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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109093, 2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607540

RESUMEN

Since Pseudomonas fluorescens is the main microorganism causing severe spoilage in refrigerated aquatic products, the searching for non-antibiotic antibacterial agents effective against it continues to receive increasing interest. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial effects and mechanisms of alkyl gallic esters against P. fluorescens isolated from the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti), as well as the effectiveness in combination with chitosan films on the preservation of sturgeon meats at 4 °C. Our data shows that the alkyl chain length plays a significant role in eliciting their antibacterial activities and octyl gallate (GAC8) exhibited an outstanding inhibitory efficacy. GAC8 can rapidly enter into the membrane lipid bilayer portion to disorder the membrane, and further inhibit the growth of the P. fluorescens through interfering both tricarboxylic acid cycle related to energy supply and amino acid metabolism associated with cell membranes, suppressing oxygen consumption and disturbing the respiration chain. Moreover, the alteration in membrane fatty acids indicated that GAC8 could disrupt the composition of cell membrane fatty acids, rendering the bacteria more sensitive to the antibacterial. The SEM results also substantiate the damage of the structure of the bacterial membrane caused by GAC8. Additionally, the edible chitosan-based films incorporated with GAC8 showed the enhanced antibacterial efficacy to remarkably extend the shelf life of Russian sturgeon. Overall, our findings not only provide new insight into the mode of action of GAC8 against P. fluorescens but also demonstrate composite films containing GAC8, as a kind of safe and antibacterial material, have a great promise for application in food preservations.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 144854, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486186

RESUMEN

Restoration has been increasingly adopted to halt trends in coastal wetland loss globally. Existing restoration often assumes that once abiotic stress is relieved, disturbances are prevented, and invasive species are eradicated, coastal wetlands will recover if propagules of native species are supplied either through natural dispersal or planting. Whether other factors including consumers can help explain the often suboptimal performance of existing restoration remains poorly understood. In a series of field experiments in the Yangtze estuary, we examined the relative importance of abiotic stress and crab grazing in regulating the recovery of the native foundation plant species Scirpus mariqueter in salt marsh areas where exotic cordgrass was successfully eradicated. We found that grazing by herbivorous crabs, rather than abiotic stress, was the primary obstacle restricting the recovery of planted Scirpus. This negative effect of crab grazing varied predictably across elevation and was strongest at low elevations where abiotic conditions were positive for Scirpus. These findings highlight that i) measures to control crab grazing are needed to enhance the success of Scirpus restoration, even in areas where abiotic conditions are set to be optimal, and ii) restoration measures purely focused on reducing abiotic stress could be ineffective or suboptimal in field conditions, likely jeopardizing restoration investment and success. Since top-down control of foundation plant species is common in many coastal wetlands and can be especially important in degraded systems where herbivores are abundant, we urge that future coastal wetland restoration assesses for the impacts of grazers and, when present, apply intervention measures.

3.
Arch Oral Biol ; 123: 105033, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429068

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Consumers' oral physiology and salivary properties are greatly dependent on dietary backgrounds, and this in turn may impact food perception and preferences. Scarce studies are available on the oral physiology and salivary rheology of Chinese participants with different dietary and ethnic backgrounds. DESIGN: This study examined two ethnic groups, Chinese Han and Chinese Mongolian healthy young adults, and explored the differences in oral physiology and salivary rheological properties. Official data suggested that Chinese Mongolians tend to consume more red meat and dairy, and Chinese Han tend to consume more carbohydrates. 200 Han and 104 Mongolian participants were evaluated for the oral physiological and salivary rheological parameters (maximum bite force of incisor and molar teeth, maximum tongue pressure and maximum oral volume; the surface tension, shear viscosity and extensional viscosity of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva samples). RESULTS: Distinct differences between two ethnic groups were found, particularly in their bite forces and salivary physical properties. Chinese Mongolian participants had significantly higher incisor bite force (168 N) than Chinese Han (146 N). In addition, Chinese Han had significantly lower unstimulated whole saliva flow rate than Chinese Mongolians; and significantly higher salivary surface tension, shear viscosity and extensional viscosity, in both unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva samples. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese Han and Chinese Mongolian participants exhibited different oral physiological and salivary rheological properties; and considering the dietary differences between the two ethnicities, the findings from this study suggest possible associations between dietary habits and oral physiological & saliva rheological properties.

4.
Physiol Behav ; 232: 113284, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309703

RESUMEN

The aims of the study were (1) to compare oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior of consumers by age (Chinese young adults vs Chinese older adults) and by ethnicity (Chinese (Asian) vs. Dutch (Caucasian)) and (2) to explore relationships between oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior of Chinese consumers. Oral physiology (mastication performance, saliva flow rate and dental status) and anatomy (volume of oral cavity, tongue dimensions, facial anthropometry, height and weight) were determined in Chinese (Asian) young adults (n = 32; 18-30 yrs) and Chinese (Asian) older adults (n = 32; 60-85 yrs) and compared to previously determined oral physiology and anatomy of Dutch (Caucasian) young adults (n = 32; 18-30 yrs) and Dutch (Caucasian) older adults (n = 32; 65-85 yrs). Oral processing behavior (consumption time, chews per bite, bite size, eating rate) of solid foods (cooked carrot, sausage and tofu-gan) was quantified using video recordings. Regarding the effect of age on physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior, Chinese (Asian) older adults consumed all foods with lower eating rates compared to Chinese (Asian) young adults probably due to changes in oral physiology and anatomy. Regarding the effect of ethnicity on oral physiology, anatomy and food oral processing behavior, Chinese (Asians) had lower percentages of normal occlusion, slightly wider and shorter tongues, lower head height:width ratio and lower BMI compared to Dutch (Caucasians). Overall, Chinese adults displayed similar food oral processing behavior compared to Dutch adults. Consumption time, chews per bite and bite size did not differ between Chinese and Dutch adults. Only a small difference in eating rate were observed between these groups. Body weight and number of teeth were the physiological and anatomical parameters that related the strongest with oral processing behavior of solid foods. We conclude that age and ethnicity impact oral physiology, anatomy and oral processing behavior of solid foods. Oral physiology and anatomy only partially explain the variation in oral processing behavior of solid foods in consumer groups differing in ethnicity and age. Other factors such as culture and consumption habits are suggested to have a stronger influence on oral processing behavior.

5.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(4): 341-345, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351302

RESUMEN

Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Yishen Tongluo Recipe (YTR) combined with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in the treatment of varicocele-associated asthenospermia (of the kidney-deficiency and collateral-obstruction type). METHODS: We randomly divided 116 patients with varicocele-associated asthenospermia and up to the inclusion criteria into three groups and treated them by YTR combined with MIS (low spermatic vein ligation at the external inguinal ring orifice under the microscope) (the YTR+MIS group, n = 39), YTR alone (the YTR group, n = 38), or MIS alone (the MIS group, n = 39). At 12 weeks after treatment, we compared the total effectiveness rate, the percentage of progressively motile sperm (PMS), sperm straight line velocity (VSL), sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and symptoms among the three groups of patients. RESULTS: After treatment, the total effectiveness rate was significantly higher in the YTR+MIS than in the YTR and the MIS group (89.74% vs 63.16% and 64.10%, P < 0.05), and so were the percentage of PMS (31.67 ± 3.93 vs 24.48 ± 3.15 and 25.57 ± 3.37, P < 0.05) and VSL (ï¼»30.19 ± 5.32ï¼½ vs ï¼»27.19 ± 5.48ï¼½ and ï¼»27.55 ± 5.24ï¼½ µm/s, P < 0.05), but the DFI was remarkably lower in the former than in the latter two groups (11.25 ± 8.27 vs 15.87 ± 5.45 and 15.26 ± 4.36, P < 0.05). The symptoms were improved more significantly in the YTR+MIS than in the YTR and MIS groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Yishen Tongluo Recipe combined with minimally invasive surgery, as an effective and safe strategy, can significantly improve sperm quality and sperm DNA integrity in patients with varicocele-associated asthenospermia.


Asunto(s)
Astenozoospermia/terapia , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos , Varicocele , Astenozoospermia/etiología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Masculino , Varicocele/complicaciones
6.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(10): 6264-6276, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194028

RESUMEN

Full-thickness skin injury affects millions of people worldwide each year. Although bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been shown to promote cutaneous wound healing, they cannot functionally promote wound healing with the recovery of appendages such as hair follicles. We previously found that growth factor plus BM-MSCs could effectively promote wound healing and hair follicle regeneration. In the present study, we grafted insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), a multifunctional cell growth factor, and BM-MSCs into a collagen-chitosan scaffold to investigate their effects on functional wound healing. Using scanning electron microscopy, histological staining, and quantitative analysis, we found that IGF1- and BM-MSC-incorporating collagen-chitosan scaffolds promote cutaneous wound healing with effective regeneration of hair follicles in a rat full-thickness skin injury model. In addition, IGF1/BM-MSCs inhibit inflammatory cytokines during wound healing. In vitro, we found that IGF1 promotes the proliferation and migration of BM-MSCs via the IGFR-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Collectively, in this study, we first demonstrated that IGF1 enhances BM-MSC-mediated wound healing as well as hair follicle regeneration. Our data suggest that the topical application of IGF1 and BM-MSCs incorporated in collagen-chitosan scaffolds can be used as a feasible and effective therapeutic approach to improve functional cutaneous wound healing.

7.
J Texture Stud ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155674

RESUMEN

Thickened fluids and texture-modified foods are commonly used in the medical management of individuals who suffer from swallowing difficulty (known as dysphagia). However, how to reliably assess texture properties of such food systems is still a big challenge both to industry and to academic researchers. This article aims to identify key physical parameters that are important for objective assessment of such properties by reviewing the significance of rheological or textural properties of thickened fluids and texture-modified foods for swallowing. Literature reviews have identified that dominating textural properties in relation to swallowing could be very different for thickened fluids and for texture-modified foods. Important parameters of thickened fluids are generally related with the flow of the bolus in the pharyngeal stage, while important parameters of texture-modified foods are generally related with the bolus preparation in the oral stage as well as the bolus flow in the pharyngeal stage. This review helps to identify key textural parameters of thickened fluids and texture-modified foods in relation to eating and swallowing and to develop objective measuring techniques for quality control of thickened fluids and texture-modified foods for dysphagia management.

9.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109465, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846552

RESUMEN

Saliva is an important component of food oral processing affecting the initial digestion and the formation of food bolus. It has been speculated that salivary biochemical properties could directly influence one's dietary habits, and vice versa. To date, there are few studies that investigate the possible relationships between dietary habits and salivary biochemical properties in Chinese participants from different dietary background. This study examined two Chinese ethnical groups of very different culture of food consumption, Han and Mongolian healthy young participants, as research participants to explore the differences in salivary biochemical properties and possible associations with dietary preferences. Chinese Mongolians tend to consume more red meat and dairy products, and Chinese Han tend to consume more carbohydrates as suggested by official data; therefore, a total of 304 healthy participants (200 Han and 104 Mongolian) were recruited for salivary compositional analysis. Results showed that for Mongolian participants' unstimulated salivary lipolytic activity (0.10 U/mL) and stimulated salivary lipolytic activity (0.09 U/mL) are significantly higher than those of the Han (0.03 U/mL, 0.04 U/mL) (p < 0.01), but their stimulated salivary α-amylase activity (2733 U/mL) was significantly lower than that of Han (3596 U/mL) (p < 0.01). Unstimulated and stimulated salivary total protein content of Chinese Han participants were significantly higher than those of Mongolian participants (p < 0.0001, p = 0.043). These findings have showed our initial hypothesis of possible associations between dietary habits and salivary biochemical properties.

10.
Arch Oral Biol ; 118: 104852, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758761

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Food comminution during chewing is due to intra-oral particle selection and subsequent breakage. Under conditions of habitual chewing and a nearly complete selection, the influence of initial breakage on particle size reduction was studied in trials with a first chewing cycle (N = 1) from a sequence of randomized trials with various cycle numbers. Furthermore, relationships were examined between degree of fragmentation from breakage (r-fr), molar maximal bite force (MBF) and chewing efficiency (the number of cycles needed to half the initial particle size, N(1/2-Xo)). DESIGN: Thirty-one subjects with a natural dentition chewed samples of 2 half-cubes (9.6 × 9.6x4.8 mm) of Optosil®, using sequences with 1-7 cycles, in 2-10 randomized trials; 10 trials with one cycle. Particle size distributions by underweight, characterized by median particle size, X50, were obtained using sieving. N(1/2-Xo) was derived from the log(X50)-log(N) relationship. and r-fr from the cumulative distribution of underweight fractions of damaged particles for N = 1. MBF was determined on both sides of the jaw using a force transducer and averaged. CONCLUSIONS: A strong, decreasing regression occurred in X50 at N = 1 with r-fr (R2 = 0.934, p < 0.001). The decreasing regression of N(1/2-Xo) with r-fr was moderately strong (R2 = 0.454; p < 0.001). Thus, initial size reduction is strongly determined by breakage and overall reduction partly, when chewing small amounts of particles. N(1/2-Xo) vs. MBF and r-fr vs. MBF were weakly related (R2≤0.124, p = 0.052-0.127). The lack of a pronounced relationship between r-fr and MBF suggests that either MBF is not relevant but supra-threshold force, or that another factor, occlusion, may influence breakage.

11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(4): 349-355, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131100

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of the study is to quantitatively assess shear-wave elastography (SWE) value in American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (ACR TI-RADS) 4. Materials and methods One hundred and fifty-two ACR TI-RADS 4 thyroid nodules undergoing SWE were included in the study. The mean (EMean), minimum (EMin) and maximum (EMax) of SWE elasticity were measured. Results The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for SWE EMean, EMin and EMax in detecting benign and malignant nodules were 0.95, 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Cut-off value of EMean ≤ 23.30 kPa is able to downgrade the lesion category to ACR TI-RADS 3 and cut-off value of EMean ≥ 52.14 kPa is able to upgrade the lesion category to ACR TI-RADS 5. Conclusions The EMean of SWE will probably identify nodules that have a high potential for benignity in ACR TI-RADS 4. It may help identify and select benign nodules while reducing unnecessary biopsy of benign thyroid nodules.

12.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(4): 349-355, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725061

RESUMEN

Objective The purpose of the study is to quantitatively assess shear-wave elastography (SWE) value in American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (ACR TI-RADS) 4. Materials and methods One hundred and fifty-two ACR TI-RADS 4 thyroid nodules undergoing SWE were included in the study. The mean (EMean), minimum (EMin) and maximum (EMax) of SWE elasticity were measured. Results The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for SWE EMean, EMin and EMax in detecting benign and malignant nodules were 0.95, 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Cut-off value of EMean ≤ 23.30 kPa is able to downgrade the lesion category to ACR TI-RADS 3 and cut-off value of EMean ≥ 52.14 kPa is able to upgrade the lesion category to ACR TI-RADS 5. Conclusions The EMean of SWE will probably identify nodules that have a high potential for benignity in ACR TI-RADS 4. It may help identify and select benign nodules while reducing unnecessary biopsy of benign thyroid nodules.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad , Nódulo Tiroideo , Biopsia , Sistemas de Datos , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
13.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(10): e4923, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558944

RESUMEN

A rapid, sensitive, and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed to quantify ipatasertib in dog plasma. The dog plasma sample was deproteinated by using acetonitrile with ulixertinib as an internal standard followed by separation on a Spursil C18 -EP column with a gradient mobile phase comprising 2 mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. Positive ion electrospray was used, and multiple reaction monitoring transitions were m/z 458.2 > 387.2 for ipatasertib and m/z 433.1 > 262.1 for the internal standard. The developed method was validated with a linear range of 0.3-1500 ng/mL, and with correlation coefficient greater than 0.9989. The lower limit of quantification was 0.3 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 3.58 to 14.32%, whereas the intra- and inter-day accuracy was in the range of -2.50-13.25%. No carry-over and matrix effects were observed under the current conditions. The extraction recovery was demonstrated to be greater than 85.43%. Ipatasertib was stable during the storage, processing, and determination. The validated assay was further successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of ipatasertib in dogs after oral and intravenous administrations. The bioavailability of ipatasertib was determined to be 19.3%.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(7): 507, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395551

RESUMEN

A 49-year-old female undergoing a periodic health examination at other hospital revealed a mass in the tail of pancreas. The patient denied any personal history of surgery except subtotal hysterectomy because of multiple myomas in uterus 7 years ago, family history of abdominal cancer and trauma. Physical examination and laboratory finding (including tumor marker) were unremarkable. Chest X-ray result was normal. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) examination showed a well-defined hypoechoic pancreatic mass which was suggestive of solid pseudopapillary tumor. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) of the abdomen revealed a mass of hypodensity suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Because of the risk of bleeding and exclusion of surgical contraindications, patient underwent laparoscopic surgery. Intraoperatively, a solid mass was identified in the tail of pancreas, the intraoperative frozen pathological examination suggested a heterotopic accessary spleen (HAS) with squamous epithelial cyst. Partial pancreatectomy was performed. The uniqueness of this case is that the spleen can be ectopic to the pancreas, what is even more unexpected is that the HAS undergone cystic change. When encountering a pancreatic mass, we need to think about the possibility of HAS. In conclusion, it is important to diagnose HAS with squamous cyst in the pancreatic tail presenting as other pancreatic masses.

15.
Food Res Int ; 133: 109197, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466935

RESUMEN

Capsaicin is the main bioactive compound in chili pepper that leads to the perception of "spiciness". However, the effect of capsaicin on aroma release in the nose remains unexplained. This is the first study designed to measure capsaicin's impact on aroma release during consumption. In vitro studies, using static headspace analysis by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS), showed no impact of capsaicin (5 ppm) on the gas-liquid partitioning equilibria of a range of aroma compounds. However, a significant reduction in aroma release was observed in vivo, during oral melting of a model ice cube system (p < 0.05) included 5 ppm capsaicin. The total release of aroma into the nasal cavity was decreased, such that only 49% of 3-methylbutanal, 60% of 1-octen-3-ol and 83% of linalool was released. This is the first evidence of capsaicin's reduction effect on aroma release during consumption. It was also found that 5 ppm capsaicin increased saliva secretion by 75%, which may have led to the dilution of aroma compounds in the mouth and directly impacted the aroma release into the nasal cavity. The most hydrophilic compound (3-methylbutanal) was affected by capsaicin to a greater extent than the hydrophobic compound (linalool), the solvent effect of the additional saliva may explain this.

16.
J Texture Stud ; 51(3): 375-388, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017109

RESUMEN

Food texture and mouthfeel play a crucial role in product and consumer acceptability. Creaminess, enjoyed by consumers, is a complex, multimodal sensory perception involving olfactory, gustatory and tactile cues. Oral viscosity and lubrication are the key underlying physical properties that define the mechanism of creaminess perception. Thickness, smoothness, mouth-coating, and dairy flavor can together play roles in the sensation of creaminess. The aim of this review is to present an understanding of the term" creaminess" along with different modalities involved in its perception, and to explore the oral physiological parameters and key physical properties that may be involved in the different oral modalities. An analysis of the previously examined links between food structure and composition and oral physiological parameters is presented. The review also presents a brief summary of previous models describing contributions of taste, aroma, and textural sensations. It emphasizes on the role of oral processing in testing proposed models with experimental evidence supporting those models and the future trends to enhance creaminess.

18.
J Texture Stud ; 51(4): 585-592, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110834

RESUMEN

The interaction between wine tannins and saliva proteins is responsible for wine astringency perception, producing a depletion of salivary proteins and changes on oral friction. In sensorial terms, astringency is described as a dryness and puckering sensation in the mouth, which is related to the "structure" or "body" of red wines. However, these last descriptors, as structure or body, are perceived during wine tasting and commonly related to wine viscosity. To address these differences on sensory response, we hypothesize that tannin-protein interactions could be a key factor involved in the viscosity of red wines/saliva mixtures, just as they are for astringency. We used a rheological method to study the impact of tannin-protein interaction on the viscosity of model wine-saliva systems. Mixtures of model saliva based on mucin and typical astringent compounds, as commercial tannins and gallic acid, were evaluated for their rheological behavior. The viscometric flow of the fluid mixtures was determined, and subsequently, the viscosity was evaluated at a shear rate of 60 s-1 . It was observed that red wines/saliva mixtures exhibit non-Newtonian flow and ascending tannin doses led to an increase in the apparent viscosity. Nephelometric analysis demonstrate that tannin-mucin aggregates were formed, which suggests that these complexes were potentially responsible for the viscosity increases, modifying the rheological behavior of these mixtures. Results from this work propose that tannin-protein interactions are also involved in the underlying mechanism of thickness perception of red wines and rheology could be a complementary instrumental technique for wine mouthfeel characterization.

19.
J Texture Stud ; 51(1): 169-184, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443131

RESUMEN

A test using a solid food is relevant to measure chewing ability (CA) as (a) it includes an integrated functioning of all oral structures involved, (b) an impairment of chewing a solid food causes inevitably diet restrictions, and (c) chewing efficiency (CE) can easily be defined. CE is the number of chewing cycles, N(1/2-Xo), needed to attain a particular chewing outcome (a median particle size, X 50 , which is half the initial particle size Xo) whereas chewing performance (CP) is a state of chewing outcome (X 50 ) at an arbitrary number of chewing cycles. The use of CE is preferable for CA because inter-subject ratios are constant regardless of the initial conditions of the test food. Furthermore, the inter-subject variation is two times larger for CE values than for CP ones, yielding a better inter-subject differentiation of CA. However, a determination of CP needs only one N-value, and that of CE at least two N-values for enabling an interpolation of N(1/2-Xo). Using samples of only two half-cubes (9.6 x 9.6 x 4.8 mm; limiting test load) of Optosil (an artificial test food), and detailed previous information on log(X 50 )-log(N) relationships (Liu et al., Archives of Oral Biology, 2018, 91, 63-77) as a "gold standard," a short procedure has been developed for a priori choosing two appropriate N-numbers, and the subsequent determination of a subject's CE. This procedure has been developed using results from 20 young adults (23.7 years, SD 1.1) and was validated in 10 middle-aged and older adults (52.3 years, SD 10.1), where impairments in the dentition were reflected in the CE-values. Our short procedure to determine CE will improve studies on relationships between CA and food preference, or between CA and dental factors and/or physiological factors. The first type of relationship may be of interest for food industry whereas the second type may be of interest for population studies in rapidly aging societies and for clinical studies in dentistry. Results can be compared between subjects and studies without bias by using CE rather than CP as a measure of CA.

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