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BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 22, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413172


BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem compromising the effective treatment of infectious diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) is encouraging and promoting awareness creation among health workers as one of its strategies to reduce the rate of emergence and transmission of AMR. Available data on the prescribing behavior of healthcare workers (HCWs) in Nigeria remains incomplete. This study was designed to provide an up-to-date estimate of the knowledge, attitude and antibiotic prescribing behavior of HCWs in Nigeria. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to healthcare workers selected from six states, one each from the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to reflect the three tiers of healthcare: primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Quantitative data was summarized using descriptive statistics. All data analysis was done using the Statistical package for social sciences version 26.0. RESULTS: Of the 420 questionnaires distributed, 358 (85.2%) responded. The mean year of practice of the respondents was 9.32 ± 7.8 years. About a half (50.3%) agreed that their prescribing behavior could promote antimicrobial resistance. 49.2% had a good knowledge of AMR and physicians had significantly better knowledge than other HCWs (X2 = 69.59, P < 0.001). Several participants prescribed antibiotics for common viral infections such as sore throats (75.7%), measles (37.7%), common cold and flu (21.2%). Over 60.3% admitted prescribing antibiotics just to be on the safe side. In general, 70.9% of the respondents frequently or moderately use practice guidelines while 25.7% often apply the delayed antibiotic prescription (DAP) strategy to reduce antimicrobial prescription. CONCLUSION: This study reveals an overall moderate level of knowledge of AMR and attitude towards minimizing the emergence of antimicrobial resistance though this did not translate significantly to practice. Further efforts must be made in order to improve rational prescription of antimicrobials among HCWs in Nigeria.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 72, 2020 05 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434552


BACKGROUND: One of the objectives of the Global Action Plan by the World Health Organization (WHO) to contain antimicrobial resistance (AMR), is to improve global awareness through effective communication and education. Comprehensive information on the level of awareness of AMR among Nigerian public is deficient. This study was therefore designed to assess the current level of awareness and knowledge of the Nigerian public of AMR. METHODS: Pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used to obtain information from the general public across the six geopolitical zones (North Central, North East, North West, South East, South South and South West) in Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling was used to select one state from each zone and respondents were selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Responses to eight questions were used to grade the level of knowledge categorized as poor, fair and good. Collation and analysis of data were performed at the Microbiology Department of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), Lagos, Nigeria, using SPSS version 24.0. RESULTS: Questionnaires from 482 respondents comprising 242 (50.2%) females and 240 (49.8%) males from six states (Lagos, Ebonyi, Delta, Plateau, Borno and Jigawa) were analyzed. Of the 482 respondents, 322 (66.8%) had taken antibiotics in the last six months out of which 31.3% were without prescription. 26.1% of respondents believe they don't need to complete the dosage as long as they feel better. Although 272(56.5%) of the respondents were familiar with the term "antibiotic resistance", only 40(8.3%) had good knowledge of AMR. A majority (76.6%) believed that they were powerless to stop the spread of AMR. There was no association between the gender of respondents and knowledge of AMR (p = 0.13). However, respondents from Ebonyi and Delta states in southern Nigeria were more likely to have good knowledge of AMR (X2 = 53.22, P < 0.0001). The respondents in the urban area had a higher score for knowledge level compared to the rural dwellers, though this was not statistically significant within and across states. CONCLUSION: This survey provides an insight into the level of AMR awareness and antibiotic use in the wider Nigeria public. Our findings show that about a third of the general public consume antibiotics obtained without prescription. There is an overall poor understanding of antimicrobial resistance and/or proper use of antibiotics among respondents. It is critical that more holistic public enlightenment programs are carried out to increase awareness of AMR and promote responsible use of antibiotics.

Microb Pathog ; 111: 232-237, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28867621


BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium which is commonly present in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals and causes enteritic diseases in animals and food poisoning in humans. Previous studies have looked at the epidemiological relationship between C. perfringens isolates from outbreak source. In this study, the genetic diversity of C. perfringens strains from non-outbreak food and faecal specimens was investigated for epidemiological purposes. METHODS: We analyzed thirty-eight (38) Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from food and faecal specimens in Lagos State. Bacterial identification was done using colonial morphology, Gram stain reaction, conventional biochemical tests and PCR. Genetic analysis was performed using arbitrary primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) technique with oligonucleotide primer of random sequences (OPA-3) to determine the genetic diversity of C. perfringens. The distance between the different bands produced were analyzed using numerical taxonomy and multivariate system software (NTSYS). RESULTS: Seventeen (44.7%) C. perfringens strains showed at least one polymorphic DNA patterns when genotyped. However, this method identified polymorphisms among the C. perfringens species from which four genetic groups (1, 2, 3 and 4) were established. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there may be faecal contamination of food products and similar clones of Clostridium perfringens may be incriminated.

Clostridium perfringens/genética , Clostridium perfringens/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/microbiología , Microbiología de Alimentos , Variación Genética , Amoxicilina/farmacología , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Clostridium perfringens/clasificación , Clostridium perfringens/efectos de los fármacos , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Enterotoxinas/genética , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Humanos , Metronidazol/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Nigeria , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Polimorfismo Genético
Anaerobe ; 42: 176-181, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789246


Food-borne diseases contribute to the huge burden of sickness and death globally and in the last decade, have become more frequently reported in Africa. In line with this, food safety is becoming a significant and growing public health problem in Nigeria. Diarrhoea is a common problem in Nigeria and has been reported but there has been little data on the possibility of clostridia as aetiological agents. Clostridium species are ubiquitous in the environment and in the gastrointestinal tract of man and animals and can serve as a marker for faecal contamination. We set out to determine the potential of these foods to transmit Clostridium species. A total of 220 food commodities from six local governments in Lagos State were sampled. Isolates obtained were identified based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Toxinotyping was done using multiplex-PCR with primers specific for alpha, beta, epsilon and iota-toxin genes, enterotoxigenic cpe gene and neurotoxigenic BoNt gene. Fifty (22.7%) clostridial species were isolated of which 29 (58%) were identified as C. perfringens. Toxinotyping of the 29 strains showed that 28 (96.6%) were toxin producing C. perfringens type A while one (3.4%) was C. perfringens type D. Two (4%) C. botulinum species were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing, both harbouring BoNt/A gene. The contamination rates of food with Clostridium species show that food hygiene is a problem and Clostridium species may be a source of food borne disease in Lagos State, Nigeria.

Toxinas Botulínicas/genética , Clostridium botulinum/aislamiento & purificación , Clostridium perfringens/aislamiento & purificación , Productos Lácteos/microbiología , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Verduras/microbiología , Animales , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Toxinas Botulínicas/aislamiento & purificación , Clostridium botulinum/clasificación , Clostridium botulinum/genética , Clostridium perfringens/clasificación , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Productos Lácteos/análisis , Humanos , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Nigeria , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN