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1.
Front Oncol ; 9: 457, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214502

RESUMEN

An international group of 22 liver cancer experts from 18 institutions met in Miami, Florida to discuss the optimal utilization of proton beam therapy (PBT) for primary and metastatic liver cancer. There was consensus that PBT may be preferred for liver cancer patients expected to have a suboptimal therapeutic ratio from XRT, but that PBT should not be preferred for all patients. Various clinical scenarios demonstrating appropriateness of PBT vs. XRT were reviewed.

2.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 9(5): 962-971, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505599

RESUMEN

Despite the conformality of modern X-ray therapy limiting high dose received by normal tissues the physical properties of X-rays make it impossible to avoid dose being delivered distal to the target. This "exit dose" is likely clinically significant especially for patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers when considering that even low dose received by the heart, lungs, bowel, and other radiosensitive structures can lead to morbidity and even may affect long-term tumor control. In contrast, proton beam therapy (PBT) delivers no "exit dose" and a growing body of literature suggests that this may improve clinical outcomes by reducing toxicity and even allowing for safe dose intensification to enhance tumor control. While there are not yet robust prospective data demonstrating the role of PBT for GI cancers, emerging retrospective data provide a strong rationale for continued study of how PBT may improve the therapeutic ratio for these patients. Here we review these data as well as discuss ongoing clinical trials of PBT for GI cancers.

3.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 21): S2492-S2507, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206494

RESUMEN

Thoracic malignancies comprise some of the most common and deadly cancers. Immunotherapies have been proven to improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and show great potential for patients with other thoracic malignancies. Radiation therapy (RT), an established and effective treatment for thoracic cancers, has acted synergistically with immunotherapies in preclinical studies. Ongoing clinical trials are exploring the clinical benefits of combining RT with immunotherapies and the optimal manner in which to deliver these complementary treatments.

4.
Nucl Med Commun ; 39(10): 915-920, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124600

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Yttrium-90 (Y)-resin microspheres are prescribed using activity. We evaluated overall survival (OS) and radiographic tumor response after selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) with resin microspheres in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 60 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated at our institution with SIRT using Y-resin microspheres. Each patient underwent pre-SIRT MRI or computed tomography imaging of the liver with intravenous contrast. Patients underwent post-treatment imaging at 2-3-month intervals with response assessed according to unidimensional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria as well as published three-dimensional volumetric criteria. We then related the prescribed activity established by the body surface area method and the corresponding prescribed dose to radiographic treatment response and OS. RESULTS: The median follow-up after the first SIRT treatment was 8.9 months. The mean prescribed activity and the prescribed dose were 26.6 mCi and 52.8 Gy, respectively. OS was not significantly associated with either prescribed activity or prescribed dose. Prescribed dose was also not related to response. However, a significant relationship was found between a higher prescribed activity and an improved radiographic response by RECIST (P=0.04) at the second follow-up. CONCLUSION: The prescribed activity of Y-resin microspheres may be correlated with radiographic response by RECIST criteria at 4-6 months post-treatment. For a more accurate prediction of response, a valid dose calculation model based on post-Y PET dosimetry is likely needed given the heterogeneous dose delivery seen in SIRT.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/radioterapia , Microesferas , Dosis de Radiación , Radioisótopos de Itrio/química , Radioisótopos de Itrio/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Braquiterapia , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundario , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Acta Oncol ; 57(3): 368-374, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034790

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Proton beam therapy (PBT) reduces normal organ dose compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMXT) for prostate cancer patients who receive pelvic radiation therapy. It is not known whether this dosimetric advantage results in less gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity than would be expected from IMXT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated treatment parameters and toxicity outcomes for non-metastatic prostate cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy and enrolled on the PCG REG001-09 trial. Patients who received X-ray therapy and/or brachytherapy were excluded. Of 3210 total enrolled prostate cancer patients, 85 received prostate and pelvic radiation therapy exclusively with PBT. Most had clinically and radiographically negative lymph nodes although 6 had pelvic nodal disease and one also had para-aortic involvement. Pelvic radiation therapy was delivered using either 2 fields (opposed laterals) or 3 fields (opposed laterals and a posterior beam). Median pelvic dose was 46.9 GyE (range 39.7-56) in 25 fractions (range 24-30). Median boost dose to the prostate +/- seminal vesicles was 30 GyE (range 20-41.4) in 16 fractions (range 10-24). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 14.5 months (range 2.8-49.2). Acute grade 1, 2, and 3 GI toxicity rates were 16.4, 2.4, 0%, respectively. Acute grade 1, 2, and 3 GU toxicity rates were 60, 34.1, 0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate cancer patients who receive pelvic radiation therapy using PBT experience significantly less acute GI toxicity than is expected using IMXT. Further investigation is warranted to confirm whether this favorable acute GI toxicity profile is related to small bowel sparing from PBT.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia de Protones/efectos adversos , Traumatismos por Radiación/epidemiología , Anciano , Tracto Gastrointestinal/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , Metástasis Linfática/radioterapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pelvis , Terapia de Protones/métodos , Traumatismos por Radiación/etiología , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Sistema Urogenital/efectos de la radiación
6.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 8(4): 721-727, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890823

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Elevated pre-treatment lymphocyte (L) to monocyte (M) ratio (LMR) in peripheral blood has been suggested to correlate with improved survival in some malignancies, but data in the context of pancreatic cancer (PC) is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of LMR before, during and after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 57 patients with LAPC treated with definitive CRT at a single institution from 2005 to 2013. Complete blood counts were obtained before (TP1), during the third week (TP2) and at the end of CRT (TP3). Univariate analysis (UVA) included gender, age, body mass index, pre-treatment CA19-9, T stage, N stage, induction chemotherapy (ICT), absolute L count (TP1, TP2, TP3), absolute M count (TP1, TP2, TP3), LMR (TP1, TP2, TP3), and relative LMR changes (TP2 ÷ TP1, TP3 ÷ TP1, TP3 ÷ TP2). RESULTS: Median follow-up was 14 months. Twelve patients received ICT. Median LMR was 2.7 (range, 0.8-5.25), 1.4 (range, 0.3-5) and 0.98 (range, 0.3-3.4) at TP1, TP2 and TP3, respectively. Superior PFS was significantly associated with an absolute M count during CRT <0.1 (P=0.04) while pre-CRT L count ≥1.1 trended towards significance (P=0.09). Superior OS was significantly associated with change in LMR (TP3 ÷ TP2) > 0.32 (P<0.0001) while pre-CRT LMR ≥2.6 trended towards significance (P=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Factors significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were change in LMR at the end of CRT and absolute M count during CRT. This analysis suggests treatment-time-specific immune system parameters may affect clinical outcomes and warrant continued investigation.

8.
Surg Oncol Clin N Am ; 26(3): 431-453, 2017 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28576181

RESUMEN

Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Although surgery remains the only curative treatment, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are frequently used. In the adjuvant setting, radiation is usually delivered with chemotherapy to eradicate residual microscopic or macroscopic disease in the resection bed. Neoadjuvant radiation therapy has become more frequently utilized. This article reviews the historical and modern literature regarding radiation therapy in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings, focusing on the evolution of radiation therapy techniques and clinical trials in an attempt to identify patients best suited to receiving radiation therapy.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/radioterapia , Terapia Neoadyuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patología , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Quimioradioterapia , Quimioradioterapia Adyuvante , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Radioterapia Ayuvante , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
Radiother Oncol ; 123(3): 376-381, 2017 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455153

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Relative radiation dose exposure to vital organs in the thorax could influence clinical outcomes in esophageal cancer (EC). We assessed whether the type of radiation therapy (RT) modality used was associated with postoperative outcomes after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Contemporary data from 580 EC patients treated with nCRT at 3 academic institutions from 2007 to 2013 were reviewed. 3D conformal RT (3D), intensity modulated RT (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) were used for 214 (37%), 255 (44%), and 111 (19%) patients, respectively. Postoperative outcomes included pulmonary, GI, cardiac, wound healing complications, length of in-hospital stay (LOS), and 90-day postoperative mortality. Cox model fits, and log-rank tests both with and without Inverse Probability of treatment Weighting (IPW) were used to correct for bias due to non-randomization. RESULTS: RT modality was significantly associated with the incidence of pulmonary, cardiac and wound complications, which also bore out on multivariate analysis. Mean LOS was also significantly associated with treatment modality (13.2days for 3D (95%CI 11.7-14.7), 11.6days for IMRT (95%CI 10.9-12.7), and 9.3days for PBT (95%CI 8.2-10.3) (p<0.0001)). The 90day postoperative mortality rates were 4.2%, 4.3%, and 0.9%, respectively, for 3D, IMRT and PBT (p=0.264). CONCLUSIONS: Advanced RT technologies (IMRT and PBT) were associated with significantly reduced rate of postoperative complications and LOS compared to 3D, with PBT displaying the greatest benefit in a number of clinical endpoints. Ongoing prospective randomized trial will be needed to validate these results.


Asunto(s)
Quimioradioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Terapia de Protones/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada/métodos
10.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 7(4): 547-55, 2016 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27563444

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant multi-agent chemotherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are utilized to increase margin negative (R0) resection rates in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients. Concerns persist that these neoadjuvant therapies may worsen perioperative morbidities and mortality. METHODS: Upfront resection patients (n=241) underwent resection without neoadjuvant treatment for resectable disease. They were compared to BRPC or LAPC patients (n=61) who underwent resection after chemotherapy and 5 fraction SBRT. Group comparisons were performed by Mann-Whitney U or Fisher's exact test. Overall Survival (OS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier and compared by log-rank methods. RESULTS: In the neoadjuvant therapy group, there was significantly higher T classification, N classification, and vascular resection/repair rate. Surgical positive margin rate was lower after neoadjuvant therapy (3.3% vs. 16.2%, P=0.006). Post-operative morbidities (39.3% vs. 31.1%, P=0.226) and 90-day mortality (2% vs. 4%, P=0.693) were similar between the groups. Median OS was 33.5 months in the neoadjuvant therapy group compared to 23.1 months in upfront resection patients who received adjuvant treatment (P=0.057). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with BRPC or LAPC and sufficient response to neoadjuvant multi-agent chemotherapy and SBRT have similar or improved peri-operative and long-term survival outcomes compared to upfront resection patients.

11.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 95(1): 488-497, 2016 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27084662

RESUMEN

Radiation therapy (RT) plays an essential role in the management of esophageal cancer. Because the esophagus is a centrally located thoracic structure there is a need to balance the delivery of appropriately high dose to the target while minimizing dose to nearby critical structures. Radiation dose received by these critical structures, especially the heart and lungs, may lead to clinically significant toxicities, including pneumonitis, pericarditis, and myocardial infarction. Although technological advancements in photon RT delivery like intensity modulated RT have decreased the risk of such toxicities, a growing body of evidence indicates that further risk reductions are achieved with proton beam therapy (PBT). Herein we review the published dosimetric and clinical PBT literature for esophageal cancer, including motion management considerations, the potential for reirradiation, radiation dose escalation, and ongoing esophageal PBT clinical trials. We also consider the potential cost-effectiveness of PBT relative to photon RT.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Terapia de Protones , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Esófago/efectos de la radiación , Corazón/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , Pulmón/efectos de la radiación , Movimiento , Órganos en Riesgo/efectos de la radiación , Fotones/uso terapéutico , Terapia de Protones/efectos adversos , Terapia de Protones/economía , Terapia de Protones/métodos , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Radioterapia de Intensidad Modulada , Reirradiación , Efectividad Biológica Relativa , Dispersión de Radiación , Resultado del Tratamiento
12.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 7(2): 221-7, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034789

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While clinical outcomes following induction chemotherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have been reported for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) patients, pathologic response has not previously been described. METHODS: This single-institution retrospective review evaluated BRPC patients who completed induction gemcitabine-based chemotherapy followed by SBRT and surgical resection. Each surgical specimen was assigned two tumor regression grades (TRG), one using the College of American Pathologists (CAP) criteria and one using the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) criteria. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were correlated to TRG score. RESULTS: We evaluated 36 patients with a median follow-up of 13.8 months (range, 6.1-24.8 months). The most common induction chemotherapy regimen (82%) was GTX (gemcitabine, docetaxel, capecitabine). A median SBRT dose of 35 Gy (range, 30-40 Gy) in 5 fractions was delivered to the region of vascular involvement. The margin-negative resection rate was 97.2%. Improved response according to MDACC grade trended towards superior PFS (P=061), but not OS. Any neoadjuvant treatment effect according to MDACC scoring (IIa-IV vs. I) was associated with improved OS and PFS (both P=0.019). We found no relationship between CAP score and OS or PFS. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the increased pathologic response after induction chemotherapy and SBRT is correlated with improved survival for BRPC patients.

13.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 7(2): 269-77, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034796

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (PLR) may represent markers of a suboptimal host immune response to cancer and have been shown to correlate with prognosis in multiple tumor types across different treatment modalities, including radiation therapy. Limited data suggest that NLR may predict for survival and disease control in patients receiving selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT). The correlation between clinical outcomes and change in NLR and PLR after SIRT has not been evaluated. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 339 consecutive patients with primary (n=37) or metastatic (n=79) liver cancer treated with SIRT from 2006 to 2014. Complete blood counts with differential were available for 116 patients both before and after (median, 29 and 20 days, respectively) SIRT. Survival and progression were calculated from date of initial SIRT. Patient and tumor characteristics evaluated for ability to predict overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) included pre- and post-treatment neutrophil, platelet, and lymphocyte counts (LCs), as well as NLR, PLR, and relative change in NLR and PLR. Cutoff values were determined for variables that were significant on multivariate analysis (MVA) for OS and/or PFS. RESULTS: Median follow-up of surviving patients was 12 months. Median OS was 8 months from SIRT and 20 months from date of liver metastasis diagnosis. Significant factors on univariate analysis (UVA) for both lower OS and PFS included higher post-treatment neutrophil count (NC), higher post-treatment NLR, higher liver tumor volume, higher percentage liver tumor burden, and worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. Significant factors on MVA for lower OS and PFS were ECOG performance status ≥2, higher liver tumor volume, higher pretreatment PLR, and increase in PLR after SIRT. Post-treatment increase in PLR >3-fold was the most predictive early marker for increased risk of death when compared with those whose PLR did not increase or increased <3-fold. Pretreatment PLR >78 was the most predictive serum marker associated with improved OS prior to therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to evaluate the association between NLR and PLR with clinical outcomes in patients receiving SIRT, with results that confirm that pre- and/or post-treatment NLR and/or PLR are predictive of clinical outcomes. The largest increase in risk of death as well as local and extrahepatic disease progression was related to change in PLR, a datum not well reported in the literature. The impact of SIRT on blood count changes and the underlying implications of these ratios should be further characterized in a prospective study.

14.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 7(6): 931-937, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078116

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Yttrium-90 (90Y)-resin microspheres can prolong intrahepatic disease control and improve overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Prognostic factors for improved outcomes in patients undergoing selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) have been studied, but the relationship between pre-SIRT liver tumor volume and outcomes has not well described. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with metastatic CRC who were treated at our institution with 90Y-resin microspheres. Each patient underwent either MR or CT imaging of the liver with intravenous (IV) contrast before and within ~2-3 months after SIRT. Imaging data were transferred into our treatment planning system. Each metastatic liver lesion was contoured, and the volume of each lesion was summed to determine the total liver tumor volume at a given time point. We evaluated whether pretreatment liver tumor volume was related to OS. We also evaluated the relationship between pre-SIRT tumor volume and radiographic treatment response by either unidimensional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) or three-dimensional volumetric criteria. RESULTS: We included 60 patients with a median age of 59 years (range, 38-97 years); 60% of patients received sequential lobar treatment. The median number of chemotherapy cycles received prior to SIRT was 2. Median follow-up from first SIRT was 8.9 months. Pre- and post-SIRT tumor volumes were primarily calculated on CT (87%). The median pre-SIRT tumor volume was 77 cc (range, 4.5-2,170.4 cc). The median intervals between the first SIRT and the first, second, and third follow-up scans were 2.2, 4.4, and 7.7 months, respectively. No patient experienced a radiographic complete response. Pretreatment volume was a significant predictor for estimating the odds of a patient having stable disease or partial response using volumetric response criteria at first (P=0.016), second (P=0.023), and third (P=0.015) follow-ups. For each unit increase in log volume, a patient's odds of having a stable or partial response were 0.57, 0.63, and 0.61 times as likely at first, second, and third follow-up, respectively. OS was not significantly associated with pretreatment tumor volume. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with metastatic CRC with larger overall pretreatment liver tumor volumes, regardless of number of individual liver lesions, are less likely to have radiographic evidence of stable disease or partial response following SIRT using volumetric response criteria. However, pretreatment volume was not significantly associated with OS, and thus SIRT should be considered for patients with larger pretreatment volumetric tumor burden.

15.
Acta Oncol ; 54(7): 979-85, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25734581

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Limited data are available to guide neoadjuvant treatment of borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced (LAPC) pancreatic cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We updated our institutional outcomes with a neoadjuvant chemotherapy and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) approach. An IRB-approved analysis was performed of all BRPC and LAPC patients treated with our departmental treatment protocol. After staging, medically fit patients underwent chemotherapy for 2-3 months, with regimen at the discretion of the treating medical oncologist. Patients then received SBRT delivered in five consecutive daily fractions with median total radiation doses of 30 Gy to tumor and 40 Gy dose painted to tumor-vessel interfaces. This was followed by restaging imaging for possible resection. Overall survival (OS), event free survival (EFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates were estimated and compared by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods. RESULTS: We identified 159 patients, 110 BRPC and 49 LAPC, with 14.0 months median overall follow-up. The resection and margin negative (R0) rate for BRPC patients who completed neoadjuvant therapy was 51% and 96%, respectively. Estimated median OS was 19.2 months for BRPC patients and 15.0 months for LAPC patients (p = 0.402). Median OS was 34.2 months for surgically resected patients versus 14.0 months for unresected patients (p < 0.001). Five of 21 (24%) LAPC patients receiving FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy underwent R0 resection. In LAPC, FOLFIRINOX recipients underwent R0 resection more often than other chemotherapy recipients (5 of 21 vs. 0 of 28, p = 0.011). There was a trend for improved survival in those resected LAPC patients (p = 0.09). For those not undergoing resection, one year LRC was 78%. Any grade ≥ 3 potentially radiation-related toxicity rate was 7%. CONCLUSIONS: These data underscore the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of neoadjuvant SBRT and chemotherapy for BRPC and LAPC.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Terapia Neoadyuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Quimioradioterapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Inducción/métodos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Radiocirugia/métodos
16.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 6(1): 3-19, 2015 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25642333

RESUMEN

Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly being used in addition to standard imaging methods such as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography (CT) for many cancers including those of the esophagus. In this review, we will discuss the utility of the most widely used molecular imaging technique, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). (18)F-FDG PET has a variety of potential applications ranging from improving staging accuracy at the time of initial diagnosis to assisting in radiation target volume delineation. Furthermore, (18)F-FDG PET can be used to evaluate treatment response after completion of neoadjuvant therapy or potentially during neoadjuvant therapy. Finally, we will also discuss other novel molecular imaging techniques that have potential to further improve cancer care.

17.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 5(3): 166-77, 2014 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24982765

RESUMEN

The role of adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for pancreas cancer remains unclear. A handful of randomized trials conducted decades of ago ignited a debate that continues today about whether CRT improves survival after surgery. The many flaws in these trials are well described in the literature, which include the use of antiquated radiation delivery techniques and suboptimal doses. Recent prospective randomized data is lacking, and we eagerly await the results the ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0848 trial that is evaluating the utility of high quality adjuvant CRT in resected pancreas cancer patients. Until the results of RTOG 0848 are available we should look to other studies from the modern era to guide adjuvant treatment recommendations. Here we review the current state of the art for adjuvant pancreas CRT with respect to patient selection, radiation techniques, radiation dose, and integration with novel systemic agents.

19.
Gastrointest Cancer Res ; 6(2): 39-45, 2013 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23745158

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We compared our institutional experience using 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) vs. IMRT (intensity-modulated radiation therapy) for anal cancer. METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of all patients with squamous cell carcinoma anal cancer treated from September 2000 through September 2011, using definitive chemoradiation with curative intent. RESULTS: This study included 89 consecutive patients (37 3DCRT, 52 IMRT). Median follow-up for all patients, IMRT patients alone, and CRT patients alone was 26.5 months (range, 3.5-133.6), 20 months (range, 3.5-125.5), and 61.9 months (range, 7.6-133.6), respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional control (LRC), and colostomy-free survival (CFS) were 91.1%, 82.3%, 90.8%, and 91.3% in the IMRT cohort and 86.1%, 72.5%, 91.9%, and 93.7% in the 3DCRT group (all P > .1). More patients in the 3DCRT group required a treatment break (11 vs. 4; P = .006), although the difference in median treatment break duration was not significant (12.2 vs. 8.0 days; P = .35). Survival did not differ based on whether a treatment break was needed (all P > .1). Acute grade ≥3 nonhematologic toxicity was decreased in the IMRT cohort (21.1 vs. 59.5%; P < .0001). Acute grade ≥3 skin toxicity was worse in the 3DCRT group (P < .0001), whereas an improvement in late grade ≥3 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was observed in the IMRT patients (P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest thus far to compare 3DCRT and IMRT for definitive treatment of anal cancer. Although long-term outcomes did not significantly differ based on RT technique, a marked decrease in adverse effects and the need for a treatment break was achieved with IMRT.

20.
Brachytherapy ; 12(5): 457-62, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23707855

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Preoperative high-dose-rate (HDR) endorectal brachytherapy is well tolerated among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, these studies excluded patients who previously received pelvic radiation therapy (RT). Because a favorable toxicity profile has been published for HDR endorectal brachytherapy, we evaluated this technique in patients who have previously received pelvic irradiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We included patients who had received pelvic irradiation for a previous pelvic malignancy and later received preoperative HDR endorectal brachytherapy for rectal cancer. Brachytherapy was delivered to a total dose of 26 Gy in 4 consecutive daily 6.5 Gy fractions. RESULTS: We evaluated 10 patients who previously received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone (n=6), EBRT and brachytherapy (n=2), or brachytherapy alone (n=2). The median interval between the initial course of RT and endorectal brachytherapy was approximately 11 years (range, 1-19 years). Two patients experienced a complete pathologic response while 1 patient had a near complete pathologic response. No acute grade ≥3 toxicity was observed. No intraoperative or postoperative surgical complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative HDR endorectal brachytherapy is an alternative to EBRT for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who have previously received pelvic RT.


Asunto(s)
Braquiterapia/métodos , Radioterapia de Alta Energía/métodos , Neoplasias del Recto/radioterapia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Neoplasias del Recto/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias del Recto/patología , Recto , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento
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