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1.
iScience ; : 102187, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615195

RESUMEN

Dysregulated immune cell responses have been linked to the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the specific viral factors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were currently unknown. Herein, we reveal that the Ig-like fold ectodomain of the viral protein SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a interacts with high efficiency to CD14+ monocytes in human peripheral blood, compared to pathogenic protein SARS-CoV ORF7a. The crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a at 2.2 Å resolution reveals three remarkable changes on the amphipathic side of the four-stranded ß-sheet, implying a potential functional interface of the viral protein. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a coincubation with CD14+ monocytes ex vivo triggered a decrease in HLA-DR/DP/DQ expression levels and upregulated significant production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, and TNF-α. Our work demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a is an immunomodulating factor for immune cell binding and triggers dramatic inflammatory responses, providing promising therapeutic drug targets for pandemic COVID-19.

2.
Water Res ; 193: 116870, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545438

RESUMEN

Research on decentralized wastewaters deserves special focus due to the potential abundance of emerging organic pollutants including pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which might pose serious threats to the local water bodies and even to human health. Constructed wetland (CW) is a common decentralized wastewater treatment technology, with a certain ability to eliminate PPCPs. Nonetheless, PPCPs removal in common CWs is frequently challenging, besides, the removal mechanism remains elusive. Based on our previous study, tidal flow constructed wetlands (TFCWs) is effective in nitrogen removal. Here, 3 TFCWs with different modifications (baffle, plants, both baffle and plants) were constructed to treat raw domestic sewage and specifically to evaluate the removal efficiencies and mechanism of PPCPs. 24 PPCPs including 7 antibiotics, 8 steroid hormones and 9 biocides were detected in the level of 1.10 ± 0.29 ng/L-799 ± 10.6 ng/L in the influents. Consequently, we found that modification with both baffle and plants significantly influenced the removal of PPCPs. Moreover, the highest removal rates of biocides (97.1 ± 0.29%), steroid hormones (99.8 ± 0.02%), and antibiotics (90.2 ± 1.60%) were achieved via both baffles and plants in TFCWs. Based on the mass balance analysis, microbial degradation dominated the removal of PPCPs with a percentage higher than 85.7%, followed by substrate adsorption (5.22 × 10-2-14.3%) and plant uptake (1.66 × 10-3-0.44%). Further, 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the presence of baffle and plants improve the removal efficiency of PPCPs by means of enhancing microbial diversity and changing dominant microorganisms. Moreover, Thaumarchaeota was potentially the key microorganism in the phylum level for PPCPs elimination by TFCWs through LEfSe (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size) analysis. These findings provide new insights into the removal of PPCPs in CWs.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 814, 2021 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547300

RESUMEN

On the basis of Covid-19-induced pulmonary pathological and vascular changes, we hypothesize that the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug bevacizumab might be beneficial for treating Covid-19 patients. From Feb 15 to April 5, 2020, we conducted a single-arm trial (NCT04275414) and recruited 26 patients from 2-centers (China and Italy) with severe Covid-19, with respiratory rate ≥30 times/min, oxygen saturation ≤93% with ambient air, or partial arterial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspiration O2 ratio (PaO2/FiO2) >100 mmHg and ≤300 mmHg, and diffuse pneumonia confirmed by chest imaging. Followed up for 28 days. Among these, bevacizumab plus standard care markedly improves the PaO2/FiO2 ratios at days 1 and 7. By day 28, 24 (92%) patients show improvement in oxygen-support status, 17 (65%) patients are discharged, and none show worsen oxygen-support status nor die. Significant reduction of lesion areas/ratios are shown in chest computed tomography (CT) or X-ray within 7 days. Of 14 patients with fever, body temperature normalizes within 72 h in 13 (93%) patients. Relative to comparable controls, bevacizumab shows clinical efficacy by improving oxygenation and shortening oxygen-support duration. Our findings suggest bevacizumab plus standard care is highly beneficial for patients with severe Covid-19. Randomized controlled trial is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Bevacizumab/uso terapéutico , /efectos de los fármacos , Anciano , Inhibidores de la Angiogénesis/uso terapéutico , Temperatura Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , China , Femenino , Fiebre/prevención & control , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
Biochemistry ; 60(7): 494-499, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570402

RESUMEN

The candidate anticancer drug curaxins can insert into DNA base pairs and efficiently inhibit the growth of various cancers. However, how curaxins alter the genomic DNA structure and affect the DNA binding property of key proteins remains to be clarified. Here, we first showed that curaxin CBL0137 strongly stabilizes the interaction between the double strands of DNA and reduces DNA bending and twist rigidity simultaneously, by single-molecule magnetic tweezers. More importantly, we found that CBL0137 greatly impairs the binding of CTCF but facilitates trapping FACT on DNA. We revealed that CBL0137 clamps the DNA double helix that may induce a huge barrier for DNA unzipping during replication and transcription and causes the distinct binding response of CTCF and FACT on DNA. Our work provides a novel mechanical insight into CBL0137's anticancer mechanisms at the nucleic acid level.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 327: 124785, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582520

RESUMEN

Aiming at the accumulation of NO2--N and N2O during denitrification process, this work focused to improve the denitrification performance by Pd-Fe embedded multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The main conclusions were as follows: 30 mg/L Pd-Fe/MWCNTs have shown an excellent promotion on denitrification (completely TN removal at 36 h). Meanwhile, enzyme activity results indicated that the generation of NO2--N, NH4+-N by Pd-Fe/MWCNTs led the occur of short-cut denitrification by increasing 203.9% the nitrite reductase activity. Furthermore, electrochemical results and index correlation analysis confirmed that the electron exchange capacity (1.401 mmol eg-1) of Pd-Fe/MWCNTs was positively related to nitrite reductase activity, indicating its crucial role in electron transport activity (0.46 µg O2/(protein·min) at 24 h) during denitrification process by Pd-Fe/MWCNTs played a role of chemical reductant and redox mediator.

6.
Neurobiol Dis ; 152: 105302, 2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609640

RESUMEN

Both spinophilin (SPN, also known as neurabin 2) and Rac1 (a member of Rho GTPase family) are believed to play key roles in dendritic spine (DS) remodeling and spinal nociception. However, how SPN interacts with Rac1 in the above process is unknown. Here, we first demonstrated natural existence of SPN-protein phosphatase 1-Rac1 complex in the spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons by both double immunofluorescent labeling and co-immunoprecipitation, then the effects of SPN over-expression and down-regulation on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity, GTP-bound Rac1-ERK signaling activity, and spinal DS density were studied. Over-expression of SPN in spinal neurons by intra-DH pAAV-CMV-SPN-3FLAG could block both mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity induced by intraplantar bee venom injection, however it had no effect on the basal pain sensitivity. Over-expression of SPN also resulted in a significant decrease in GTP-Rac1-ERK activities, relative to naive and irrelevant control (pAAV-MCS). In sharp contrast, knockdown of SPN in spinal neurons by intra-DH pAAV-CAG-eGFP-U6-shRNA[SPN] produced both pain hypersensitivity and dramatic elevation of GTP-Rac1-ERK activities, relative to naive and irrelevant control (pAAV-shRNA [NC]). Moreover, knockdown of SPN resulted in increase in DS density while over-expression of it had no such effect. Collectively, SPN is likely to serve as a regulator of Rac1 signaling to suppress DS morphogenesis via negative control of GTP-bound Rac1-ERK activities at postsynaptic component in rat DH neurons wherein both mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity are controlled.

7.
Neuroscience ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588002

RESUMEN

Emerging evidence suggests that the coupling relating the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain to its functional connectivity (FC) exhibits remarkable changes during development, normal aging, and diseases. Although altered structural-functional connectivity couplings (SC-FC couplings) have been previously reported in schizophrenia patients, the alterations in SC-FC couplings of different illness stages of schizophrenia (SZ) remain largely unknown. In this study, we collected structural and resting-state functional MRI data from 73 normal controls (NCs), 61 first-episode (FeSZ) and 78 chronic (CSZ) schizophrenia patients. Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores were assessed for all patients. Structural and functional brain networks were constructed using gray matter volume (GMV) and resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) time series measurements. At the connectivity level, the CSZ patients showed significantly increased SC-FC coupling strength compared with the FeSZ patients. At the node strength level, significant decreased SC-FC coupling strength was observed in the FeSZ patients compared to that of the NCs, and the coupling strength was positively correlated with negative PANSS scores. These results demonstrated divergent alterations of SC-FC couplings in FeSZ and CSZ patients. Our findings provide new insight into the neuropathological mechanisms underlying the developmental course of SZ.

8.
J Neurosci ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627325

RESUMEN

Neuromodulatory communication among various neurons and non-neuronal cells mediates myriad physiological and pathological processes, yet defining regulatory and functional features of neuromodulatory transmission remains challenging due to limitations of available monitoring tools. Recently developed genetically encoded neuromodulatory transmitter sensors, when combined with superresolution and/or deconvolution microscopy, allow the first visualization of neuromodulatory transmission with nano- or micro-scale spatiotemporal resolution. In vitro and in vivo experiments have validated several high-performing sensors to have the qualities necessary for demarcating fundamental synaptic properties of neuromodulatory transmission, and initial analysis has unveiled unexpected fine control and precision of neuromodulation. These new findings underscore the importance of synaptic dynamics in synapse-, subcellular-, and circuit-specific neuromodulation, as well as the prospect of genetically encoded transmitter sensors in expanding our knowledge of various behaviors and diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, sleeping disorders, tumorigenesis, and many others.

9.
Immunotherapy ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629592

RESUMEN

Aim: We assessed the efficiency of immune checkpoint inhibitors relative to other systemic therapies in previously treated recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Materials & methods: Relative treatment effects were assessed from eligible randomized controlled trials using Bayesian network meta-analyses. Results: Among 15 trials evaluating 14 treatments, nivolumab achieved the best overall survival (OS) benefit; zalutumumab and buparlisib + paclitaxel provided the best progression-free survival benefit and objective response rate. Buparlisib + paclitaxel and zalutumumab were associated with the best OS rate at 6 and 12 months, respectively; nivolumab yielded the best OS rate at 18-24 months. Conclusion: Nivolumab was the most favorable treatment. Zalutumumab and buparlisib + paclitaxel had better efficiency, and might be a better selection for patients with programmed death-ligand 1-low/negative tumors than other treatments.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624637

RESUMEN

The DNAzyme activity of G-quadruplex/hemin in mitochondria has not been characterized. Herein, we report an unexpected difference in the DNAzyme activity between in vitro assays and in mitochondria. Molecular dynamic simulations illustrate how the interaction of the G-quadruplex with hemin may modulate the DNAzyme activity. These results might facilitate a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of the DNAzyme and help the rational design of stable and active DNAzymes suitable for intracellular catalysis.

11.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 51, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no reliable blood-based marker to track tumor recurrence in endometrial cancer (EC) patients. Liquid biopsies, specifically, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis emerged as a way to monitor tumor metastasis. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of ctDNA in recurrence surveillance and prognostic evaluation of high-risk EC. METHODS: Tumor tissues from nine high-risk EC patients were collected during primary surgery and tumor DNA was subjected to next generation sequencing to obtain the initial mutation spectrum using a 78 cancer-associated gene panel. Baseline and serial post-operative plasma samples were collected and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays for patient-specific mutations were developed to track the mutations in the ctDNA in serial plasma samples. Log-rank test was used to assess the association between detection of ctDNA before or after surgery and disease-free survival. RESULTS: Somatic mutations were identified in all of the cases. The most frequent mutated genes were PTEN, FAT4, ARID1A, TP53, ZFHX3, ATM, and FBXW7. For each patient, personalized ddPCR assays were designed for one-to-three high-frequent mutations. DdPCR analysis and tumor panel sequencing had a high level of agreement in the assessment of the mutant allele fractions in baseline tumor tissue DNA. CtDNA was detected in 67% (6 of 9) of baseline plasma samples, which was not predictive of disease-free survival (DFS). CtDNA was detected in serial post-operative plasma samples (ctDNA tracking) of 44% (4 of 9) of the patients, which predicted tumor relapse. The DFS was a median of 9 months (ctDNA detected) versus median DFS undefined (ctDNA not detected), with a hazard ratio of 17.43 (95% CI, 1.616-188.3). The sensitivity of post-operative ctDNA detection in estimating tumor relapse was 100% and specificity was 83.3%, which was superior to CA125 or HE4. CONCLUSIONS: Personalized ctDNA detection was effective and stable for high-risk EC. CtDNA tracking in post-operative plasma is valuable for predicting tumor recurrence.

12.
Trends Biotechnol ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551177

RESUMEN

Arterial pulse waves are regarded as vital diagnostic tools in the assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because of their high sensitivity, rapid response time, wearability, and low cost, textile triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are emerging as a compelling biotechnology for wearable pulse wave monitoring. We discuss sensing mechanisms for pulse-to-electricity conversion, analytical models for calculating cardiovascular parameters, and application scenarios for textile TENGs. We provide a prospective on the challenges that limit the wider application of this technology and suggest some future research directions. In the future, textile TENGs are expected to make an impact in the fields of wearable pulse wave monitoring and CVD diagnosis.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567571

RESUMEN

In order to effectively control carbon dioxide emissions of motorized vehicles, it is very important to measure their carbon dioxide emission factors. The objective of this paper was to develop measurement models for the carbon dioxide emission factors of passenger cars. Road systems of downtown areas of four typical Chinese counties were explored and 12 types of basic road networks were recognized and defined. With PTV Vissim, microscopic traffic simulation models were set up for every type of basic road network, average speeds of the simulated cars were collected, and carbon dioxide emissions were calculated using MOVES (Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator) software. For model development, the paper put forth two compound explanatory variables: the weighted average of segment lengths and the sum of critical ratios of volume to saturation flow rate. Six functional relationships for the variables were tested and the double exponential function was proven to be the most appropriate. Finally, for each of the 12 types of basic road networks, a measurement model for carbon dioxide emission factors was calibrated using the double exponential function for the variables. The measurement models can be used to estimate the carbon dioxide emissions of passenger cars concerning potential improvement schemes impacting traffic demand and/or traffic supply.

14.
Xenotransplantation ; : e12678, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569837

RESUMEN

Islet transplantation is poised to play an important role in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, there are several challenges limiting its widespread use, including the instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, hypoxic/ischemic injury, and the immune response. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are known to exert regenerative, immunoregulatory, angiogenic, and metabolic properties. Here, we review recent reports on the application of MSCs in islet allo- and xenotransplantation. We also document the clinical trials that have been undertaken or are currently underway, relating to the co-transplantation of islets and MSCs. Increasing evidence indicates that co-transplantation of MSCs prolongs islet graft survival by locally secreted protective factors that reduce immune reactivity and promote vascularization, cell survival, and regeneration. MSC therapy may be a promising option for islet transplantation in patients with T1DM.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525494

RESUMEN

This study aimed to examine the effects of increasing levels of three 18-carbon fatty acids (stearate, oleate and linoleate) on mammary lipogenesis, and to evaluate their effects on the milk lipogenic pathway in porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMECs). We found that increasing the three of 18-carbon fatty acids enhanced the cellular lipid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner, as reflected by the increased (triacylglycerol) TAG content and cytosolic lipid droplets in pMECs. The increased lipid synthesis by the three 18-carbon fatty acids was probably caused by the up-regulated expression of major genes associated with milk fat biosynthesis, including CD36 (long chain fatty acid uptake); GPAM, AGPAT6, DGAT1 (TAG synthesis); PLIN2 (lipid droplet formation); and PPARγ (regulation of transcription). Western blot analysis of CD36, DGAT1 and PPARγ proteins confirmed this increase with the increasing incubation of 18-carbon fatty acids. Interestingly, the mRNA expressions of ACSL3 and FABP3 (fatty acids intracellular activation and transport) were differentially affected by the three 18-carbon fatty acids. The cellular mRNA expressions of ACSL3 and FABP3 were increased by stearate, but were decreased by oleate or linoleate. However, the genes involved in fatty acid de novo synthesis (ACACA and FASN) and the regulation of transcription (SREBP1) were decreased by incubation with increasing concentrations of 18-carbon fatty acids. In conclusion, our findings provided evidence that 18-carbon fatty acids (stearate, oleate and linoleate) significantly increased cytosolic TAG accumulation in a dose-dependent manner, probably by promoting lipogenic genes and proteins that regulate the channeling of fatty acids towards milk TAG synthesis in pMECs.

16.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560855

RESUMEN

Nanostructured all-inorganic metal halide perovskites have attracted considerable attention due to their outstanding photonic and optoelectronic properties. Particularly, they can exhibit room-temperature exciton-polaritons (EPs) capable of confining electromagnetic fields down to the subwavelength scale, enabling efficient light harvesting and guiding. However, a real-space nanoimaging study of the EPs in perovskite crystals is still absent. Additionally, few studies focused on the ambient-pressure and reliable fabrication of large-area CsPbBr3 microsheets. Here, CsPbBr3 orthorhombic microsheet single crystals were successfully synthesized under ambient pressure. Their EPs were examined using a real-space nanoimaging technique, which reveal EP waveguide modes spanning the visible to near-infrared spectral region. The EPs exhibit a sufficient long propagation length of over 16 µm and a very low propagation loss of less than 0.072 dB·µm-1. These results demonstrate the potential applications of CsPbBr3 microsheets as subwavelength waveguides in integrated optics.

17.
Surgery ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558067

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whether laparoscopic gastrectomy is suitable for patients with serosa-invasive gastric cancer remains controversial. We performed this study to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes after laparoscopic gastrectomy compared with after open gastrectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 906 consecutive patients with serosa-invasive gastric cancer from January 2004 to December 2014 in our center, who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy or open gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. After propensity score matching, 334 patients were included in each group. Surgical conditions and short- and long-term results were compared. RESULTS: Laparoscopic gastrectomy was associated with less estimated blood loss and longer operation time, while the number of harvested lymph nodes was not significantly different between laparoscopic gastrectomy and open gastrectomy. Patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy had an earlier time to first flatus, first diet, and first ambulation and were discharged earlier. Overall and pulmonary postoperative complication rates were lower in the laparoscopic gastrectomy group. With a minimum follow-up of 60 months, the 5-year overall survival was 39.3% in the laparoscopic gastrectomy group and 34.3% in the open gastrectomy group, and the 5-year disease-free survival was 36.4% in the laparoscopic gastrectomy group and 32.7% in the open gastrectomy group. Laparoscopic gastrectomy was associated with better 5-year overall survival in patients aged ≥60 years. The overall recurrence rates and patterns were not significantly different between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic gastrectomy is an alternative surgical approach for patients with serosa-invasive gastric cancer in terms of short-term outcomes and long-term survival, and it might be more advantageous for certain populations.

18.
J Cell Physiol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559206

RESUMEN

Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and their signaling elements are detected throughout the body, and bitter tastants induce a wide variety of biological responses in tissues and organs outside the mouth. However, the roles of TAS2Rs in these responses remain to be tested and established genetically. Here, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technique to delete three bitter taste receptors-Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 (i.e., Tas2r triple knockout [TKO]) in mice. The fidelity and effectiveness of the Tas2r deletions were validated genetically at DNA and messenger RNA levels and functionally based on the tasting of TAS2R135 and TAS2R126 agonists. Bitter tastants are known to relax airways completely. However, TAS2R135 or TAS2R126 agonists either failed to induce relaxation of pre-contracted airways in wild-type mice and Tas2r TKO mice or relaxed them dose-dependently, but to the same extent in both types of mice. These results indicate that TAS2Rs are not required for bitter tastant-induced bronchodilation. The Tas2r TKO mice also provide a valuable model to resolve whether TAS2Rs mediate bitter tastant-induced responses in many other extraoral tissues.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560114

RESUMEN

Antiferroelectrics are of great academic and technological interest due to their excellent strain and energy storage properties, while the incommensurate modulation-related complex configuration of polarization remains unclear. In this study, an intriguing polarization configuration of mixed Ising- and Néel-type has been established in the prototype PbZrO3-based antiferroelectric materials via the combination of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction investigations. Such unusual polarization configuration of antiferroelectrics shows the internal coupling, which mainly contributes from the displacement of the A-site and the distortion of the AO12 and BO6 polyhedra. The electric dipole oscillates in the (001)P plane, and its magnitude and direction show obvious modulation characteristics resulting in a neither antiparallel nor fully compensated polarization configuration, which is completely different from the traditional view of antiferroelectricity. There is an antiferroelectric feature along the [110]P direction, while there is a ferrielectric one along the [1̅10]P direction in which the net polarization can reach 12 µC/cm2. The maximum local polarization can reach 4.3 µC/cm2 in the [110]P direction and 27.6 µC/cm2 in the [1̅10]P direction. This work will be very helpful for the development of antiferroelectric theories and the design of novel energy storage materials.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543181

RESUMEN

Bismuthene was prepared via the oxidation of Zintl clusters by electrochemical cathodic corrosion. It was found that the conversion of Zintl clusters from Bi22- to Bi2 occurred in the electrolyte having short alkyl chains due to the faster kinetics of highly reactive carbocation. Considering that c-Na3Bi exists in a wide voltage range, monitored by in situ XRD, a new wide peak for the as-obtained bismuthene in the CV curve was noticed, which benefits the improvement of electrochemical performances.

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