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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2003488, 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914595

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The first interim analysis of the phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled TITAN study showed that apalutamide significantly improved overall survival (OS) and radiographic progression-free survival in patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) receiving ongoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Herein, we report final efficacy and safety results after unblinding and placebo-to-apalutamide crossover. METHODS: Patients with mCSPC (N = 1,052) were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive apalutamide (240 mg QD) or placebo plus ADT. After unblinding in January 2019, placebo-treated patients were allowed to receive apalutamide. Efficacy end points were updated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards model without formal statistical retesting and adjustment for multiplicity. Change from baseline in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate total score was assessed. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 44.0 months, 405 OS events had occurred and 208 placebo-treated patients (39.5%) had crossed over to apalutamide. The median treatment duration was 39.3 (apalutamide), 20.2 (placebo), and 15.4 months (crossover). Compared with placebo, apalutamide plus ADT significantly reduced the risk of death by 35% (median OS not reached v 52.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79; P < .0001) and by 48% after adjustment for crossover (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.64; P < .0001). Apalutamide plus ADT delayed second progression-free survival and castration resistance (P < .0001 for both). Health-related quality of life, per total Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate, in both groups was maintained through the study. Safety was consistent with previous reports. CONCLUSION: The final analysis of TITAN confirmed that, despite crossover, apalutamide plus ADT improved OS, delayed castration resistance, maintained health-related quality of life, and had a consistent safety profile in a broad population of patients with mCSPC.

2.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769071

RESUMEN

Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer have improved patient outcomes. Nonetheless, this disease remains fatal and additional treatment approaches are needed. Greater understanding of the molecular landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has revealed recurrent alterations in key pathways amenable to therapeutic targeting. One such pathway is DNA repair, particularly alterations in genes directly or indirectly associated with homologous recombination repair found in up to one-quarter of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Olaparib, an inhibitor of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, has recently gained approval for the treatment of mCRPC harboring alterations in homologous recombination repair genes. This review will provide a summary of evidence regarding PARP inhibition in the treatment of mCRPC, with a specific focus on olaparib.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754187

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the safety and pharmacokinetics and determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of niraparib with apalutamide or abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: BEDIVERE was a multicenter, open-label, phase 1b study of niraparib 200 or 300 mg/day with apalutamide 240 mg or AAP (abiraterone acetate 1000 mg; prednisone 10 mg). Patients with mCRPC were previously treated with ≥ 2 lines of systemic therapy, including ≥ 1 androgen receptor-axis-targeted therapy for prostate cancer. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were enrolled (niraparib-apalutamide, 6; niraparib-AAP, 27). No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported when combinations included niraparib 200 mg; five patients receiving niraparib 300 mg experienced DLTs [niraparib-apalutamide, 2/3 patients (66.7%); niraparib-AAP, 3/8 patients (37.5%)]. Although data are limited, niraparib exposures were lower when given with apalutamide compared with historical niraparib monotherapy exposures in patients with solid tumors. Because of the higher incidence of DLTs, the niraparib-apalutamide combination and niraparib 300 mg combination with AAP were not further evaluated. Niraparib 200 mg was selected as the RP2D with AAP. Of 19 patients receiving niraparib 200 mg with AAP, 12 (63.2%) had grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events, the most common being thrombocytopenia (26.3%) and hypertension (21.1%). Five patients (26.3%) had adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the choice of niraparib 200 mg as the RP2D with AAP. The niraparib-AAP combination was tolerable in patients with mCRPC, with no new safety signals. An ongoing phase 3 study is further assessing this combination in patients with mCRPC. TRIAL REGISTRATION NO: NCT02924766 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

4.
Cancer ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: DNA damage repair mutations (DDRm) are common in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The optimal standard therapy for this population is not well described. METHODS: A multi-institutional, retrospective study of patients with mCRPC and DDRm was conducted. Patient data, including systemic therapies and responses, were collected. The decline in prostate-specific antigen ≥ 50% from baseline (PSA50) and overall survival (OS) from the treatment start were compared by mutation and treatment type. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model for OS was created that controlled for DDRm, first-line treatment received for mCRPC, and clinical factors. RESULTS: The most common DDRm observed among 149 men with mCRPC were BRCA1/2 (44%), CDK12 (32%), and ATM (15%). The majority received first-line abiraterone (40%) or enzalutamide (30%). The PSA50 rate with first-line abiraterone was lower for CDK12 (52%) than BRCA1/2 (89%; P = .02). After first-line abiraterone or enzalutamide, the median OS was longest with second-line carboplatin-chemotherapy (38 months) in comparison with abiraterone or enzalutamide (33 months), docetaxel (17 months), or cabazitaxel (11 months; P = .02). PSA50 responses to carboplatin-based chemotherapy were higher for BRCA1/2 (79%) than ATM (14%; P = .02) or CDK12 (38%; P = .08). In a multivariable analysis, neither the specific DDRm type nor the first-line treatment was associated with improved OS. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to standard therapies were generally superior in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and inferior in patients with ATM or CDK12 mutations. The DDRm type did not independently predict OS. After progression on first-line abiraterone or enzalutamide, carboplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with the longest OS. These findings may inform treatment discussions and clinical trial design and require prospective validation.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452452

RESUMEN

There has been a rapid expansion in treatment options for the management of metastatic prostate cancer, but individual patient outcomes can be variable due to inter-patient tumor heterogeneity. Fortunately, the disease can be stratified on the basis of common somatic features, providing potential for the development of clinically useful prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Tissue biopsy programs and studies leveraging circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) have revealed specific genomic alterations that are associated with aggressive disease biology. In this review, we discuss the potential for genomic subtyping to improve prognostication and to help guide treatment selection. We summarize data on associations between AR pathway alterations and patient response to AR signaling inhibitors and other standards of care. We describe the links between detection of different types of DNA damage repair defects and clinical outcomes with targeted therapies such as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors or immune checkpoint inhibitors. PI3K signaling pathway inhibitors are also in advanced clinical development and we report upon the potential for these and other novel targeted therapies to have impact in specific molecular subsets of metastatic prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss the growing use of blood-based analytes for prognostic and predictive biomarker development, and summarize ongoing prospective biomarker-driven clinical trials.

6.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(6): 1650-1662, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414135

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: DNA damage repair (DDR) defects are common across cancer types and can indicate therapeutic vulnerability. Optimal exploitation of DDR defects in prostate cancer requires new diagnostic strategies and a better understanding of associated clinical genomic features. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed targeted sequencing of 1,615 plasma cell-free DNA samples from 879 patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Depth-based copy-number calls and heterozygous SNP imbalance were leveraged to expose DDR-mutant allelic configuration and categorize mechanisms of biallelic loss. We used split-read structural variation analysis to characterize tumor suppressor rearrangements. Patient-matched archival primary tissue was analyzed identically. RESULTS: BRCA2, ATM, and CDK12 were the most frequently disrupted DDR genes in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), collectively mutated in 15% of evaluable cases. Biallelic gene disruption via second somatic alteration or mutant allele-specific imbalance was identified in 79% of patients. A further 2% exhibited homozygous BRCA2 deletions. Tumor suppressors TP53, RB1, and PTEN were controlled via disruptive chromosomal rearrangements in BRCA2-defective samples, but via oncogene amplification in context of CDK12 defects. TP53 mutations were rare in cases with ATM defects. DDR mutations were re-detected across 94% of serial ctDNA samples and in all available archival primary tissues, indicating they arose prior to metastatic progression. Loss of BRCA2 and CDK12, but not ATM, was associated with poor clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: BRCA2, ATM, and CDK12 defects are each linked to distinct prostate cancer driver genomics and aggression. The consistency of DDR status in longitudinal samples and resolution of allelic status underscores the potential for ctDNA as a diagnostic tool.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 184, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420073

RESUMEN

Molecular stratification can improve the management of advanced cancers, but requires relevant tumor samples. Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) is poised to benefit given a recent expansion of treatment options and its high genomic heterogeneity. We profile minimally-invasive plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples from 104 mUC patients, and compare to same-patient tumor tissue obtained during invasive surgery. Patient ctDNA abundance is independently prognostic for overall survival in patients initiating first-line systemic therapy. Importantly, ctDNA analysis reproduces the somatic driver genome as described from tissue-based cohorts. Furthermore, mutation concordance between ctDNA and matched tumor tissue is 83.4%, enabling benchmarking of proposed clinical biomarkers. While 90% of mutations are identified across serial ctDNA samples, concordance for serial tumor tissue is significantly lower. Overall, our exploratory analysis demonstrates that genomic profiling of ctDNA in mUC is reliable and practical, and mitigates against disease undersampling inherent to studying archival primary tumor foci. We urge the incorporation of cell-free DNA profiling into molecularly-guided clinical trials for mUC.


Asunto(s)
ADN Tumoral Circulante/sangre , Genómica , Plasma , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/sangre , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Pronóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia , Vejiga Urinaria , Proteína de la Xerodermia Pigmentosa del Grupo D/genética
8.
Int J Urol ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295007

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of apalutamide + androgen deprivation therapy versus androgen deprivation therapy alone in Japanese patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer from the phase 3, randomized, global TITAN study. METHODS: Men with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer randomly (1:1) received 240 mg apalutamide + androgen deprivation therapy or matching placebo + androgen deprivation therapy. The primary efficacy endpoints were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary efficacy endpoints were time to cytotoxic chemotherapy, pain progression, chronic opioid use, and skeletal-related events. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: Of the 1052 patients included in the TITAN study, 51 (4.85%) were Japanese (apalutamide group, n = 28; placebo group, n = 23). In all, 81.8% of patients in the apalutamide and 71.8% in the placebo group did not experience radiographic progression or death, and the hazard ratio for radiographic progression-free survival favored treatment with apalutamide (hazard ratio 0.712, 95% confidence interval 0.205-2.466; P = 0.59). At 24 months, 85.7% of patients in the apalutamide group and 81.5% in the placebo group were alive, and the hazard ratio for overall survival favored apalutamide (hazard ratio 0.840, 95% confidence interval 0.210-3.361; P = 0.805). In the interim analysis, the median radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival were not reached in the apalutamide group and time to cytotoxic chemotherapy was delayed following apalutamide treatment. The safety profile of apalutamide in the Japanese subpopulation was comparable with that of the global population, except for skin rash. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present analyses suggest that apalutamide + androgen deprivation therapy in Japanese patients had favorable efficacy compared with androgen deprivation therapy alone, and these findings are comparable to those in the overall population. Apalutamide + androgen deprivation therapy can be considered as one of the therapeutic options for a broad spectrum of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer regardless of prior treatment and disease extent in Japanese patients.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2021692, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112397

RESUMEN

Importance: DNA repair gene aberrations occur in 20% to 30% of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and some of these aberrations have been associated with sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition platinum-based treatments. However, previous trials assessing platinum-based treatments in patients with CRPC have mostly included a biomarker-unselected population; therefore, efficacy in these patients is unknown. Objective: To characterize the antitumor activity of platinum-based therapies in men with CRPC with or without DNA repair gene alterations. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case series, data from 508 patients with CRPC treated with platinum-based therapy were collected from 25 academic centers from 12 countries worldwide. Patients were grouped by status of DNA repair gene aberrations (ie, cohort 1, present; cohort 2, not detected; and cohort 3, not tested). Data were collected from January 1986 to December 2018. Data analysis was performed in 2019, with data closure in April 2019. Exposure: Treatment with platinum-based compounds either as monotherapy or combination therapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end points were as follows: (1) antitumor activity of platinum-based therapy, defined as a decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of at least 50% and/or radiological soft tissue response in patients with measurable disease and (2) the association of response with the presence or absence of DNA repair gene aberrations. Results: A total of 508 men with a median (range) age of 61 (27-88) years were included in this analysis. DNA repair gene aberrations were present in 80 patients (14.7%; cohort 1), absent in 98 (19.3%; cohort 2), and not tested in 330 (65.0%; cohort 3). Of 408 patients who received platinum-based combination therapy, 338 patients (82.8%) received docetaxel, paclitaxel, or etoposide, and 70 (17.2%) received platinum-based combination treatment with another partner. A PSA level decrease of at least 50% was seen in 33 patients (47.1%) in cohort 1 and 26 (36.1%) in cohort 2 (P = .20). In evaluable patients, soft tissue responses were documented in 28 of 58 patients (48.3%) in cohort 1 and 21 of 67 (31.3%) in cohort 2 (P = .07). In the subgroup of 44 patients with BRCA2 gene alterations, PSA level decreases of at least 50% were documented in 23 patients (63.9%) and soft tissue responses in 17 of 34 patients (50.0%) with evaluable disease. In cohort 3, PSA level decreases of at least 50% and soft tissue responses were documented in 81 of 284 patients (28.5%) and 38 of 185 patients (20.5%) with evaluable disease, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, platinum-based treatment was associated with relevant antitumor activity in a biomarker-positive population of patients with advanced prostate cancer with DNA repair gene aberrations. The findings of this study suggest that platinum-based treatment may be considered an option for these patients.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(23): 6204-6214, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967941

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Autoantibody responses in cancer are of great interest, as they may be concordant with T-cell responses to cancer antigens or predictive of response to cancer immunotherapies. Thus, we sought to characterize the antibody landscape of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Serum antibody epitope repertoire analysis (SERA) was performed on patient serum to identify tumor-specific neoepitopes. Somatic mutation-specific neoepitopes were investigated by associating serum epitope enrichment scores with whole-genome sequencing results from paired solid tumor metastasis biopsies and germline blood samples. A protein-based immunome-wide association study (PIWAS) was performed to identify significantly enriched epitopes, and candidate serum antibodies enriched in select patients were validated by ELISA profiling. A distinct cohort of patients with melanoma was evaluated to validate the top cancer-specific epitopes. RESULTS: SERA was performed on 1,229 serum samples obtained from 72 men with mCRPC and 1,157 healthy control patients. Twenty-nine of 6,636 somatic mutations (0.44%) were associated with an antibody response specific to the mutated peptide. PIWAS analyses identified motifs in 11 proteins, including NY-ESO-1 and HERVK-113, as immunogenic in mCRPC, and ELISA confirmed serum antibody enrichment in candidate patients. Confirmatory PIWAS, Identifying Motifs Using Next-generation sequencing Experiments (IMUNE), and ELISA analyses performed on serum samples from 106 patients with melanoma similarly revealed enriched cancer-specific antibody responses to NY-ESO-1. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first large-scale profiling of autoantibodies in advanced prostate cancer, utilizing a new antibody profiling approach to reveal novel cancer-specific antigens and epitopes. Our study recovers antigens of known importance and identifies novel tumor-specific epitopes of translational interest.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 383(24): 2345-2357, 2020 12 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955174

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that olaparib led to significantly longer imaging-based progression-free survival than the physician's choice of enzalutamide or abiraterone among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had qualifying alterations in homologous recombination repair genes and whose disease had progressed during previous treatment with a next-generation hormonal agent. The results of the final analysis of overall survival have not yet been reported. METHODS: In an open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive olaparib (256 patients) or the physician's choice of enzalutamide or abiraterone plus prednisone as the control therapy (131 patients). Cohort A included 245 patients with at least one alteration in BRCA1, BRCA2, or ATM, and cohort B included 142 patients with at least one alteration in any of the other 12 prespecified genes. Crossover to olaparib was allowed after imaging-based disease progression for patients who met certain criteria. Overall survival in cohort A, a key secondary end point, was analyzed with the use of an alpha-controlled, stratified log-rank test at a data maturity of approximately 60%. The primary and other key secondary end points were reported previously. RESULTS: The median duration of overall survival in cohort A was 19.1 months with olaparib and 14.7 months with control therapy (hazard ratio for death, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 0.97; P = 0.02). In cohort B, the median duration of overall survival was 14.1 months with olaparib and 11.5 months with control therapy. In the overall population (cohorts A and B), the corresponding durations were 17.3 months and 14.0 months. Overall, 86 of 131 patients (66%) in the control group crossed over to receive olaparib (56 of 83 patients [67%] in cohort A). A sensitivity analysis that adjusted for crossover to olaparib showed hazard ratios for death of 0.42 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.91) in cohort A, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.11 to 5.98) in cohort B, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.29 to 1.06) in the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: Among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had tumors with at least one alteration in BRCA1, BRCA2, or ATM and whose disease had progressed during previous treatment with a next-generation hormonal agent, those who were initially assigned to receive olaparib had a significantly longer duration of overall survival than those who were assigned to receive enzalutamide or abiraterone plus prednisone as the control therapy, despite substantial crossover from control therapy to olaparib. (Funded by AstraZeneca and Merck Sharp and Dohme; PROfound ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02987543.).

12.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940628

RESUMEN

Importance: Treatment options for platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) are limited, and outcomes remain poor. Nab-paclitaxel is an albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel showing promising activity and tolerability in a prior single-arm trial. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel in platinum-refractory mUC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this investigator-initiated, open-label, phase 2 randomized clinical trial conducted across Canada and Australia from January 2014 to April 2017, eligible patients had histologically confirmed, radiologically evident mUC of the urinary tract. Mixed histologic findings, except small cell, were permitted provided UC was the predominant histologic finding. All patients had received platinum-based chemotherapy either in the metastatic setting or were within 12 months of perioperative chemotherapy. Patients with prior taxane chemotherapy were not included. Patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) 0 to 2 and adequate organ function. Interventions: Patients were randomized to nab-paclitaxel, 260 mg/m2, or paclitaxel, 175 mg/m2, every 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Among 199 patients, median age was 67 (range, 24-88) years; 144 (72%) were men; 167 (84%) were ECOG PS 0-1; 59 (30%) had liver metastases; and 110 (55%) were within 6 months of prior platinum-based chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 16.4 months, there was no significant difference between nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel for median PFS (3.4 months vs 3.0 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 90% CI, 0.68-1.23; 1-sided P = .31). Median overall survival was 7.5 months for nab-paclitaxel vs 8.8 months for paclitaxel (HR, 0.95; 90% CI, 0.70-1.30; 1-sided P = .40); and objective response rate (ORR) was 22% for nab-paclitaxel vs 25% for paclitaxel (P = .97). Grade 3/4 adverse events were more frequent with nab-paclitaxel (64/97 [66%]) compared with paclitaxel (45/97 [46%]), P = .009; but peripheral sensory neuropathy was similar (all grades, 72/97 [74%] vs 64/97 [66%]; grade 3/4, 7/97 [7%] vs 3/97 [3%]; P = .27). There were no apparent differences in scores for health-related quality of life. Conclusions and Relevance: In this open-label, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of patients with platinum-refractory mUC, nab-paclitaxel had similar efficacy to paclitaxel; but worse toxic effects. The ORR with either taxane, however, was higher than previously reported and similar to those reported for the immune checkpoint inhibitors, suggesting that the taxanes remain a reasonable option in this setting. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02033993.

13.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853135

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Canadian Genito-Urinary Research Consortium (GURC) conducted a consensus development conference leading to 31 recommendations. Using the GURC consensus development questionnaire, we conducted a survey to measure the corresponding community-based practices on the management of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC), metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). METHODS: An 87-item online questionnaire was sent to 600 community urologists and oncologists involved in the treatment of prostate cancer. RESULTS: Seventy-two community physicians responded to the survey. Of note, 50% community physicians indicated they would treat nmCRPC with agents approved for this indication if advanced imaging showed metastases. Radiation to the prostate for low-volume mCSPC was identified as a treatment practice by 27% of community physicians, and 35% indicated docetaxel as the next line of treatment after use of apalutamide. Use of genetic testing was reported in 36% of community physicians for newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: There are several areas of community-based management of advanced prostate cancer that could represent potential areas for education, practice tools, and future research.

14.
Nat Genet ; 52(8): 778-789, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661416

RESUMEN

Although DNA methylation is a key regulator of gene expression, the comprehensive methylation landscape of metastatic cancer has never been defined. Through whole-genome bisulfite sequencing paired with deep whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of 100 castration-resistant prostate metastases, we discovered alterations affecting driver genes that were detectable only with integrated whole-genome approaches. Notably, we observed that 22% of tumors exhibited a novel epigenomic subtype associated with hypermethylation and somatic mutations in TET2, DNMT3B, IDH1 and BRAF. We also identified intergenic regions where methylation is associated with RNA expression of the oncogenic driver genes AR, MYC and ERG. Finally, we showed that differential methylation during progression preferentially occurs at somatic mutational hotspots and putative regulatory regions. This study is a large integrated study of whole-genome, whole-methylome and whole-transcriptome sequencing in metastatic cancer that provides a comprehensive overview of the important regulatory role of methylation in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata/genética , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carcinogénesis/genética , Epigenómica/métodos , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica/genética , Genoma/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación/genética , Estudios Prospectivos , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos , Secuenciación del Exoma Completo/métodos , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/métodos
15.
Eur Urol ; 78(6): 834-844, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451180

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Activating mutations in AKT1 and PIK3CA are undercharacterised in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but are linked to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling and sensitivity to pathway inhibitors in other cancers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, genomic context, and clinical associations of AKT1/PIK3CA activating mutations in mCRPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed targeted cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing data from 599 metastatic prostate cancer patients with circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) content above 2%. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: In patients with AKT1/PIK3CA mutations, cfDNA was subjected to PTEN intron sequencing and matched diagnostic tumour tissue was analysed when possible. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the patients, 6.0% (36/599) harboured somatic clonal activating mutation(s) in AKT1 or PIK3CA. Mutant allele-specific imbalance was common. Clonal mutations in mCRPC ctDNA were typically detected in pretreatment primary tissue and were consistent across serial ctDNA collections. AKT1/PIK3CA-mutant mCRPC had fewer androgen receptor (AR) gene copies than AKT1/PIK3CA wild-type mCRPC (median 4.7 vs 10.3, p = 0.003). AKT1 mutations were mutually exclusive with PTEN alterations. Patients with and without AKT1/PIK3CA mutations showed similar clinical outcomes with standard of care treatments. A heavily pretreated mCRPC patient with an AKT1 mutation experienced a 50% decline in prostate-specific antigen with Akt inhibitor (ipatasertib) monotherapy. Ipatasertib also had a marked antitumour effect in a patient-derived xenograft harbouring an AKT1 mutation. Limitations include the inability to assess AKT1/PIK3CA correlatives in ctDNA-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: AKT1/PIK3CA activating mutations are relatively common and delineate a distinct mCRPC molecular subtype with low-level AR copy gain. Clonal prevalence and evidence of mutant allele selection propose PI3K pathway dependency in selected patients. The use of cfDNA screening enables prospective clinical trials to test PI3K pathway inhibitors in this population. PATIENT SUMMARY: Of advanced prostate cancer cases, 6% have activating mutations in the genes AKT1 or PIK3CA. These mutations can be identified using a blood test and may help select patients suitable for clinical trials of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(14): 3517-3524, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366670

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Apalutamide is a next-generation androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor approved for patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and antitumor activity of apalutamide combined with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AA-P) in patients with metastatic CRPC (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multicenter, open-label, phase Ib drug-drug interaction study conducted in 57 patients with mCRPC treated with 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate plus 10 mg prednisone daily beginning on cycle 1 day 1 (C1D1) and 240 mg apalutamide daily starting on C1D8 in 28-day cycles. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected on C1D7 and C2D8. RESULTS: Systemic exposure to abiraterone, prednisone, and prednisolone decreased 14%, 61%, and 42%, respectively, when apalutamide was coadministered with AA-P. No increase in mineralocorticoid excess-related adverse events was observed. Patients without prior exposure to AR signaling inhibitors had longer median treatment duration and greater mean decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from baseline compared with those who had received prior therapy. Confirmed PSA reductions of ≥50% from baseline at any time were observed in 80% (12/15) of AR signaling inhibitor-naïve patients and 14% (6/42) of AR signaling inhibitor-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with apalutamide plus AA-P was well tolerated and showed evidence of antitumor activity in patients with mCRPC, including those with disease progression on AR signaling inhibitors. No clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction was observed between abiraterone and apalutamide; however, apalutamide decreased exposure to prednisone. These data support development of 1,000 mg abiraterone acetate plus 10 mg prednisone daily with 240 mg apalutamide daily in patients with mCRPC.

17.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(2): pkaa003, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368717

RESUMEN

There are few data regarding disparities in overall survival (OS) between Asian and white men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We compared OS of Asian and white mCRPC men treated in phase III clinical trials with docetaxel and prednisone (DP) or a DP-containing regimen. Individual participant data from 8820 men with mCRPC randomly assigned on nine phase III trials to receive DP or a DP-containing regimen were combined. Men enrolled in these trials had a diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma. The median overall survival was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.4 to 22.1 months) and 21.2 months (95% CI = 20.8 to 21.7 months) for Asian and white men, respectively. The pooled hazard ratio for death for Asian men compared with white men, adjusted for baseline prognostic factors, was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.84 to 1.09), indicating that Asian men were not at increased risk of death. This large analysis showed that Asian men did not have shorter OS duration than white men treated with docetaxel.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 382(22): 2091-2102, 2020 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343890

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple loss-of-function alterations in genes that are involved in DNA repair, including homologous recombination repair, are associated with response to poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition in patients with prostate and other cancers. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial evaluating the PARP inhibitor olaparib in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had disease progression while receiving a new hormonal agent (e.g., enzalutamide or abiraterone). All the men had a qualifying alteration in prespecified genes with a direct or indirect role in homologous recombination repair. Cohort A (245 patients) had at least one alteration in BRCA1, BRCA2, or ATM; cohort B (142 patients) had alterations in any of 12 other prespecified genes, prospectively and centrally determined from tumor tissue. Patients were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to receive olaparib or the physician's choice of enzalutamide or abiraterone (control). The primary end point was imaging-based progression-free survival in cohort A according to blinded independent central review. RESULTS: In cohort A, imaging-based progression-free survival was significantly longer in the olaparib group than in the control group (median, 7.4 months vs. 3.6 months; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 0.47; P<0.001); a significant benefit was also observed with respect to the confirmed objective response rate and the time to pain progression. The median overall survival in cohort A was 18.5 months in the olaparib group and 15.1 months in the control group; 81% of the patients in the control group who had progression crossed over to receive olaparib. A significant benefit for olaparib was also seen for imaging-based progression-free survival in the overall population (cohorts A and B). Anemia and nausea were the main toxic effects in patients who received olaparib. CONCLUSIONS: In men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had disease progression while receiving enzalutamide or abiraterone and who had alterations in genes with a role in homologous recombination repair, olaparib was associated with longer progression-free survival and better measures of response and patient-reported end points than either enzalutamide or abiraterone. (Funded by AstraZeneca and Merck Sharp & Dohme; PROfound ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02987543.).


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Mutación con Pérdida de Función , Ftalazinas/uso terapéutico , Piperazinas/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribosa) Polimerasas/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Androstenos/efectos adversos , Androstenos/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Proteínas de la Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutada/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia/tratamiento farmacológico , Feniltiohidantoína/efectos adversos , Feniltiohidantoína/análogos & derivados , Feniltiohidantoína/uso terapéutico , Ftalazinas/efectos adversos , Piperazinas/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribosa) Polimerasas/efectos adversos , Supervivencia sin Progresión , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/genética , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Próstata Resistentes a la Castración/patología
20.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 18(4): 322-331.e2, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046920

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of molecularly-informed biomarkers for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing is a minimally-invasive alternative to tissue for profiling the genome in other cancers but relevance in metastatic RCC remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole blood was collected from 55 patients with metastatic RCC. Plasma cfDNA and leukocyte DNA were subjected to targeted sequencing across 981 cancer genes. Matched tumor tissue from 14 patients was analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of patients had evidence for RCC-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), significantly lower than patients with metastatic prostate or bladder cancer analyzed using the same approach. Among ctDNA-positive patients, ctDNA fraction averaged only 3.9% and showed no strong association with clinical variables. In these patients, the most commonly mutated genes were VHL, BAP1, and PBRM1, and matched tissue concordance was 77%. Evidence of somatic expansions unrelated to RCC, such as clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, were detected in 43% of patients. Pathogenic germline mutations in DNA repair genes were detected in 11% of patients. CtDNA-positive patients had shorter overall survival and progression-free survival on first-line therapy. Patients with evidence of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential had an intermediate prognosis compared with ctDNA-positive and -negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: CfDNA sequencing enables straightforward characterization of the somatic RCC genome in a minority of patients with metastatic RCC. Owing to low ctDNA abundance, and the presence of non-RCC derived somatic clones in circulation, cfDNA sequencing may not be a simple pan-patient alternative to tissue biopsy in metastatic RCC.

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