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1.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022993

RESUMEN

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The Japanese government started a nationwide screening program for metabolic syndrome (MetS) to prevent cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in 2008. Although impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a strong predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, the program does not follow up IFG in non-MetS individuals. This study aimed to examine the risk and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of MetS and IFG for incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Japanese workers (3,417 men and 714 women) aged 40-64 years without a history of diabetes were prospectively followed. MetS was defined as either abdominal obesity plus two or more metabolic risk factors, or being overweight in the case of normal waist circumference plus three or more metabolic risk factors. IFG was defined as fasting blood glucose 100-125 mg/dL. RESULTS: During a mean 6.3 years, 240 type 2 diabetes mellitus cases were identified. Compared with those without MetS and IFG, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of non-MetS individuals with IFG, MetS individuals without IFG and MetS individuals with IFG for type 2 diabetes mellitus were 4.9 (3.4-7.1), 2.4 (1.6-3.5) and 8.3 (5.9-11.5), respectively. The corresponding PAFs for type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence were 15.6, 9.1 and 29.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: IFG represented a higher risk and PAF than MetS for type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence in middle-aged Japanese individuals. The coexistence of MetS and IFG showed the highest risk and PAF for type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence. The current Japanese MetS screening program should be reconsidered to follow up non-MetS individuals with IFG.

2.
Psychogeriatrics ; 20(1): 44-49, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983086

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to comprehensively investigate the meaning and practices of spiritual care for older people with dementia based on the perspective and experiences of nurses and care workers. METHODS: The study was designed according to qualitative research strategies and used face-to-face interview data, with a focus on the experiences of nurses and care workers who care for elderly persons with dementia. Five nurses and 13 care workers from nine care facilities participated. We conducted 10 interviews, each with one to three participants, from April to August 2017. An open-ended questionnaire concerning the meaning and practices of spiritual care for older people with severe dementia was used to comprehensively capture the participants' experiences of caring for older people with dementia. Qualitative content analysis was used to systematically identify ideas and patterns emerging from the qualitative data. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of what constituted spiritual care for older people with dementia: (i) self-esteem; (ii) communication; and (iii) individual difference. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses and care workers perceived self-esteem as a core domain of spiritual care for older people with severe dementia. Reminiscing about important achievements and enjoying small pleasures in daily life enhance older people's self-esteem. Communication strategies involving active listening and therapeutic lying can help maintain older people's self-esteem and cognitive abilities. Older people with dementia respond in different ways to standardized care procedures, so care providers must employ of a variety of skilful approaches.

3.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(4): 557-570, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849374

RESUMEN

Older people living alone has been reported to be socially isolated and suffering from loneliness. Although spiritual care is a core element of end-of-life care for older people, a clear-cut definition of spirituality has not been established yet. It remains unclear how spirituality is perceived by heath care professionals and how spiritual care is delivered in the end of life. Also, most of the previous studies on perspective of older people living alone targeted women, while very few researches shed light on the experience of older men. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spirituality of older men living alone near the end-of-life. We conducted group interviews targeting 30 care managers and individual in-depth interviews to 15 older men living alone. Qualitative content analysis was used. Five main themes emerged: worthlessness and hopelessness, autonomy and independence, comfort and gratitude, past experiences, and well-being indicator. Our findings provide important additional information that can help clinicians, nurses and care managers achieve better patient-centered care for older men living alone and enhance their dignity. Our investigation found that Japanese older men living alone were enjoying their autonomous status and freedom, despite wide spread negative views of them. Their spiritual health was found to be enhanced through gratitude to everyone with whom they had crossed paths in their life, yearning for the presence of a female companion, and confirming their health measurements were comparative or better than those of others in the same age group.

4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 12: 1075-1080, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372017

RESUMEN

Objective: An association between smoking and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been reported. However, objective quantification of intrahepatic fat via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in relation to smoking has rarely been performed in previous studies. Moreover, the possible pathways via which smoking could induce ectopic fat accumulation have not yet been addressed. The current study aimed to examine the association between smoking status and intrahepatic fat quantity and explore the possible mediating effects of triglycerides (TG) and adiponectin. Subjects and methods: Magnetic resonance imager (MRI) spectra were analyzed to quantify intrahepatic fat in 45 men who were on average 62.3 years of age. Smoking status and alcohol intake were self-reported. Accelerometers were used to record daily total physical activity. Fasting blood TG and adiponectin levels were measured enzymatically. Differences in mean intrahepatic fat values according to smoking status were assessed using analysis of covariance. Results: A stepwise increase in mean intrahepatic fat was observed between never, former, and current smokers, respectively, independent of age, physical activity, alcohol intake, and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.005). Adjustment for TG and adiponectin significantly attenuated this association (P=0.074). Conclusion: Current smoking was significantly associated with increased intrahepatic fat, which may be a result of adipocyte dysfunction, manifested as high circulating TG concentrations and low adiponectin levels.

5.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; 62(6): 613-629, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290731

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to identify key challenges to successful community-based integrated team approach to the management of older adults with dementia. A nationwide community-based qualitative research strategy was applied. We purposively recruited 24 health-care providers and 13 family caregivers from selected 8 prefectures among 47 prefectures. Face to face interviews were conducted from May to September 2017. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Ten themes regarding the challenges were emerged: Ignored wishes, Family caregivers' full responsibilities, Encouragement, Practical and easy-to-understand information, Essential skills of dementia diagnosis and assessment, Gratitude by helping others, Difference between being kind and overly-kind, Legal barrier against information sharing, Coordination between volunteers and clients, and Conflict avoidance in multidisciplinary collaboration. The findings highlight the need to provide practical and easy-to-understand information for family caregivers, educate physicians in dementia diagnosis and assessment, share personal dementia care information among health-care providers, promote platforms which aim to match dementia care volunteers with older adults with dementia and their families in need of help, and raise awareness of advance care planning among both older individuals and health-care providers.

6.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(2): 199-205, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239588

RESUMEN

In 2008, Japan introduced a metabolic syndrome screening and intervention program specifically targeting individuals aged 40 to 74 years of age. However, the consultation and follow-up rates for the intervention are still low. The present study aims to identify characteristics of health-related behavior of the people who neglect it. We conducted a group interview targeting public health nurses and qualified dieticians of "A" prefectural branch office of the Japan Health Insurance Association who were regularly involved in performing the intervention. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data, and four themes were extracted: Self-taught practices, Defiance, Hesitation, and Resignation. Our results suggest that the public health advisors recognize the importance of modification of clients' health-related misperception, improve their skills to develop a positive rapport with clients, and be involved in creating a supportive environment conducive to a healthy lifestyle.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico , Adulto , Femenino , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Humanos , Japón , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras de Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
J Rural Med ; 14(1): 148-151, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191781

RESUMEN

Objective: This study aimed to explore the gender differences in wishes and feelings regarding end-of-life care among Japanese elderly people requiring home care services. Patient/Materials and Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the qualitative data previously compiled from a total of 102 elderly people living at home. The data was retrospectively collected from the participants' nursing records, which included a designated advance care planning (ACP) form completed between January and July 2015. Out of the 102 participants, 86 men and women who were either living alone or with a spouse were selected for the present analysis. We reviewed the participants' ACP forms based on which of the sentiments on the following checklist were expressed: anxiety about the future, abandonment of control, clinging to current daily life, inadequate support from spouse, and a tendency to delegate decision-making. Results: The most commonly expressed feeling was abandonment of control, among both men and women. Among elderly people living alone, women were more likely to want to be surrounded by good, caring people when approaching the end of their lives. Among elderly people living with a spouse, women were more likely to want to delegate decision-making to others. Conclusion: Our results pointed to a gender difference in the attitudes of elderly people toward interactions with the people surrounding them during the end-of-life decision-making process. In order to provide better overall care, health care professionals must come to realize the importance of this gender difference, as it has an impact on the ACP choices made by elderly people living in the community.

8.
Eur J Public Health ; 2019 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649278

RESUMEN

Our previous epidemiological survey targeting urban slum dwellers in Bangladesh showed that the prevalence of diabetes defined by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was higher than the national estimation, and higher in women than men. Subsequently, we conducted the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and found that HbA1c values were consistent with the OGTT findings for detecting diabetes. Our findings indicated that HbA1c ≥6.5% was a rational cut-off, but the optimal HbA1c cut-off for this population might be lower than the internationally recommended threshold. Measuring HbA1c would be a reliable and feasible option for detecting diabetes among underprivileged population in developing countries.

9.
J Epidemiol ; 29(3): 97-103, 2019 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012907

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence of dyslipidemia in Pacific Island countries is limited despite the knowledge that non-communicable diseases have a high burden in the region. We aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of dyslipidemia among residents of Palau. METHODS: The Palau STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS), which was conducted from 2011 through 2013, comprised three parts: behavioral risk factors; physical measurements; and biochemical tests, covering areas such as blood lipids. We used STEPS-generated data to perform a cross-sectional study of 2,184 randomly selected Palau residents, comprising Palauans and non-Palauans aged 25-64 years. RESULTS: The age-adjusted mean BMI was 29.3 kg/m2 in men and 29.9 kg/m2 in women; age-adjusted mean triglycerides value was 182 mg/dL in men and 166 mg/dL in women; and age-adjusted mean cholesterol was 178 mg/dL in men and 183 mg/dL in women. The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was 75% in men and 76% in women, and those of hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL) and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL) were 48% in men and 41% in women and 18% in men and 23% in women, respectively. Mean values of total cholesterol were 177 mg/dL in Palauan men and 182 mg/dL in non-Palauan men. Mean values of triglycerides were 171 mg/dL in Palauan women and 150 mg/dL in non-Palauan women. Women living in rural areas showed a higher mean value of total cholesterol than those in urban areas. CONCLUSION: We found a high mean BMI and high prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, but low mean total cholesterol and a low prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Palau. Lipid profiles varied by age, ethnicity, and living area.


Asunto(s)
Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Palau/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(3): 837-845, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204299

RESUMEN

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To prospectively investigate whether simultaneous elevation of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is associated with the increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence independent of alcohol drinking, body mass index and triglycerides. METHODS: A total of 2,775 Japanese male workers who had no history of type 2 diabetes mellitus were followed. High GGT and ALT were defined as the top tertiles (GGT cutpoint: 49 IU/L, ALT cutpoint: 28 IU/L). Three groups were created using these dichotomized GGT and ALT cutpoints: both low, either high or both high. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were carried out adjusted for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 276 type 2 diabetes mellitus cases were identified during 12 years (27,040 person-years) of follow up. Participants with simultaneously elevated GGT and ALT had a significantly higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, even after adjustment for fasting insulin and fasting blood glucose compared with the group without GGT or ALT elevation. Similar associations were observed in non- or light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers, as well as in participants with normal weight. However, the association was weaker in participants with triglycerides <150 mg/dL. We then evaluated whether the addition of GGT and ALT would improve the prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence, and found that their inclusion significantly increased the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous elevation of GGT and ALT was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence, independent of potential confounding factors, including alcohol drinking and obesity, although the association might require concomitant elevation of triglycerides. Inclusion of GGT and ALT improved type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction.


Asunto(s)
Alanina Transaminasa/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(8): 3291-3302, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523432

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Gut microbiota composition was supposedly related to obesity and psychological factors. We examined the effects of a nutritional education intervention focusing on gut microbiota composition on obesity and psychological factors among obese women. METHODS: Forty-four obese Japanese women aged 40 or older were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 22) or control group (n = 22). The intervention consisted of a 20-min dietary lecture and a 10-min counselling session by registered dieticians, every 2 weeks for eight consecutive weeks. Body weight, height, waist circumference, food frequency, and gut microbiota composition were measured, and self-rated health and psychological factors were scored before and after the intervention. RESULTS: All participants completed the 8 week program. After the intervention, dietary fibre intake (p < 0.01), frequency of vegetable consumption (p = 0.020), and frequency of milk and milk product consumption (p < 0.01) increased significantly in the intervention group compared with the control group. Body weight and body mass index (BMI; p < 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.01), and the depression scale score (p < 0.01) decreased significantly, while significant improvements were found in self-rated health (p = 0.045) and microbiome diversity (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Nutritional education focusing on gut microbiota composition may improve obesity and psychological factors in obese women.

12.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 80(4): 451-464, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587860

RESUMEN

Dietary habits are related to the risks of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, of which burdens are increasing in low-income countries including Ethiopia. Although several epidemiological studies of NCD risk factors were conducted in Ethiopia, qualitative studies on people's dietary habit in relation to NCDs have not been conducted yet. This study aims to describe people's perception and practice of 'healthy' diet, and barriers to practice 'healthy' diet, paying attention to the dynamics between the perception and practice. We conducted 16 key informant interviews and eight focus group discussions in an urban and a rural areas in northern Ethiopia between November 2014 and January 2016. Audio-records in local language were transcribed word-for-word, and translated into English. English text data were analyzed qualitatively, through constant comparative analysis following the principles of the grounded theory. Three themes have emerged: (1) dietary habit perceived as 'good' or 'bad' for health; (2) reasons for continuing current 'unhealthy' dietary habit; and (3) current dietary habit perceived as 'traditional.' People's practice was mostly consistent with their perception, while they sometimes practiced contrary to the perception because of personal preference and physical or financial obstacles. People were often indifferent of health implications of their habitual dietary practice, such as drinking a lot of sweet coffee. We showed dynamics between perception and practice of 'healthy' diet among people in northern Ethiopia. It is needed to increase awareness of NCDs both among the urban and rural people and to improve the social environment for removing the obstacles.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Percepción , Investigación Cualitativa , Etiopía , Humanos , Población Rural
13.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 80(4): 559-569, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587870

RESUMEN

The increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Bangladesh can be attributable to rapid urbanization and coinciding changes in lifestyle accompanied by nutrition transition. The objective of this study is to explore respondents' lived experiences and perceptions relating to NCDs and nutrition change in an urban slum community in Dhaka. Qualitative methods were employed to explore a general understanding of behavior related to NCDs among residents of the slum community. We conducted key informant interviews of six men and seven women of various backgrounds and five focus group discussions to focus salient topics emerged from the interviews. The transcriptions of the audio-recordings were thematically analyzed, using the constant comparison method. Four major themes emerged: (1) financial hardship influencing health; (2) urbanized lifestyle affecting diet; (3) tobacco and sweetened tea as cornerstones of social life; and (4) health-seeking behavior utilizing local resources. One notable finding was that even with general economic improvement, respondents perceived poverty to be one of the major causes of NCDs. A promising finding for potentially curbing NCDs was the current trend for women to walk for exercise contrary to the commonly held notion that urban dwellers generally lead sedentary lifestyles. This study described how urban slum dwellers in Dhaka, experiencing a transition from a traditional to urbanized lifestyle, perceived their daily practices in relation to NCDs and nutrition. Our research revealed both adverse and encouraging elements of perceptions and behavior related to NCDs, which may contribute to the optimal design of NCD prevention and health promotion programs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Investigación Cualitativa , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Bangladesh , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología , Áreas de Pobreza , Población Urbana , Urbanización , Adulto Joven
14.
Prev Med Rep ; 11: 282-289, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116699

RESUMEN

The possible effects of a neighborhood's built environment on physical activity have not been studied in Asian countries as much as in Western countries. The present study cross-sectionally examined the relationship between geographic information system (GIS) measured residence and worksite neighborhood walkability, and the number of parks/green spaces and sports facilities within a 1 km radius of home and workplace, with self-reported leisure-time habitual (3-4 times per week or more) walking and moderate-to-vigorous intensity habitual exercise among local government workers aged 18 to 64 years living in an urban-suburban area of Aichi, Japan in 2013. A single-level binomial regression model was used to estimate the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Of the 1959 male and 884 female participants, 288 (15%) and 141 (16%) reported habitual walking, respectively, and 18% and 17% reported habitual exercise, respectively. Compared with women who resided in neighborhood with a walkability index of 4-30, those living in an area with that of 35-40 were significantly more likely to engage in leisure-time habitual exercise (multivariable OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08-2.68). Marginally significant positive associations were found between leisure-time habitual exercise and the residential neighborhood's number of parks/green spaces among women, as well as the number of sports facilities among men. In conclusion, a residential neighborhood environment characterized by higher walkability may contribute to the initiation or maintenance of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time exercise among working women living in an urban-suburban area of Japan.

15.
J Rural Med ; 13(1): 64-71, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875899

RESUMEN

Objective: The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in China, together with economic development and social changes. The prevalence of risk factors for NCDs, such as overweight/obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, is reported to be high even among poor residents of rural areas. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among elderly adults in rural Northeast China and the proportion with controlled hypertension among those on antihypertensive medication (hypertension control rate). We also aimed to examine the association of hypertension control with health facilities that provide treatment. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in six rural villages of Northeast China from February to early March, 2012. We interviewed 1593 adults aged 50-69 years and measured their blood pressure. We examined the differences in mean blood pressure between participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics and those who obtained medication from other sources, using analysis of covariance adjusted for several covariates. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among participants was as high as 63.3%, but the hypertension control rate was only 8.4%. Most villagers (98.1%) were not registered in the chronic disease treatment scheme of the public rural health insurance. The mean systolic blood pressure, adjusted for the covariates, of participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics was significantly lower than that of participants who obtained medication from township hospitals (by 16.5 mmHg) or from private pharmacies (by 7.3 mmHg). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was high and the hypertension control rate low among elderly villagers during the cold season. As treatment at village clinics, which villagers can access during the cold season seems to be more effective than self-medication or treatment at distant hospitals, improving the quality of treatment in village clinics is urgently needed.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9298, 2018 06 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915239

RESUMEN

The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in Ethiopia. This study aims to describe the prevalence of NCD risk factors of public employees in a regional city in northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study targeting men and women aged 25-64 years employed by public offices in Mekelle. The prevalence was age-standardized to the Ethiopian 2007 population. Among the 1380 subjects (823 men and 557 women), 68.7% had less than 1 serving of fruits and vegetables per day, 41.0% were physically inactive, and 57.3% observed religious fast. The age-standardised prevalence of abdominal obesity was 29.3% in men and 58.5% in women, but that of metabolic syndrome was comparable between men (39.2%) and women (39.0%). The prevalence of diabetes was underestimated if only fasting blood glucose (FBG) was used for the diagnosis compared to combination of FBG and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (6.7% in men and 3.8% in women vs. 12.1% in men and 5.6% in women). More than a quarter (26.1%) of men and 8.7% of women had estimated 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease of 10% or more. This study revealed the high prevalence of NCD metabolic risk factors among the urban public employees in the highland of Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Adulto , Glucemia/metabolismo , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
17.
J Epidemiol ; 28(8): 347-352, 2018 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553059

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Relatively little evidence exists for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prediction models from long-term follow-up studies in East Asians. This study aims to develop a point-based prediction model for 10-year risk of developing T2DM in middle-aged Japanese men. METHODS: We followed 3,540 male participants of Aichi Workers' Cohort Study, who were aged 35-64 years and were free of diabetes in 2002, until March 31, 2015. Baseline age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, medication for dyslipidemia, diabetes family history, and blood levels of triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were examined using Cox proportional hazard model. Variables significantly associated with T2DM in univariable models were simultaneously entered in a multivariable model for determination of the final model using backward variable selection. Performance of an existing T2DM model when applied to the current dataset was compared to that obtained in the present study's model. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 12.2 years, 342 incident T2DM cases were documented. The prediction system using points assigned to age, BMI, smoking status, diabetes family history, and TG and FBG showed reasonable discrimination (c-index: 0.77) and goodness-of-fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.22). The present model outperformed the previous one in the present subjects. CONCLUSION: The point system, once validated in the other populations, could be applied to middle-aged Japanese male workers to identify those at high risk of developing T2DM. In addition, further investigation is also required to examine whether the use of this system will reduce incidence.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
18.
J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care ; 14(4): 315-327, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653395

RESUMEN

Successful advance care planning relies heavily on effective communication between the elderly and their families, care managers, and social workers. However, care managers and social workers are often not adequately prepared to conduct such discussion. The aim of the present study was to identify the specific challenges facing Japanese care managers and social workers when involvement in advance care planning. Two focus group discussions were held between August and November 2017, involving eleven care managers and three social workers employed at two long-term care facilities actively pursuing advance care planning initiatives. Four main themes were identified, through content analysis, as barriers and facilitators: client readiness, communication, variation-rich client individuality, and difficult-to-explain end-of-life options. This study revealed the importance of building rapport with the residents and their families in order to assess their readiness to discuss care options and preferences. Obstacles included lack of medical knowledge of care managers and social workers. Study findings suggested that a multi-disciplinary team, facilitated by care managers and social workers, was fundamental to achieving the goals of advance care planning.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Anticipada de Atención/organización & administración , Características Culturales , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Instituciones de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermería/organización & administración , Trabajadores Sociales , Comunicación , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Japón , Prioridad del Paciente , Autonomía Personal
19.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e014710, 2017 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138190

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors among the urban poor in Bangladesh. DESIGN: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional epidemiological study. SETTING: The study was conducted in a shantytown in the city of Dhaka. There were 8604 households with 34 170 residents in the community. Those households were categorised into two wealth strata based on the housing structure. PARTICIPANTS: The study targeted residents aged 18-64 years. A total of 2986 eligible households with one eligible individual were selected by simple random sampling stratified by household wealth status. A total of 2551 residents completed the questionnaire survey, and 2009 participated in the subsequent physical and biochemical measurements. OUTCOME MEASURES: A modified WHO survey instrument was used for assessing behavioural risk factors and physical and biochemical measurements, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). The prevalence of NCD risk factors, such as tobacco use, fruit and vegetable intake, overweight/obesity, hypertension, diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5%) and dyslipidaemia, was described according to household wealth status and gender differences. RESULTS: The prevalence of current tobacco use was 60.4% in men and 23.5% in women. Most of them (90.8%) consumed more than 1 serving of fruits and vegetables per day; however, only 2.1% consumed more than 5 servings. Overweight/obesity was more common in women (39.2%) than in men (18.9%), while underweight was more common in men (21.0%) than in women (7.1%). The prevalence of hypertension was 18.6% in men and 20.7% in women. The prevalence of diabetes was 15.6% in men and 22.5% in women, which was much higher than the estimated national prevalence (7%). The prevalence of raised total cholesterol (≥190 mg/dL) was 25.7% in men and 34.0% in women. CONCLUSION: The study identified that tobacco use, both overweight and underweight, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were prevalent among the urban poor in Bangladesh.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Áreas de Pobreza , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Ciudades/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/sangre , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Frutas , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Delgadez/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Verduras , Adulto Joven
20.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 22(1): 1, 2017 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165111

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: A population survey was conducted in an urban shantytown in Bangladesh, as a baseline study of future epidemiological studies. This paper aims to describe the findings of the study, including the population profile and residential environment of the urban poor. METHODS: We conducted a complete count household survey in an urban poor community in Dhaka. Using a brief structured questionnaire in Bengali language, trained interviewers visited each household and asked questions such as: duration of residence; ownership of house, toilet and kitchen; water supply; number of family members; age, sex, education, occupation, tobacco use, and history of diseases of each family member. RESULTS: We found that there were 8604 households and 34,170 people in the community. Average number of household members was 4.0. Most people had access to safe water, but only 16% lived in the house with a toilet. Based on the proxy indicators of household wealth levels, we identified that about 39% were relatively well-off, while the rest were very poor. Tobacco use was prevalent in men regardless of age and in women aged over 35 years. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes was slightly higher in women than in men, although over 70% of the respondents didn't know if they had such diseases. Incidences of diarrhea in the last one month were relatively low. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed population profile and sanitation environment in an urban poor community by a complete count survey. We expect the study to serve as a baseline for future epidemiological studies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Pobreza , Características de la Residencia , Saneamiento , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme
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