efficacy scale (MFES), blood calcium, and 25-hydroxyl vitamin D were measured before interventions and at 3, 6, and 12 months after interventions. Bone mineral density (BMD) was detected before interventions and at 12 months after interventions. The incidence of falls and fractures, adverse events, and drug reactions were recorded for 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 420 patients were allocated in the four groups: 98 cases into the NA VitD group (11 males, 87 females), 97 cases into the P-NA VitD group (13 males, 84 females), 99 cases in the A VitD group (15 males, 84 females), and 98 cases into the P-A VitD group (11 males, 87 females). At 6 months after interventions, the SPPB of A VitD group significantly increased from 6.9 ± 1.9 to 8.0 ± 2.4 (P < 0.05), and the SPPB of A VitD group significantly increased from 7.2 ± 2.1 to 8.6 ± 1.7 (P < 0.05). At 6 months after interventions, MFES of P-NA VitD group 7.0 ± 1.6 to 7.6 ± 1.6 (P < 0.05), and MFES of P-A VitD group significantly increased from 6.7 ± 1.6 to 7.5 ± 1.6 (P < 0.05). At 12 months after interventions, SPPB of all groups, grip strength, and MFES of P-NA VitD group, A VitD group, P-A VitD group were significantly improved (P < 0.05). The BMD of lumbar vertebrae of A VitD group significantly increased from 0.742 ± 0.042 to 0.776 ± 0.039, and P-A VitD group significantly increased from 0.743 ± 0.048 to 0.783 ± 0.042 (P < 0.05). No serious adverse events occurred during the 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Active vitamin D is better than non-active vitamin D to improve physical ability and the BMD of lumbar vertebrae and reduce the risk of falls.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 412: 125177, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951857

RESUMEN

A systematic survey was conducted on twenty-six per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in fifty-one paired samples of surface water, sediment, and soil from Dagang Oilfield, Tianjin, China. Perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzenesulfonate (OBS), and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamidoalkyl betaine (6:2 FTAB) were ubiquitous in the oilfield with field log Kd of 1.3-2.2, indicating a high partition potential from surface water to sediment. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) are a predictor for PFAS contamination at oilfield. The concentrations of OBS and 6:2 FTAB were higher in surface water and sediment with elevated TPH level. With total oxidizable precursor assay, unknown precursors for C2-C3 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (57-99 mol%) contributed more than those for C4-C12 PFCAs in the three mediums. The unknown C4-, C6-, and C8-based precursors tended to be precursors for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates at the oilfield, and C8 fluorotelomer-based precursors particularly occurred in the surface water. The concentrations of C4- and C8-based precursors were found positively correlated with TPH levels (r = 0.67-0.72, p < 0.05), while C6 precursors may also come from other sources. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mass balance and risk assessment for unknown PFASs.

6.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 193, 2021 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964926

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary ovarian serous carcinomas (OSC) with extensive squamous differentiation is a rare, and histological diagnostic criteria and biological behavior have not been fully established. We present an extremely rare case of primary OSC of the ovary with squamous differentiation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old (gravidity 3, parity 2) female was admitted complaining of abdominal distention for 6 months. No apparent tumor in the cervix was found by a physical examination. Serum levels of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) was elevated (2723.0 IU/L). Macroscopically, a 7 cm tumor of the left uterine adnexa, a 5 cm tumor of the right adnexa, and a 3 cm tumor of the omentum were found. Histological and immunochemical tests confirmed a diagnosis of OSC with squamous differentiation. Debulking surgery with tumor resection was performed. The patient was subsequently received postoperative chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, OSC with extensive squamous differentiation is a rare, and the inter- and intratumor heterogeneity may be the reason for this phenomenon. Histological diagnostic criteria and biological behavior have not been fully established because of the limited data.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941859

RESUMEN

Susceptibility or resilience to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) depends on one's ability to appropriately adjust synaptic plasticity for coping with the traumatic experience. Activity-regulated mRNA translation synthesizes plasticity-related proteins to support long-term synaptic changes and memory. Hence, cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3-knockout (CPEB3-KO) mice, showing dysregulated translation-associated synaptic rigidity, may be susceptible to PTSD-like behavior. Here, using a context-dependent auditory fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, we found that CPEB3-KO mice exhibited traumatic intensity-dependent PTSD-like fear memory. A genome-wide screen of CPEB3-bound transcripts revealed that Nr3c1, encoding glucocorticoid receptor (GR), was translationally suppressed by CPEB3. Thus, CPEB3-KO neurons with elevated GR expression exhibited increased corticosterone-induced calcium influx and decreased mRNA and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). Moreover, the reduced expression of BDNF was associated with increased GR level during fear extinction in CPEB3-KO hippocampi. Intracerebroventricular delivery of BDNF before extinction training mitigated spontaneous fear intrusion in CPEB3-KO mice during extinction recall. Analysis of two GEO datasets revealed decreased transcriptomic expression of CPEB3 but not NR3C1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of humans with PTSD. Collectively, this study reveals that CPEB3, as a potential PTSD-risk gene, downregulates Nr3c1 translation to maintain proper GR-BDNF signaling for fear extinction.

8.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5512322, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959215

RESUMEN

Ketogenic diet (KD) is popular in diabetic patients but its cardiac safety and efficiency on the heart are unknown. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects and the underlined mechanisms of KD on cardiac function in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We used db/db mice to model DCM, and different diets (regular or KD) were used. Cardiac function and interstitial fibrosis were determined. T-regulatory cell (Treg) number and functions were evaluated. The effects of ketone body (KB) on fatty acid (FA) and glucose metabolism, mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs), and mitochondrial respiration were assessed. The mechanisms via which KB regulated MAMs and Tregs were addressed. KD improved metabolic indices in db/db mice. However, KD impaired cardiac diastolic function and exacerbated ventricular fibrosis. Proportions of circulatory CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in whole blood cells and serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were reduced in mice fed with KD. KB suppressed the differentiation to Tregs from naive CD4+ T cells. Cultured medium from KB-treated Tregs synergically activated cardiac fibroblasts. Meanwhile, KB inhibited Treg proliferation and productions of IL-4 and IL-10. Treg MAMs, mitochondrial respiration and respiratory complexes, and FA synthesis and oxidation were all suppressed by KB while glycolytic levels were increased. L-carnitine reversed Treg proliferation and function inhibited by KB. Proportions of ST2L+ cells in Tregs were reduced by KB, as well as the production of ST2L ligand, IL-33. Reinforcement expressions of ST2L in Tregs counteracted the reductions in MAMs, mitochondrial respiration, and Treg proliferations and productions of Treg cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. Therefore, despite the improvement of metabolic indices, KD impaired Treg expansion and function and promoted cardiac fibroblast activation and interstitial fibrosis. This could be mainly mediated by the suppression of MAMs and fatty acid metabolism inhibition via blunting IL-33/ST2L signaling.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962406

RESUMEN

We investigate the electric response of chiral phonons on the low-buckled group-IVA monolayers by performing first-principles calculations. The vertical electric field breaks the degeneracy of phonon modes at high-symmetry ±K points of the phonon Brillouin zone, and the size of the phononic gap is proportional to the strength of the electric field. The gapped phonon modes at ±K possess chiralities with considerable phonon circular polarizations and discrete phonon pseudoangular momenta. The chiralities of phonons are robust against the variation of the field strength, but reversed by changing the field direction. Electric control of chiral phonons adds a new dimension to the study of chiral phonons, which has potential use in the design of phononic and valley devices.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(5): 424, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931593

RESUMEN

Little is known about noncoding tumor suppressor genes. An effective way to identify these genes is by analyzing somatic copy number variation (CNV)-related noncoding genes. By integrated bioinformatics analyses of differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and arm-level CNVs in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), we identified a potential antitumor gene, MIR99AHG, encoding lncRNA MIR99AHG as well as a miR-99a/let-7c/miR-125b2 cluster on chromosome 21q. All four of these transcripts were downregulated in LUAD tissues partly due to the copy number deletion of the MIR99AHG gene. Both MIR99AHG and miR-99a expression was positively correlated with the survival of LUAD patients. MIR99AHG suppressed proliferation and metastasis and promoted autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the interaction between MIR99AHG and ANXA2 could accelerate the ANXA2-induced ATG16L+ vesicle biogenesis, thus promoting phagophore assembly. Additionally, miR-99a targeted a well-known autophagy suppressor, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), thereby synergistically promoting autophagy and postponing LUAD progression with MIR99AHG. In summary, MIR99AHG emerges as a noncoding tumor suppressor gene in LUAD, providing a new strategy for antitumor therapy.

11.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 15353702211008808, 2021 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957804

RESUMEN

While there is no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), its progressive nature and the formidable challenge to manage its symptoms warrant a more extensive study of the pathogenesis and related mechanisms. A new emphasis on COPD study is the change of energy metabolism. For the first time, this study investigated the anaerobic and aerobic energy metabolic pathways in COPD using the metabolomic approach. Metabolomic analysis was used to investigate energy metabolites in 140 COPD patients. The significance of energy metabolism in COPD was comprehensively explored by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease-GOLD grading, acute exacerbation vs. stable phase (either clinical stability or four-week stable phase), age group, smoking index, lung function, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score. Through comprehensive evaluation, we found that COPD patients have a significant imbalance in the aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolisms in resting state, and a high tendency of anaerobic energy supply mechanism that correlates positively with disease progression. This study highlighted the significance of anaerobic and low-efficiency energy supply pathways in lung injury and linked it to the energy-inflammation-lung ventilatory function and the motion limitation mechanism in COPD patients, which implies a novel therapeutic direction for this devastating disease.

12.
FEBS Lett ; 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961290

RESUMEN

We previously observed enhanced immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in severe COVID-19, which might confer damaging effects. Given the important role of IgA in immune and inflammatory responses, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic response of the IgA isotype switch factor TGF-ß1 in COVID-19 patients. We observed, in a total of 153 COVID-19 patients, that the serum levels of TGF-ß1 were increased significantly at the early and middle stages of COVID-19, and correlated with the levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA, as well as with the APACHE-II score in patients with severe disease. In view of the genetic association of the TGF-ß1 activator THBS3 with severe COVID-19 identified by the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative, this study suggests TGF-ß1 may play a key role in COVID-19.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961557

RESUMEN

Event cameras have recently drawn massive attention in the computer vision community because of their low power consumption and high response speed. These cameras produce sparse and non-uniform spatiotemporal representations of a scene. These characteristics of representations make it difficult for event-based models to extract discriminative cues (such as textures and geometric relationships). Consequently, event-based methods usually perform poorly compared to their conventional image counterparts. Considering that traditional images and event signals share considerable visual information, this paper aims to improve the feature extraction ability of event-based models by using knowledge distilled from the image domain to additionally provide explicit feature-level supervision for the learning of event data. Specifically, we propose a simple yet effective distillation learning framework, including multi-level customized knowledge distillation constraints. Our framework can significantly boost the feature extraction process for event data and is applicable to various downstream tasks. We evaluate our framework on high-level and low-level tasks, i.e., object classification and optical flow prediction. Experimental results show that our framework can effectively improve the performance of event-based models on both tasks by a large margin. Furthermore, we present a 10K dataset (CEP-DVS) for event-based object classification. This dataset consists of samples recorded under random motion trajectories that can better evaluate the motion robustness of the event-based model and is compatible with multi-modality vision tasks.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 4558-4568, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970645

RESUMEN

The Si(100) surface carbonization mechanisms by acetylene are explored using density functional theory calculations combined with microkinetic simulations. The most stable acetylene adsorption geometries and their subsequent decomposition mechanisms to form a carbon dimer on the Si surface are investigated. Microkinetics simulations are further used to examine the optimal reaction conditions for obtaining a single-crystalline silicon carbide (SiC). We find that the carbon dimer (C2*) as an end-bridge structure can be formed at 560 K, and the maximum of C2* can be obtained near 640 K. The acetylene adsorbed via the di-σ configuration starts to dehydrogenate when the heating rate is too fast and will form two possible carbon dimers (di-C2* and C2*), which will lead to a polycrystalline SiC buffer layer. We predict that 750 K and 10-6 bar will be the optimum temperature and pressure for obtaining a single-crystalline SiC buffer layer, respectively.

15.
Cancer Med ; 2021 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973727

RESUMEN

This study aims to develop and validate a novel prognostic model to estimate overall survival (OS) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients based on clinical features and blood biomarkers. We assessed the model's incremental value to the TNM staging system, clinical treatment, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA copy number for individual OS estimation. We retrospectively analyzed 519 consecutive patients with NPC. A prognostic model was generated using the Lasso regression model in the training cohort. Then we compared the predictive accuracy of the novel prognostic model with TNM staging, clinical treatment, and EBV DNA copy number using concordance index (C-index), time-dependent ROC (tdROC), and decision curve analysis (DCA). Subsequently, we built a nomogram for OS incorporating the prognostic model, TNM staging, and clinical treatment. Finally, we stratified patients into high-risk and low-risk groups according to the model risk score, and we analyzed the survival time of these two groups using Kaplan-Meier survival plots. All results were validated in the independent validation cohort. Using the Lasso regression, we established a prognostic model consisting of 13 variables with respect to patient prognosis. The C-index, tdROC, and DCA showed that the prognostic model had good predictive accuracy and discriminatory power in the training cohort than did TNM staging, clinical treatment, and EBV DNA copy number. Nomogram consisting of the prognostic model, TNM staging, clinical treatment, and EBV DNA copy number showed some superior net benefit. Based on the model risk score, we split the patients into two subgroups: low-risk (risk score ≤ -1.423) and high-risk (risk score > -1.423). There were significant differences in OS between the two subgroups of patients. Similar results were observed in the validation cohort. The proposed novel prognostic model based on clinical features and serological markers may represent a promising tool for estimating OS in NPC patients.

16.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000746, 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939881

RESUMEN

SCOPE: Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathogenesis of cardiovascular events caused by inflammation, and dietary intervention has been recommended as one fundamental prevention strategy. Herein, we investigated the anti-arteriosclerotic properties of quercetin by modulating galectin-3 (Gal-3)-NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: Atherosclerotic plaques from ApoE-/- mice fed by high-fat diet (HFD) with or without quercetin intervention (100 mg/kg·bw) for 16 weeks, and carotid plaques from patients with carotid stenosis were collected for histopathological examinations and molecular mechanism assays. Quercetin significantly alleviated atherosclerotic lesions and reduced lipid retention caused by HFD. Proteomic technology identified Gal-3 was increased by HFD but lowered by quercetin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry exhibited higher expressions of Gal-3 and NLRP3 in carotid plaques and plaques from HFD-fed mice, which were concurrently downregulated by quercetin. Similar to TD139, quercetin dramatically suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation in ox-LDL-laden macrophages, and accordingly alleviated cellular steatosis and IL-1ß secretion, which was abolished by recombinant Gal-3. Co-immunoprecipitation showed Gal-3 binding to NLRP3 promoted inflammasome activation. CONCLUSION: Gal-3 initiates inflammatory lesions by activating NLRP3 inflammasome which functions as a candidate target of quercetin exerting favorable anti-atherogenic effects. Our findings highlight a promising strategy for atherosclerosis prevention and treatment by naturally-occurring quercetin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940598

RESUMEN

How to produce expressive molecular representations is a fundamental challenge in artificial intelligence-driven drug discovery. Graph neural network (GNN) has emerged as a powerful technique for modeling molecular data. However, previous supervised approaches usually suffer from the scarcity of labeled data and poor generalization capability. Here, we propose a novel molecular pre-training graph-based deep learning framework, named MPG, that learns molecular representations from large-scale unlabeled molecules. In MPG, we proposed a powerful GNN for modelling molecular graph named MolGNet, and designed an effective self-supervised strategy for pre-training the model at both the node and graph-level. After pre-training on 11 million unlabeled molecules, we revealed that MolGNet can capture valuable chemical insights to produce interpretable representation. The pre-trained MolGNet can be fine-tuned with just one additional output layer to create state-of-the-art models for a wide range of drug discovery tasks, including molecular properties prediction, drug-drug interaction and drug-target interaction, on 14 benchmark datasets. The pre-trained MolGNet in MPG has the potential to become an advanced molecular encoder in the drug discovery pipeline.

18.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934526

RESUMEN

Plastid genomes play an important role in genomics and evolutionary biology. Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized plastid genomic data acquisition to the point that genome assembly has become a bottleneck for widespread utilization of plastid genome data. To solve this problem, we developed an open-source, cross-platform tool known as, NOVOWrap, which includes both command-line and graphical interfaces for automatically assembling plastid genomes on personal computers. With minimal inputs, settings, and user intervention, NOVOWrap can automatically assemble plastid genomes, validate results and standardize the structure using affordable computer resources. The performance of this software has been successfully benchmarked against the plastid genomes of 11 species belonging to lycopods, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. By liberating researchers from laborious and cumbersome computer manipulations and create reliable and standardized genomic data, NOVOWrap is expected to accelerate plastid genome assembly, ease the process of data exchange, and make contribution to downstream analysis.

19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890699

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis are destructive rice pests co-occurring in major rice-growing areas in China. RNA interference (RNAi)-based insect-resistant genetically engineered (IRGE) crops provide a promising approach for pest management by suppressing gene expression or translation. A microRNA (miRNA)-mediated IRGE rice line expressing endogenous Chilo suppressalis miRNA Csu-novel-260, showing significant resistance against Chilo suppressalis, provides an attractive control strategy for Chilo suppressalis by suppressing the expression of the disembodied (dib) gene expression. However, whether this transgenic line also shows the resistance against Cnaphalocrocis medinalis remains unknown. RESULTS: A spatiotemporal expression analysis of Csu-novel-260 in the transgenic rice line was performed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine the paddy field pest exposure dose. In diet feeding assays, a chemically synthesized Csu-novel-260 agomir at 200 fmol g-1 significantly inhibited Chilo suppressalis pupation. However, larval development, survival and pupal weight were not significantly affected. Additionally, the transgenic line significantly affected Cnaphalocrocis medinalis pupation but not larval survival. The qRT-PCR showed that Csdib and Cmdib expression levels were significantly suppressed when the two pests fed on the transgenic line. Additionally, the transgenic line significantly decreased Cry1C-resistant and Cry1C-susceptible Chilo suppressalis larval survival in detached rice tissue feeding assays, indicating that Cry1C-resistant Chilo suppressalis was not cross-resistant to Csu-novel-260 expressed in miRNA-mediated IRGE rice. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that miRNA-mediated IRGE rice significantly inhibited Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis pupation. The results provide a new viewpoint for the application of RNAi-based plants and the inspiration for environmental risk assessment.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(18): 6810-6816, 2021 May 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909436

RESUMEN

Ru(II)-catalyzed enantioselective C-H functionalization involving an enantiodetermining C-H cleavage step remains undeveloped. Here we describe a Ru(II)-catalyzed enantioselective C-H activation/annulation of sulfoximines with α-carbonyl sulfoxonium ylides using a novel class of chiral binaphthyl monocarboxylic acids as chiral ligands, which can be easily and modularly prepared from 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid. A broad range of sulfur-stereogenic sulfoximines were prepared in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% yield and 99% ee) via desymmetrization, kinetic resolution, and parallel kinetic resolution. Furthermore, the resolution products can be easily transformed to chiral sulfoxides and key intermediates for kinase inhibitors.

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