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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248018, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657185

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents living with HIV have poor treatment outcomes, including lower rates of viral suppression, than other age groups. Emerging evidence suggests a connection between improved mental health and increased adherence. Strengthening the focus on mental health could support increased rates of viral suppression. In sub-Saharan Africa clinical services for mental health care are extremely limited. Additional mechanisms are required to address the unmet mental health needs of this group. We consider the role that community-based peer supporters, a cadre operating at scale with adolescents, could play in the provision of lay-support for mental health. METHODS: We conducted qualitative research to explore the experiences of peer supporters involved in delivering a peer-led mental health intervention in Zimbabwe as part of a randomized control trial (Zvandiri-Friendship Bench trial). We conducted 2 focus group discussions towards the end of the trial with 20 peer supporters (aged 18-24) from across 10 intervention districts and audio recorded 200 of the peer supporters' monthly case reviews. These data were thematically analysed to explore how peer supporters reflect on what was required of them given the problems that clients raised and what they themselves needed in delivering mental health support. RESULTS: A primary strength of the peer support model, reflected across the datasets, is that it enables adolescents to openly discuss their problems with peer supporters, confident that there is reciprocal trust and understanding derived from the similarity in their lived experiences with HIV. There are potential risks for peer supporters, including being overwhelmed by engaging with and feeling responsible for resolving relationally and structurally complex problems, which warrant considerable supervision. To support this cadre critical elements are needed: a clearly defined scope for the manageable provision of mental health support; a strong triage and referral system for complex cases; mechanisms to support the inclusion of caregivers; and sustained investment in training and ongoing supervision. CONCLUSION: Extending peer support to explicitly include a focus on mental health has enormous potential. From this empirical study we have developed a framework of core considerations and principles (the TRUST Framework) to guide the implementation of adequate supportive infrastructure in place to enhance the opportunities and mitigate risks.

2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(12): e25641, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314786

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There have been very few randomized clinical trials of interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in people living with HIV (PLWH) in African countries. This is despite the fact that alcohol use is one of the modifiable risk factors for poor virological control in PLWH on antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Sixteen clinic clusters in Zimbabwe were selected through stratified randomization and randomized 1: 1 to Intervention and Control arms. Inclusion criteria for individual participants were being adult, living with HIV and a probable alcohol use disorder as defined by a score of 6 (women) or 7 (men) on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). In the Intervention clusters, participants received 8 to 10 sessions of Motivational Interviewing blended with brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (MI-CBT). In the control clusters, participants received four Enhanced Usual Care (EUC) sessions based on the alcohol treatment module from the World Health Organisation mhGAP intervention guide. General Nurses from the clinics were trained to deliver both treatments. The primary outcome was a change in AUDIT score at six-month post-randomization. Viral load, functioning and quality of life were secondary outcomes. A random-effects analysis-of-covariance model was used to account for the cluster design. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-four participants (n = 108 intervention and n = 126 control) were enrolled across 16 clinics. Participants were recruited from November 2016 to November 2017 and followed through to May 2018. Their mean age was 43.3 years (SD = 9.1) and 78.6% (n = 184) were male. At six months, the mean AUDIT score fell by -6.15 (95% CI -6.32; -6.00) in the MI-CBT arm, compared to a fall of - 3.09 95 % CI - 3.21; -2.93) in the EUC arm (mean difference -3.09 (95% CI -4.53 to -1.23) (p = 0.05). Viral load reduced and quality of life and functioning improved in both arms but the difference between arms was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for hazardous drinking and AUD comprising brief, multiple alcohol treatment sessions delivered by nurses in public HIV facilities in low-income African countries can reduce problematic drinking among PLWH. Such interventions should be integrated into the primary care management of AUD and HIV and delivered by non-specialist providers. Research is needed on cost-effectiveness and implementation of such interventions, and on validation of cut-points for alcohol use scales in low resource settings, in partnership with those with lived experience of HIV and AUD.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963795

RESUMEN

Background: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience a high burden of mental health disorder which is a barrier to antiretroviral therapy adherence. In Zimbabwe, trained, mentored peer supporters living with HIV (Community Adolescent Treatment Supporters - CATS) have been found to improve adherence, viral suppression and psychosocial well-being among ALHIV. The Friendship Bench is the largest integrated mental health programme in Africa. We hypothesise that combining the CATS programme and Friendship Bench will improve mental health and virological suppression among ALHIV compared with the CATS programme alone. Methods: We will conduct a cluster-randomised controlled trial in 60 clinics randomised 1:1 in five provinces. ALHIV attending the control arm clinics will receive standard CATS support and clinic support following the Ministry of Health guidelines. Those attending the intervention arm clinics will receive Friendship Bench problem-solving therapy, delivered by trained CATS. Participants with the signs of psychological distress will be referred to the clinic for further assessment and management. The primary outcome is HIV virological failure (≥1000 copies/ml) or death at 48 weeks. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of adolescents with common mental disorder symptoms (defined as Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ-14) score ≥8), proportion with depression symptoms (defined as Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥11), symptom severity (mean SSQ-14 and PHQ-9 scores) and EQ-5D score for health-related quality of life. Conclusions: This trial evaluates the effectiveness of peer-delivery of mental health care on mental health and HIV viral load among ALHIV. If effective this intervention has the potential to be scaled-up to improve these outcomes.Trial registration: PACTR201810756862405. 08 October 2018.

4.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 14: 66, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817758

RESUMEN

Background: There are substantial gaps in our knowledge regarding the aetiology of mental, neurological and substance use disorders in sub-Saharan Africa, and the cost-effectiveness and scalability of interventions to reduce the burden of these conditions on the continent. To address these gaps, international investment has focussed on building research capacity, including funding doctoral students in African countries, to support development of high quality, contextually relevant interventions. Absent, however, is an understanding of how capacity building feeds into research careers. Methods: Within a broader mental health research capacity-building initiative (African Mental Health Research Initiative), we conducted 52 qualitative interviews with early-career researchers, policymakers, academics, and service users from four African countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and with international funders of mental health research. The interview guide focused on the research context, planning, and priorities and how respondents perceive research careers and funding. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed interviews. Results: Five components of a research career emerged: (i) research positions; (ii) research skills; (iii) funding; (iv) research commitment from African countries; and (v) advocacy. All stakeholders wanted more high-impact African researchers, but few saw a clear, replicable track for developing their careers within universities or their Ministries of Health in their African countries. This stemmed, in part, from the lack of support for infrastructure that enables high-quality research: grants administration, mentorship, university leadership, research culture, and open communication between policymakers and researchers. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of developing research infrastructure alongside capacity-building efforts. International funders should invest in grant management at African universities which would place them at the centre of research initiatives. African universities should prioritise the creation of a research culture by developing and promoting well-defined research tracks for both clinicians and academics, investing in grant management, and raising the profile of research within their institutions.

6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100333, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637890

RESUMEN

Background: There is a lack of data from low- and middle-income countries on whether anxiety independently predicts a more chronic course for depression. Methods: We undertook secondary data analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial in Zimbabwe which had tested the effectiveness of the Friendship Bench intervention for common mental disorders compared to enhanced usual care. Inclusion for the current study was participants from the trial who had probable major depression at baseline, defined as scoring => 11 on the locally validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). This emerged to be 354 of the original 573 (61.78%) of the original trial sample. Anxiety was measured using the locally validated cut-point on the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Persistent depression was defined as scoring => 11 on the PHQ-9 at six-months follow-up. Analysis in Stata 15 used random-effects logistic regression to adjust for clustering by clinic. Outcomes: Of the 354 participants who were eligible for treatment, 329 (92·9%) completed 6-month follow-up assessment. 37% of the trial sample had persistent depression at 6-months follow-up; 59% in the control arm and 17% in the intervention arm. Co-morbid anxiety present at trial baseline was independently associated with persistent depression after adjusting for age, gender and baseline depression severity (adjusted OR = 2·83, 95% CI 1·32-6·07). There was no evidence of effect modification by trial arm. Baseline depression severity also predicted persistent depression. Interpretation Treatment for depression in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) should be directed towards those with greatest need. This includes people with co-morbid anxiety and greater depression severity at initial assessment who are less likely to remit at six months. Advice on coping with anxiety, psychological treatments which target common anxiety symptoms such as fear, avoidance, excessive worry and intrusive thoughts, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) should be made more widely available in LMIC and offered to those with persistent mixed depression and anxiety.

7.
JAMA ; 323(22): 2290-2300, 2020 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515813

RESUMEN

Importance: The Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9) is a 9-item self-administered instrument used for detecting depression and assessing severity of depression. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) consists of the first 2 items of the PHQ-9 (which assess the frequency of depressed mood and anhedonia) and can be used as a first step to identify patients for evaluation with the full PHQ-9. Objective: To estimate PHQ-2 accuracy alone and combined with the PHQ-9 for detecting major depression. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, and Web of Science (January 2000-May 2018). Study Selection: Eligible data sets compared PHQ-2 scores with major depression diagnoses from a validated diagnostic interview. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Individual participant data were synthesized with bivariate random-effects meta-analysis to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-2 alone among studies using semistructured, fully structured, or Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) diagnostic interviews separately and in combination with the PHQ-9 vs the PHQ-9 alone for studies that used semistructured interviews. The PHQ-2 score ranges from 0 to 6, and the PHQ-9 score ranges from 0 to 27. Results: Individual participant data were obtained from 100 of 136 eligible studies (44 318 participants; 4572 with major depression [10%]; mean [SD] age, 49 [17] years; 59% female). Among studies that used semistructured interviews, PHQ-2 sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) were 0.91 (0.88-0.94) and 0.67 (0.64-0.71) for cutoff scores of 2 or greater and 0.72 (0.67-0.77) and 0.85 (0.83-0.87) for cutoff scores of 3 or greater. Sensitivity was significantly greater for semistructured vs fully structured interviews. Specificity was not significantly different across the types of interviews. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.88 (0.86-0.89) for semistructured interviews, 0.82 (0.81-0.84) for fully structured interviews, and 0.87 (0.85-0.88) for the MINI. There were no significant subgroup differences. For semistructured interviews, sensitivity for PHQ-2 scores of 2 or greater followed by PHQ-9 scores of 10 or greater (0.82 [0.76-0.86]) was not significantly different than PHQ-9 scores of 10 or greater alone (0.86 [0.80-0.90]); specificity for the combination was significantly but minimally higher (0.87 [0.84-0.89] vs 0.85 [0.82-0.87]). The area under the curve was 0.90 (0.89-0.91). The combination was estimated to reduce the number of participants needing to complete the full PHQ-9 by 57% (56%-58%). Conclusions and Relevance: In an individual participant data meta-analysis of studies that compared PHQ scores with major depression diagnoses, the combination of PHQ-2 (with cutoff ≥2) followed by PHQ-9 (with cutoff ≥10) had similar sensitivity but higher specificity compared with PHQ-9 cutoff scores of 10 or greater alone. Further research is needed to understand the clinical and research value of this combined approach to screening.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Adulto , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/clasificación , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Curva ROC , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 825, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487132

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Agriculture represents the mainstay of African economies and livestock products are essential to the human population's nutritional needs. However, in many developing countries, including Ghana, livestock production fails to meet demand due to population growth and negative effects of climate change. One of the challenges to production is livestock loss affecting farmers. However, despite stressful events experienced, livestock farmers' mental health is poorly documented. This study aims to identify the root causes of livestock losses and their influence on pastoralists' mental health. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study in two districts in the Northern and Southern Belts of Ghana. Using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and guided interviews, we collected quantitative and qualitative data from 287 livestock farmers and 24 key-informants respectively. Mental health scores were categorized using standard guidelines. We evaluated the factors that explained variations in mental wellbeing using general linear models (α = 0.05). RESULTS: About 85% (240/287) of the livestock farmers lost cattle within 1 year. Of these, 91% lost cattle to animal diseases, 50% to theft and 27% to pasture shortages. Qualitative findings reveal that due to poor access to veterinary services, farmers treat livestock diseases themselves with drugs from unregulated sources and often sell diseased cows for meat to recover losses. Findings showed that 60% of livestock farmers had poor mental health. Of those, 72% were depressed, 66% anxious and 59% stressed. Mental wellbeing was negatively associated with the number of adverse events experienced, proportion of livestock lost to most of the major loss factors, emotional attachment to livestock and self-reported physical illnesses in farmers, but positively associated with increasing herd size [F (8,278) = 14.18, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.29]. CONCLUSIONS: Livestock diseases are the leading cause of losses to livestock farmers, whose mental wellbeing is negatively affected by these losses. Although an adaptive strategy by farmers to compensate for poor veterinary services, the arbitrary use of veterinary drugs and sale of diseased cattle pose health risks to the public. Further research to evaluate the performance of veterinary services in Ghana, mental health problems and risk to human health due to potential high-risk meat entering the food chain, is needed.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Agricultores/psicología , Ganado , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pobreza/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Bovinos , Economía , Agricultores/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231872, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374724

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression is highly prevalent among patients newly starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Malawi and many other countries. Untreated depression at ART initiation can disrupt the HIV care continuum. Effective approaches for depression screening and treatment exist for low-resource settings, but they are rarely applied. Identifying effective implementation strategies are critical. METHODS: A pilot program integrated depression screening and treatment into routine HIV care using existing staff at two public health clinics in Malawi in two phases; a screening-only "control" phase and an active "intervention" phase. During the intervention phase, providers prescribed antidepressants or referred patients for Friendship Bench problem-solving therapy. We evaluated the program's impact on retention in HIV care, viral suppression, and depression remission at 6 months using tabular comparisons and log-binomial models to estimate adjusted risk ratios and mean differences among the intervention group relative to the control group. RESULTS: Nearly all consenting participants were screened for depression appropriately and 25% had mild to severe depressive symptoms. During the intervention phase, 86% of participants with mild depressive symptoms started Friendship Bench therapy and 96% of participants with moderate to severe depressive symptoms started antidepressants. Few participants in the intervention group received consistent depression treatment over their first 6 months in care. In the adjusted main analysis, program exposure did not demonstrably affect most HIV or mental health outcomes, though the probability of currently being on ART at 6 months was significantly lower among the intervention group than the control group [RR 0.6(95%CI: 0.4-0.9)]. CONCLUSIONS: While it is feasible to integrate depression screening and treatment initiation into ART initiation, providing ongoing depression treatment over time is challenging. Similar implementation science studies focused on maintaining depression management will be increasingly important as we strive to understand and test the best ways to implement evidence-based depression treatment within HIV care.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Depresión/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Adulto , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Depresión/complicaciones , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/terapia , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Malaui/epidemiología , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Salud Mental , Participación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos Piloto , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/organización & administración , Inducción de Remisión , Integración de Sistemas , Resultado del Tratamiento , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto Joven
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 383, 2020 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV affects the central nervous system resulting in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in approximately 50% of people living with HIV. It typically affects memory, learning, working memory, fine motor skills, speed of information processing, verbal fluency and executive functioning cognitive domains. NCI can affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), employability, driving ability and activities of daily living. NCI is not routinely screened for in Zimbabwe, and the burden is not known in this setting. The objectives of this study were: 1) To determine NCI prevalence using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at two primary health care clinics in Harare; 2) To assess the pattern of cognitive impairment across cognitive domains using a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) battery in HIV-positive patients compared to HIV-negative controls. METHODS: Inclusion criteria: 18 years or older; minimum 7 years education; no neurological or psychiatric disorders. HIV-positive participants were on ART for ≥3 months; HIV-negative participants had a confirmed HIV negative status in the past month. A comprehensive NP battery, functional assessments, demographic and medical history questionnaires were administered. The NP battery consisted of tests assessing memory, learning, working memory, fine motor skills, speed of information processing, verbal fluency and executive functioning. RESULTS: Two-hundred-and-thirty-one participants were recruited. Of those, 155 were HIV-positive (Female = 70%, Age M = 37.8; SD 11.2) and 76 HIV-negative (Female = 63%, Age M = 31.2; SD 9.9). HIV-positive participants were on ART for an average of 6 years. NCI was present in 49.7% HIV positive participants. Compared to HIV-negative participants, the HIV-positive group had significantly poorer scores in 5 out of 7 cognitive domains. A good level of education is negatively correlated with NCI. CONCLUSIONS: NCI prevalence in HIV-positive population Zimbabwe is consistent with global estimates. NCI persists in adults who are on ART. Routine assessment of NCI in adults attending primary care clinics using this adapted battery is therefore important so that they are identified early and are provided the necessary interventions.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH , Atención Primaria de Salud , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346483

RESUMEN

Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders are a leading, but neglected, cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The treatment gap for MNS is vast with only 10% of people with MNS disorders in low-income countries accessing evidence-based treatments. Reasons for this include low awareness of the burden of MNS disorders and limited evidence to support development, adaptation and implementation of effective and feasible treatments. The overall goal of the African Mental Health Research Initiative (AMARI) is to build an African-led network of MNS researchers in Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe, who are equipped to lead high quality mental health research programs that meet the needs of their countries, and to establish a sustainable career pipeline for these researchers with an emphasis on integrating MNS research into existing programs such as HIV/AIDS. This paper describes the process leading to the development of AMARI's objectives through a theory of change workshop, successes and challenges that have been faced by the consortium in the last 4 years, and the future role that AMARI could play in further building MNS research capacity by brining on board more institutions from low- and middle-income countries with an emphasis on developing an evidence-based training curriculum and a research-driven care service.

12.
Cogn Behav Pract ; 27(1): 84-92, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153343

RESUMEN

HIV is prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, and depression frequently co-occurs. Depression is one of the most important predictors of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Little has been done to develop integrated interventions that are feasible and appropriate for task-shifting to nonspecialists that seek to address both depression and barriers to ART adherence in Sub-Saharan Africa. This case series describes an integrated intervention for depression and ART adherence delivered by a lay adherence counselor and supervised by a local psychologist. The 6-session intervention was based on problem-solving therapy for depression and for barriers to adherence (PST-AD), with stepped care for those whose depression did not recover with PST-AD. Primary outcomes were acceptability and depression. Acceptability was measured by participant attendance to the 6 sessions. Three case studies illustrate the structured intervention, solutions identified to adherence barriers and to problems underlying low mood, and changes seen in the clients' psychological symptoms. Acceptability of the intervention was high and common mental disorder symptoms scores measured using the SRQ-8 decreased overall. An integrated intervention for depression and adherence to ART appeared feasible in this low-income setting. An RCT of the intervention versus an appropriate comparison condition is needed to evaluate clinical and cost-effectiveness.

13.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1715325, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041498

RESUMEN

Less than 1% of biomedical research papers originate in Africa. Locally relevant mental health research, including synthesis of existing evidence, is essential for developing interventions and strengthening health systems, but institutions may lack the capacity to deliver training on systematic reviewing for publication in international journals. This paper describes the development and implementation of a training-of-trainers (ToT) course on systematic reviewing. The ToT prepared junior faculty ('trainers') from universities in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Zimbabwe to lead a five-day systematic reviewing workshop. Using an evaluation framework based on implementation science outcomes, the feasibility of the ToT was assessed by tracking the number of workshops the trainers subsequently conducted and the number of trainers and trainees who participated; acceptability was assessed through post-workshop surveys on trainee perspectives; impact was evaluated through trainee scores on a 15-item multiple choice test on systematic reviewing concepts; and sustainability was assessed based on whether the workshop was integrated into university curricula. Twelve trainers (86% of those trained) facilitated a total of seven workshops in their home countries (total 103 trainees). The first workshop run in each country was evaluated, and there was a significant improvement in mean knowledge scores between pre- and post-tests among trainees (MD= 3.07, t= 5.90, 95% CI 2.02-4.11). In two of the three countries, there are efforts to integrate the systematic review workshop into university curricula. The cost of the workshop led by the international trainer was $1480 per participant, whereas the trainer-led workshops cost approximately $240 per participant. Overall, ToT is relatively new to research capacity building, although it has been used widely in clinical settings. Our findings suggest ToT is a promising, low-cost way to develop both technical skills of individuals and the pedagogical capacity of universities, and to promote sustainability of research capacity building programs that often have time-limited grant funding.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/educación , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Creación de Capacidad , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Salud Mental/educación , Investigadores/educación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Adulto , Curriculum , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Zimbabwe
14.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 122: 115-128.e1, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105798

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Depression symptom questionnaires are not for diagnostic classification. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores ≥10 are nonetheless often used to estimate depression prevalence. We compared PHQ-9 ≥10 prevalence to Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID) major depression prevalence and assessed whether an alternative PHQ-9 cutoff could more accurately estimate prevalence. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Individual participant data meta-analysis of datasets comparing PHQ-9 scores to SCID major depression status. RESULTS: A total of 9,242 participants (1,389 SCID major depression cases) from 44 primary studies were included. Pooled PHQ-9 ≥10 prevalence was 24.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.8%, 28.9%); pooled SCID major depression prevalence was 12.1% (95% CI: 9.6%, 15.2%); and pooled difference was 11.9% (95% CI: 9.3%, 14.6%). The mean study-level PHQ-9 ≥10 to SCID-based prevalence ratio was 2.5 times. PHQ-9 ≥14 and the PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm provided prevalence closest to SCID major depression prevalence, but study-level prevalence differed from SCID-based prevalence by an average absolute difference of 4.8% for PHQ-9 ≥14 (95% prediction interval: -13.6%, 14.5%) and 5.6% for the PHQ-9 diagnostic algorithm (95% prediction interval: -16.4%, 15.0%). CONCLUSION: PHQ-9 ≥10 substantially overestimates depression prevalence. There is too much heterogeneity to correct statistically in individual studies.

15.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 57(1): 161-172, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180824

RESUMEN

This study investigated the experience of lay health workers (LHWs) delivering problem-solving therapy (PST) for common mental disorders (CMD) as well as clients' views of the PST program referred to as the Friendship Bench (FB). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with LHWs (n = 5) and clients living with HIV (PLWH) (n = 10). Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. LHWs described a severe form of CMD amongst PLWH with a history of trauma, naming it kufungisisa kwe njodzi (excessive thinking due to trauma), a local cultural equivalent of PTSD. The term kufungisisa (thinking too much) has been used as the local equivalent for CMD. Trauma or njodzi was seen both as a circumscribed event and as linked to ongoing pervasive experiences such as living with HIV, stigma, and poverty. Although LHWs recognized symptoms of PTSD such as intrusion, avoidance, and hyper-arousal, they did not know how to address these specifically and chose to address them as a severe form of kufungisisa. There is a need to integrate aspects of PTSD management within care packages for CMD delivered by LHWs.

16.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 33(sup1): 1-26, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043112

RESUMEN

Objective: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at risk for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)/Neurocognitive Impairment (NCI). HIV prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is high, but neuropsychological screening and testing for NCI among HIV-infected individuals is not done frequently. This systematic review aims to establish how NCI among HIV-infected individuals is being assessed in SSA, if and how the tests are adapted, if norms exist and identify personnel who administer them.Method: We searched PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Two reviewers screened the articles for inclusion and risk of bias. We included studies from SSA with a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery.Results: We retrieved 212 articles and 23 articles met inclusion criteria. The most commonly used tests were the Color Trails Test 1, Color Trails Test 2, and the WAIS III Digit Symbol Test. Some tests were translated into French (Cameroon), Luganda (Uganda), Chichewa (Malawi), isiXhosa (South Africa), and Afrikaans (South Africa). Some verbal learning tests were adapted to reflect culturally appropriate language. Test administrators were either non-specialized personnel supervised by clinical neuropsychologists or clinical psychologists.Conclusion: Overall, the tests used are similar to the tests being used globally to assess NCI among HIV-infected individuals and there is a general consistency across countries. However, there is generally a lack of norms for the tests and the process of adaptation is not always well described. Future research should establish whether these tests measure neuropsychological constructs as successfully as they do in western populations where the tests were developed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Trastornos Neurocognitivos/etiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/normas , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica
17.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 14(1): 16, 2019 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use in HIV infected patients is associated with risky sexual behaviour, poor adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, treatment failure and increased physiologic harm. The objectives of the study were to pilot the outcome assessments to be used in the trial proper, assess the feasibility of delivery of a brief MI/CBT intervention compared to an WHO mhGAP intervention for problematic alcohol use in PLWH in Zimbabwe, and pilot the effectiveness (on alcohol use, functionality and CD4 count) of these interventions at 3 months in a randomised controlled trial design. METHODS: An intervention for HIV infected patients with problematic alcohol use, developed through adaptation of existing evidence based psychological treatments, was assessed for its feasibility at a tertiary HIV care clinic in Zimbabwe. Registered general nurses, using a manualised protocol, delivered the intervention. Forty patients were recruited and randomised to receive either an MI/CBT intervention or the WHO mhGAP Intervention Guide for AUDs (n = 20 patients per group). RESULTS: Out of 40 participants enrolled, 31 were successfully followed up for 3 months with a loss to follow-up rate of 23%. There was a statistically significant decrease in AUDIT score over time in both groups (p < 0.001), however no statistically significant group difference with a mean difference of 0.80, standard error of 2.07 and p = 0.70. For the CD4 count, the median and interquartile ranges at baseline for MI/CBT and WHO mhGAP IG groups were 218 (274) and 484 (211.50), respectively. At follow-up, median and interquartile ranges for the CD4 count for MI/CBT and WHO mhGAP IG groups were 390 (280) and 567 (378), respectively, indicative of improvement in immunological parameters in both arms. CONCLUSION: The findings from this pilot study suggests that a brief MI/CBT delivered by Registered General Nurses for problematic alcohol use is feasible in this population but will require the implementation of additional measures to improve retention. However, mechanisms to improve retention need special attention. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, current PACTR201509001211149.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/terapia , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/métodos , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/organización & administración , Proyectos Piloto , Psicoterapia Breve , Calidad de Vida , Conducta Sexual , Factores Socioeconómicos , Carga Viral , Zimbabwe
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 53, 2019 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704428

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder that is highly prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH). Depression is linked to poor adherence to anti-retroviral medication while in the peri-natal period may affect birth outcomes. Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to depression. Little is known about the factors associated with depression in HIV positive pregnant women in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 4 busy primary care clinics offering antenatal services during the months of June through to September in 2016. Simple random sampling was used to screen HIV positive pregnant women while they waited to be attended to at each clinic. Eligible women who gave written informed consent were screened using a locally validated screening tool-the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). RESULTS: A total of 198(85%) participants were recruited out of 234 that were approached. The mean age of participants was 26.6(SD 4.5), of these, 176 (88.9%) had secondary education or more. A total of 78 (39.4%) (95% CI 32.5-46.3) met criteria for antenatal depression according to the local version of the EPDS. Factors associated with antenatal depression after multivariate analysis were intimate partner violence (IPV) [OR 3.2 (95% CI 1.5-6.7)] and previous history of depression OR 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.0)]. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of antenatal depression among HIV positive pregnant women in primary care clinics is high. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant HIV positive women are IPV and previous history of depression. There is need for routine screening for depression during the antenatal period and interventions targeting depression in this population should include components to address IPV.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , VIH , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/virología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis Multivariante , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Diagnóstico Prenatal , Prevalencia , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
19.
Drug Saf Case Rep ; 6(1): 1, 2018 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535610

RESUMEN

A 29-year-old Black female patient was admitted to a psychiatric ward with symptoms of major depressive disorder with psychosis. The patient was started on amitriptyline 50 mg/day and haloperidol 10 mg/day. On day 4 post-admission, the preferred first-line antidepressant, fluoxetine, became available and the patient was switched from amitriptyline to fluoxetine 20 mg/day. On the same day, the dose of haloperidol was reduced to 5 mg/day. Thirteen days post-initiation of these medications the patient became talkative, associated with emotional lability, an expansive mood, irritability and restlessness. The working diagnosis was changed to bipolar affective disorder in the manic phase. Fluoxetine was discontinued and carbamazepine 600 mg/day was added to the patient's treatment regimen. Her manic symptoms started to resolve; however, 14 days post-initiation of carbamazepine, the patient had a fever; itchy, discharging eyes; respiratory distress; generalised symmetrical erythematosus rash; buccal ulceration; and conjunctival injection with difficulty opening her eyes. Carbamazepine was immediately discontinued and the patient received intravenous fluid resuscitation. The patient recovered considerably after 12 days of symptomatic and supportive management, and was transferred back to the psychiatric ward for the continuation of bipolar disorder management. Lithium therapy was instituted and the patient was subsequently discharged. Using the Algorithm of Drug causality for Epidermal Necrolysis (ALDEN) Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) drug causality scoring system, carbamazepine and fluoxetine were evaluated as 'very probable' and 'possible' causes of SJS, respectively, in this patient. Fluoxetine-induced SJS was considered on account of previous case reports, however no evidence of causality was found in this patient. Consecutive administration with a potential increase in carbamazepine due to inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 metabolism by fluoxetine was also not ruled out. A diagnosis of carbamazepine-induced SJS was made and was considered an idiosyncratic adverse drug reaction.

20.
HIV AIDS (Auckl) ; 10: 47-55, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670405

RESUMEN

Background: Alcohol use is associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. This study aimed to understand patients' perceptions of the impact of alcohol use in the context of HIV care. Methods: The study design was a descriptive qualitative study of HIV positive individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment. The study involved four focus group discussions with male and female participants at a tertiary center, city clinic, and rural church. We employed convenience sampling and invited patients coming for their routine visits and medication refills to participate. Results: Participants had an awareness of both the direct and indirect effects of alcohol use. The direct effects related to the incompatibility of HIV medication and alcohol. The indirect effects related to the negative impact of alcohol on treatment adherence. Participants proffered reasons why HIV infected individuals on HIV treatment drink and felt that patients had to make a deliberate choice to stop drinking. Participants displayed some knowledge of interventions for drinking cessation and highlighted the use of pharmacological interventions to stop drinking. Participants indicated that they preferred HIV counselors to provide counseling services in view of the existing relationships that patients had with counselors. Conclusion: People living with HIV have adequate knowledge of the effects of alcohol use in the context of HIV treatment. Stigma and the time taken to engage in an alcohol use intervention appeared to be the main impediments to uptake. The current model of HIV treatment, based on trust with the HIV care team, and maintenance of this trust, could bolster the uptake of an intervention. Involvement of HIV patients in their treatment is necessary to improve treatment outcomes in the context of alcohol use.

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