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1.
J Affect Disord ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608767

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression and insomnia are common co-occurring psychiatric problems among older adults who have had strokes. Nevertheless, symptom-level relationships between these disorders remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared inter-relationships of depression and insomnia symptoms with life satisfaction among older stroke patients and stroke-free peers in the United States. METHODS: The study included 1026 older adults with a history of stroke and 3074 matched controls. Data were derived from the US Health and Retirement Study. Depression, insomnia and life satisfaction were assessed. Propensity score matching was employed to identify demographically-similar groups of stroke patients and controls. Central and bridge symptoms were assessed using Expected influence (EI) and bridge EI, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression in the stroke group (25.0 %) was higher than that of controls (14.3 %, P < 0.001). In stroke group, "Feeling depressed" (CESD1; EI: 5.80), "Feeling sad" (CESD7; EI: 4.67) and "Not enjoying life" (CESD6; EI: 4.51) were the most central symptoms, while "Not feel rested in the morning" (JSS4; BEI: 1.60), "Everything was an effort" (CESD2; BEI: 1.21) and "Waking up during the night" (JSS2; BEI: 0.98) were key bridge symptoms. In controls, the most central symptoms were "Lack of happiness" (CESD4; EI: 6.45), "Feeling depressed" (CESD1; EI: 6.17), and "Feeling sad" (CESD7; EI: 6.12). Furthermore, "Feeling tired in the morning" (JSS4; BEI: 1.93), "Everything was an effort" (CESD2; BEI: 1.30), and "Waking up too early" (JSS3; BEI: 1.12) were key bridge symptoms. Life satisfaction had the most direct associations with "Not enjoying life" (CESD6) and "Feeling lonely" (CESD5) in the two groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Older adults with stroke exhibited more severe depression and insomnia symptoms. Interventions targeting central and bridge symptoms may help to mitigate the co-occurrence of these symptoms.

2.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; : 104085, 2024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614272

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic wounds refer to those that can't reconstruct anatomical and physical functional integrity, and are usually associated with signs of microbial infection. Current therapies include debridement and dressing change, local or systemic application of antibiotics, and medical dressing care, which are not ideal for the healing of chronic wounds. OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) for the treatment of chronic infectious wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALA-PDT was used in ten patients with persistent wound infections and systemic complications who did not respond to conventional treatment. 5% ALA solution was applied to the wound surface after debridement, incubated for 3 hours with light protection, and then irradiated with red light for 20 minutes. This procedure was repeated every two weeks, and any adverse reactions were recorded. After the end of three treatments, the patients were followed up for 3 months. RESULTS: Patients who exhibit resistance to traditional therapies demonstrate a favorable therapeutic outcome with ALA-PDT, although complications may impede wound healing. All participants successfully underwent ALA-PDT treatment and subsequent monitoring, with 90% achieving complete healing. Common adverse reactions to ALA-PDT encompass treatment-related pain, temporary erythema, and swelling, all of which are well-tolerated by patients without enduring severe consequences. CONCLUSIONS: ALA-PDT proves to be an efficacious intervention for managing chronic wounds, irrespective of the presence of localized infections or systemic complications.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 2024 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484881

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Airline pilots are members of a unique occupational group that is often confronted with sleep routine disruptions, yet relatively few studies have examined their mental health status. This study assessed the prevalence and network structure of internet addiction, depression and sleep quality problems in commercial airline pilots. METHOD: A total of 7055 airline pilots were included in analyses. Internet addiction and depression were measured with the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The network model was constructed based on an Ising model and its association with sleep quality were evaluated using a flow procedure. RESULTS: Internet addiction, depression and sleep quality were common among airline pilots. The prevalence of internet addiction was 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.6 %), while the rates of depression and poor sleep quality were 23.3 % (95 % CI: 22.3-24.2 %) and 33.0 % (95 % CI: 31.9-34.1 %), respectively. In the depression and internet addiction network model, "Fatigue" (PHQ4; Expected Influence (EI): 2.04) and "Depressed/moody/nervous only while being offline" (IAT20; EI: 1.76) were most central symptoms, while "Fatigue" (PHQ4; Bridge EI: 1.30) was also the most important bridge symptom. The flow network model of sleep quality with internet addiction and depression showed that "Appetite" (PHQ5) had the strongest positive association with poor sleep quality. CONCLUSION: Internet addiction, depression and sleep quality were common among airline pilots and warrant regular screening and timely treatment. Strategies to improve sleep hygiene may be useful in preventing onsets or exacerbations in depression and internet addiction among airline pilots.

4.
Curr Biol ; 34(5): R191-R192, 2024 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471444

RESUMEN

Blinking is a behavior unique to animal taxa with motile eyelids, such as most amphibians and reptiles as well as all birds and mammals1. Eyelid movement has physiological functions, such as lubricating the cornea and washing away dust, but its potential signaling functions are not well understood1,2. The use of eyeblinks as a social signal is currently thought to be restricted to some primates, especially humans and their companion animals, but has not been verified in other taxa1,3,4. Here, through field observation and experiments, we demonstrate that female concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota), which inhabit noisy streams, use eyeblinks to communicate with males to urge them to initiate amplexus for mating. Our findings reveal that eyeblinks may serve as a social signal in non-primate species.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Parpadeo , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Anuros/fisiología , Ranidae/fisiología , Ruido , Mamíferos
5.
Mol Pharm ; 2024 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554143

RESUMEN

GRP78, a member of the HSP70 superfamily, is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein overexpressed in various cancers, making it a promising target for cancer imaging and therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging offers unique advantages in real time, noninvasive tumor imaging, rendering it a suitable tool for targeting GRP78 in tumor imaging to guide targeted therapy. Several studies have reported successful tumor imaging using PET probes targeting GRP78. However, existing PET probes face challenges such as low tumor uptake, inadequate in vivo distribution, and high abdominal background signal. Therefore, this study introduces a novel peptide PET probe, [18F]AlF-NOTA-c-DVAP, for targeted tumor imaging of GRP78. [18F]AlF-NOTA-c-DVAP was radiolabeled with fluoride-18 using the aluminum-[18F]fluoride ([18F]AlF) method. The study assessed the partition coefficients, stability in vitro, and metabolic stability of [18F]AlF-NOTA-c-DVAP. Micro-PET imaging, pharmacokinetic analysis, and biodistribution studies were carried out in tumor-bearing mice to evaluate the probe's performance. Docking studies and pharmacokinetic analyses of [18F]AlF-NOTA-c-DVAP were also performed. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses were conducted to confirm GRP78 expression in tumor tissues. The probe's binding affinity to GRP78 was analyzed by molecular docking simulation. [18F]AlF-NOTA-c-DVAP was radiolabeled in just 25 min with a high yield of 51 ± 16%, a radiochemical purity of 99%, and molar activity within the range of 20-50 GBq/µmol. [18F]AlF-NOTA-c-DVAP demonstrated high stability in vitro and in vivo, with a logD value of -3.41 ± 0.03. Dynamic PET imaging of [18F]AlF-NOTA-c-DVAP in tumors showed rapid uptake and sustained retention, with minimal background uptake. Biodistribution studies revealed rapid blood clearance and excretion through the kidneys following a single-compartment reversible metabolic model. In PET imaging, the T/M ratios for A549 tumors (high GRP78 expression), MDA-MB-231 tumors (medium expression), and HepG2 tumors (low expression) at 60 min postintravenous injection were 10.48 ± 1.39, 6.25 ± 0.47, and 3.15 ± 1.15% ID/g, respectively, indicating a positive correlation with GRP78 expression. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using [18F]AlF-NOTA-c-DVAP as a PET tracer for imaging GRP78 in tumors. The probe shows promising results in terms of stability, specificity, and tumor targeting. Further research may explore the clinical utility and potential therapeutic applications of this PET tracer for cancer diagnosis.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 354: 743-751, 2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521138

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Researchers have endeavored to ascertain the network dysfunction associated with behavioral addiction (BA) through the utilization of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Nevertheless, the identification of aberrant patterns within large-scale networks pertaining to BA has proven to be challenging. METHODS: Whole-brain seed-based rsFC studies comparing subjects with BA and healthy controls (HC) were collected from multiple databases. Multilevel kernel density analysis was employed to ascertain brain networks in which BA was linked to hyper-connectivity or hypo-connectivity with each prior network. RESULTS: Fifty-six seed-based rsFC publications (1755 individuals with BA and 1828 HC) were included in the meta-analysis. The present study indicate that individuals with BAs exhibit (1) hypo-connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (FN) and hypo- and hyper-connectivity within the ventral attention network (VAN); (2) hypo-connectivity between the FN and regions of the VAN, hypo-connectivity between the VAN and regions of the FN and default mode network (DMN), hyper-connectivity between the DMN and regions of the FN; (3) hypo-connectivity between the reward system and regions of the sensorimotor network (SS), DMN and VAN; (4) hypo-connectivity between the FN and regions of the SS, hyper-connectivity between the VAN and regions of the SS. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide impetus for a conceptual framework positing a model of BA characterized by disconnected functional coordination among large-scale networks.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Humanos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Conducta Adictiva/diagnóstico por imagen , Bases de Datos Factuales , Análisis Multinivel , Mapeo Encefálico
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429554

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of poor sleep quality (PSQ) in the general population leads to negative health outcomes. Since estimates of PSQ prevalence in the Chinese general population vary widely, this meta-analysis aimed to refine these estimates and to identify moderating factors. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was undertaken in both international (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and EMBASE) and Chinese (Wanfang, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases) databases from inception to 23 November 2023. Studies were required to have used standard scales such as the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The pooled prevalence of PSQ and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed to identify sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: In 32 studies with a combined 376,824 participants, the pooled prevalence of PSQ was 19.0% (95% CI 15.8-22.8%; range 6.6-43.6%). Across 22 studies that reported PSQI data, the pooled mean score was 4.32 (95%CI 3.82-4.81; SD = 0.502). The pooled mean sleep duration across 8 studies was 7.62 (95% CI 7.23-8.00; SD = 0.194) hours. Subgroup analyses showed that lower education (Q = 4.12, P = 0.042), living in less developed regions (Q = 60.28, P < 0.001), and lower PSQI cutoff values (Q = 9.80, P = 0.007) were significantly associated with PSQ. Meta-regression analyses showed that study quality was inversely associated with estimated PSQ prevalence (ß = - 0.442, P = 0.004). LIMITATIONS: Although measures such as subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed, substantial heterogeneity remained. Information related to sleep quality, such as comorbid physical diseases or psychiatric disorders, substance use, occupational types, and employment status, were not reported in most studies. CONCLUSION: One in five people in the general population of China may have PSQ and people with lower education or living in western regions may be more susceptible.

8.
Age Ageing ; 53(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the associations between pain trajectories and cognitive function in older adults. This study explored the associations between pain trajectories and different cognitive domains in older adults from a network perspective. METHODS: Data on pain trajectories were derived from the Health and Retirement Study between 2010 and 2020 using latent class growth analyses. Measurements of key cognition domains, including memory, attention, calculation, orientation and language, were included. Linear regression and network analysis were performed to evaluate the associations between different pain trajectories and cognition. RESULTS: A total of 9,551 older adults were included in this study and three trajectories of pain were identified. After controlling for the covariates, persistent severe pain trajectory was associated with poorer overall cognition, memory and calculation ability when compared to mild or non-persistent pain trajectory. In the pain and cognition network model, memory (expected influence (EI) = 0.62), language (EI = 0.58) and calculation (EI = 0.41) were the most central domains. CONCLUSIONS: Pain trajectories appeared stable over time among older adults in this study. Severity of persistent pain was an important risk factor for poor cognition, especially in relation to memory and calculation domains. Interventions targeting memory, language and calculation domains might be useful in addressing cognitive decline in older adults with persistent pain.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Disfunción Cognitiva , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Dolor/diagnóstico , Dolor/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales
9.
Food Funct ; 15(7): 3752-3764, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506160

RESUMEN

This study aimed to elucidate the effect of tyrosol (TYR) on the amelioration of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a HFD supplemented with 0.025% (w/w) TYR (TYR) for 16 weeks. Following a 16-week intervention, the TYR cohort exhibited diminished final body weight and hepatic lipid accumulation, compared to HFD fed mice. Liver metabolomics analysis revealed that TYR increased the hepatic levels of spermidine, taurine, linoleic acid, malic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), indicating the beneficial effect of TYR on lipid homeostasis. Using molecular docking analysis and the luciferase assay, we found that TYR acts as a ligand and binds with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), which plays a pivotal role in the modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, thereby activating the transcription of downstream genes. Our results suggest that TYR alleviates NAFLD in HFD-fed mice probably by the modulation of the PPARα signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Alcohol Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Masculino , Animales , Ratones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/etiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/genética , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Hígado/metabolismo , Lípidos/farmacología
10.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 20: 195-209, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38333613

RESUMEN

Background: Suicidality is a global public health problem which has increased considerably during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study examined the inter-relationships between depressive symptoms and suicidality using network analysis among Macau residents after the "relatively static management" COVID-19 strategy. Methods: An assessment of suicidal ideation (SI), suicide plan (SP), suicide attempt (SA) and depressive symptoms was conducted with the use of individual binary response items (yes/no) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). In the network analysis, central and bridge symptoms were identified in the network through "Expected Influence" and "Bridge Expected Influence", and specific symptoms that were directly associated with suicidality were identified via the flow function. Network Comparison Tests (NCT) were conducted to examine the gender differences in network characteristics. Results: The study sample included a total of 1008 Macau residents. The prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidality were 62.50% (95% CI = 59.4-65.5%) and 8.9% (95% CI = 7.2-10.9%), respectively. A network analysis of the sample identified SI ("Suicidal ideation") as the most central symptom, followed by SP ("Suicide plan") and PHQ4 ("Fatigue"). SI ("Suicidal ideation") and PHQ6 ("Guilt") were bridge nodes connecting depressive symptoms and suicidality. A flow network revealed that the strongest connection was between S ("Suicidality") and PHQ6 ("Guilt"), followed by S ("Suicidality") and PHQ 7 ("Concentration"), and S ("Suicidality") and PHQ3 ("Sleep"). Conclusion: The findings indicated that reduction of specific depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts may be relevant in decreasing suicidality among adults. Further, suicide assessment and prevention measures should address the central and bridge symptoms identified in this study.

11.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 37(3): 147-161, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415684

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Controversy remains about the difference in mental health status among children and adolescents between one-child and multichild families in China. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing mental health status between both groups and explored their potential moderating factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Totally, 113 eligible studies encompassing 237 899 participants (one-child families: 83 125; multichild families: 154 774) were included. The pooled SMD of SCL-90 total score was -0.115 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.152; -0.078; I2  = 86.9%]. Specifically, children and adolescents from one-child families exhibited lower scores in terms of somatization (SMD = -0.056; 95% CI: -0.087; -0.026), obsessive-compulsive symptoms (SMD = -0.116; 95% CI: -0.154; -0.079), interpersonal sensitivity (SMD = -0.140; 95% CI: -0.171; -0.109), depression (SMD = -0.123; 95% CI: -0.159; -0.088); anxiety (SMD = -0.121; 95% CI: -0.151; -0.092); phobic anxiety (SMD = -0.124; 95% CI: -0.166; -0.081); paranoid ideation (SMD = -0.040; 95% CI: -0.070; -0.009); and psychoticism (SMD = -0.119; 95% CI: -0.148; -0.089). Study publication year was significantly associated with differences in mental health status between both groups ( P  = 0.015). SUMMARY: Children and adolescents from one-child families had better mental health status compared to those from multichild families in China. Future studies should investigate the underlying factors contributing to such mental health differences, and the potential interventions that could address these mental health problems.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Adolescente , Humanos , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Ansiedad , Salud Mental , Estado de Salud
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 330: 121814, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368097

RESUMEN

Hemicellulose is mainly distributed in the tightly packed S2 layer of the plant cell wall and the middle lamella. This rigid microstructure of wood and interactions among hemicellulose, lignin, and cellulose jointly restrict the separation and transformation of hemicellulose in the wood matrix. To address this issue, a method combined with microwave-expanding pretreatment (MEP) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with a NaOH solution was carried out. We found that the MEP could effectively create new pathways for bagasse cells in mass transferring. More specifically, 195 % of the specific surface area (m2/g) with 193 % of the pores (>50 nm) increased after MEP; the SEM images also confirmed that the microstructure of bagasse was modified. MAE could considerably exfoliate hemicellulose from cellulose fiber and accelerate mass transfer. Additionally, we optimized MEP and MAE by using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal parameters were 370 K, 3.7 min, 1081 W microwave power, and 9.9 wt% NH4HCO3 consumption for the MEP and 1100 W microwave power, 2.5 wt% NaOH concentration, 34.6 min reaction time for MAE, respectively. Moreover, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation suggests that NaOH could significantly lower the work needed to peel off the xylan chain from cellulose nanofibril.


Asunto(s)
Celulosa , Microondas , Polisacáridos , Hidróxido de Sodio , Celulosa/química
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 333: 115744, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301287

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Depression and loneliness co-occur frequently. This study examined interactive changes between depression and loneliness among older adults prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic from a longitudinal network perspective. METHODS: This network study was based on data from three waves (2016-2017, 2018-2019, and 2020) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Depression and loneliness were measured with the eight-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-8) and three item version of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, respectively. A network model was constructed using an Ising Model while network differences were assessed using a Network Comparison Test. Central symptoms were identified via Expected Influence (EI). RESULTS: A total of 4,293 older adults were included in this study. The prevalence and network of depression and loneliness did not change significantly between the baseline and pre-pandemic assessments but increased significantly from the pre-pandemic assessment to during COVID-19 assessment. The central symptom with the strongest increase from pre-pandemic to pandemic assessments was "Inability to get going" (CESD8) and the edge with the highest increase across depression-loneliness symptom communities was "Lack companionship" (UCLA1) - "Inability to get going" (CESD8). Finally, "Feeling depressed" (CESD1) and "Everything was an effort" (CESD2) were the most central symptoms over the three assessment periods. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant changes in the depression-loneliness network model. The most changed symptoms and edges could be treatment targets for reducing the risk of depression and loneliness in older adults.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Soledad , Humanos , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Depresión/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 17: 467-477, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38312210

RESUMEN

Objective: Very few and conflicting data are available regarding the correlation between circulating carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels and diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and its components including albuminuria and a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This study aimed to examine the association of circulating CA19-9 and DKD in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 402 hospitalized T2DM patients between September 2017 and December 2021 were included in this cross-sectional study. There were 224 and 178 subjects in non-DKD and DKD groups, respectively. Serum CA19-9 was measured by chemiluminescence method, and its potential relationship with DKD was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression and correlation analyses, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: T2DM patients with DKD had significantly higher serum CA19-9 levels than those without, and serum CA19-9 levels were positively related to urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and negatively to eGFR (P<0.01). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that serum CA 19-9 was an independent factor of DKD [odds ratio (OR), 1.018; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.002-1.035; P<0.05]. Moreover, an increased progressively risk of DKD with an increase in serum CA19-9 quartiles was observed (P for trend <0.001), and T2DM patients in the highest serum CA19-9 quartile were associated with an increased likelihood of DKD when compared to those in the lowest quartile (OR: 2.936, 95% CI 1.129-7.633, P<0.05). Last, the analysis of ROC curves suggested that serum CA 19-9 at a cut of 25.09 U/mL resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 43.8% and 75.4% specificity to predict the presence of DKD. Conclusion: These results showed that high circulating CA19-9 was related to DKD and may serve as a useful biomarker of DKD in hospitalized Chinese T2DM patients.

15.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297151, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422078

RESUMEN

In this study, the slurry diffusion in a cavity filled with coal gangue was studied by combining experimental and numerical simulation methods. By calibrating slurry and particle materials, the grouting process in coal gangue filling area is simulated successfully, and the change of slurry diffusion flow field and particle movement and settling process in different dimensions are deeply analyzed. Both experimental and numerical simulation results show that the particle settlement presents a bell-shaped curve, which is of great significance for understanding the particle movement and settlement behavior in the filling cavity. In addition, it is found that the grouting speed has a significant effect on the particle settlement during the slurry diffusion process. When the grouting speed increases from 0.1m /s to 0.2m /s, the particle settlement and diffusion range increases about twice. In the plane flow field, it is observed that the outward diffusion trend and speed of grouting are more obvious. It is worth noting that in the whole process of grouting, it is observed that with the increase of grouting distance and depth, both the velocity of slurry and particles show a trend of rapid initial decline and gradually slow down, and the flow velocity of slurry near the grouting outlet at a flow rate of 0.2m/s is 2-4 times that of 0.1m/s. This provides important enlightenment for the porous seepage effect at different grouting speeds.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Mineral , Movimiento , Simulación por Computador , Difusión , Porosidad
16.
JMIR Form Res ; 8: e47360, 2024 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329800

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Current online interventions dedicated to assisting individuals in managing stress and negative emotions often necessitate substantial time commitments. This can be burdensome for users, leading to high dropout rates and reducing the effectiveness of these interventions. This highlights an urgent need for concise digital activities that individuals can swiftly access during instances of negative emotions or stress in their daily lives. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the viability of using a brief digital exercise, specifically a reflective questioning activity (RQA), to help people reflect on their thoughts and emotions about a troubling situation. The RQA is designed to be quick, applicable to the general public, and scalable without requiring a significant support structure. METHODS: We conducted 3 simultaneous studies. In the first study, we recruited 48 participants who completed the RQA and provided qualitative feedback on its design through surveys and semistructured interviews. In the second study, which involved 215 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk, we used a between-participants design to compare the RQA with a single-question activity. Our hypotheses posited that the RQA would yield greater immediate stress relief and higher perceived utility, while not significantly altering the perception of time commitment. To assess these, we measured survey completion times and gathered multiple self-reported scores. In the third study, we assessed the RQA's real-world impact as a periodic intervention, exploring engagement via platforms such as email and SMS text messaging, complemented by follow-up interviews with participants. RESULTS: In our first study, participants appreciated the RQA for facilitating structured reflection, enabling expression through writing, and promoting problem-solving. However, some of the participants experienced confusion and frustration, particularly when they were unable to find solutions or alternative perspectives on their thoughts. In the second study, the RQA condition resulted in significantly higher ratings (P=.003) for the utility of the activity and a statistically significant decrease (P<.001) in perceived stress rating compared with the single-question activity. Although the RQA required significantly more time to be completed (P<.001), there was no statistically significant difference in participants' subjective perceived time commitment (P=.37). Deploying the RQA over 2 weeks in the third study identified some potential challenges to consider for such activities, such as the monotony of doing the same activity several times, the limited affordances of mobile phones, and the importance of having the prompts align with the occurrence of new troubling situations. CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes the design and evaluation of a brief online self-reflection activity based on cognitive behavioral therapy principles. Our findings can inform practitioners and researchers in the design and exploration of formats for brief interventions to help people with everyday struggles.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 351: 799-807, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311073

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Vortioxetine has been shown to improve cognitive performance in people with depression. This study will look at the changes in neurobiochemical metabolites that occur when vortioxetine improves cognitive performance in MDD patients, with the goal of determining the neuroimaging mechanism through which vortioxetine improves cognitive function. METHODS: 30 depressed patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) underwent MCCB cognitive assessment and 1H-MRS. After 8 weeks of vortioxetine medication, MCCB and 1H-MRS tests were retested in the MDD group. Before and after therapy, changes in cognitive performance, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr were examined in the MDD group. RESULTS: Compared with the HC group, the MDD group had significant reduced in verbal learning, social cognition, and total cognition (all p < 0.05). And the MDD group had lower NAA/Cr in Right thalamus and Left PFC; the Cho/Cr in Right thalamus was lower than HC; the Cho/Cr in Left ACC had significantly increase (all p < 0.05). The MDD group showed significant improvements in the areas of verbal learning, attention/alertness, and total cognitive function before and after Vortioxetine treatment (all p < 0.05). The NAA/Cr ratio of the right PFC before and after treatment (t = 2.338, p = 0.026) showed significant changes. CONCLUSIONS: Vortioxetine can enhance not just the depression symptoms of MDD patients in the initial period, but also their verbal learning, social cognition, and general cognitive capacities after 8 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, vortioxetine has been shown to enhance cognitive function in MDD patients by altering NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr levels in the frontal-thalamic-ACC.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Humanos , Vortioxetina/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Cognición , Motivación
18.
Ageing Res Rev ; 95: 102240, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous neuroimaging studies have reported that Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum have been linked to alterations in intrinsic functional activity and cortical thickness (CT) of some brain areas. However, the findings have been inconsistent and the correlation with the transcriptional profile and neurotransmitter systems remain largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis to identify multimodal differences in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional ALFF (fALFF) and CT in patients with AD and preclinical AD compared to healthy controls (HCs), using the Seed-based d Mapping with Permutation of Subject Images software. Transcriptional data were retrieved from the Allen Human Brain Atlas. The atlas-based nuclear imaging-derived neurotransmitter maps were investigated by JuSpace toolbox. RESULTS: We included 26 ALFF/fALFF studies comprising 884 patients with AD and 1,020 controls, along with 52 studies comprising 2,046 patients with preclinical AD and 2,336 controls. For CT, we included 11 studies comprising 353 patients with AD and 330 controls. Overall, compared to HCs, patients with AD showed decreased ALFF/fALFF in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC)/precuneus and right angular gyrus, as well as increased ALFF/fALFF in the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). Patients with peclinical AD showed decreased ALFF/fALFF in the left precuneus. Additionally, patients with AD displayed decreased CT in the bilateral PHG, left PCC, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, sensorimotor areas and temporal lobe. Furthermore, gene sets related to brain structural and functional changes in AD and preclincal AD were enriched for G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, ion gated channel activity, and components of biological membrane. Functional and structural alterations in AD and preclinical AD were spatially associated with dopaminergic, serotonergic, and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems. CONCLUSIONS: The multimodal meta-analysis demonstrated that patients with AD exhibited convergent functional and structural alterations in the PCC/precuneus and PHG, as well as cortical thinning in the primary sensory and motor areas. Furthermore, patients with preclinical AD showed reduced functional activity in the precuneus. AD and preclinical AD showed genetic modulations/neurotransmitter deficits of brain functional and structural impairments. These findings may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of the AD spectrum.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Mapeo Encefálico , Humanos , Mapeo Encefálico/métodos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Neurotransmisores
19.
ACS Nano ; 18(10): 7496-7503, 2024 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422388

RESUMEN

Healthy, convenient, and aesthetic hair dyeing and styling are essential to fashion trends and personal-social interactions. Herein, we fabricate green, scalable, and aesthetic regenerated cellulose filaments (ACFs) with customizable iridescent colors, outstanding mechanical properties, and water-triggered moldability for convenient and fashionable artificial hairdressing. The fabrication of ACFs involves cellulose dissolution, cross-linking, wet-spinning, and nanostructured orientation. Notably, the cross-linking strategy endows the ACFs with significantly weakened internal stress, confirmed by monitoring the offset of the C-O-C group in the cellulose molecular chain with Raman imaging, which ensures a tailorable orientation of the nanostructure during wet stretching and tunable iridescent polarization colors. Interestingly, ACFs can be tailored for three-dimensional shaping through a facile water-triggered adjustable internal stress: temporary shaping with low-level internal stress in the wet state and permanent shaping with high-level internal stress in the dry state. The health, convenience, and green aesthetic filaments show great potential in personal wearables.

20.
Eur J Med Chem ; 268: 116252, 2024 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422703

RESUMEN

The modification based on natural products is a practical way to find anti-inflammatory drugs. In this study, 26 osthole derivatives were synthesized, and their anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated. The preliminary activity study revealed that most osthole derivatives could effectively inhibit inflammatory cytokines IL-6 secretion in LPS stimulated mouse macrophages J774A.1. Compound 7m exhibited the most effective anti-inflammatory activity (RAW264.7 IL-6 IC50: 4.57 µM, 32 times more active than osthole) in vitro with no significant influence on cell proliferation. Additionally, the mechanistic analysis demonstrated that compound 7m could block MAPK signal transduction by inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and p38, thereby inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, in vivo functional investigations revealed that 7m could substantially reduce DSS-induced ulcerative colitis and LPS-induced acute lung injury, with good therapeutic effects. The pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity experiments proved the safety and reliability of 7min vivo. Overall, Compound 7m could further be studied as potential anti-inflammatory candidate.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Pulmonar Aguda , Colitis Ulcerosa , Colitis , Cumarinas , Animales , Ratones , Colitis Ulcerosa/inducido químicamente , Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Interleucina-6 , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Antiinflamatorios/efectos adversos , Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/inducido químicamente , Lesión Pulmonar Aguda/tratamiento farmacológico , Citocinas , FN-kappa B , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Colitis/tratamiento farmacológico
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