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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246061, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539433

RESUMEN

The use of substandard and counterfeit medicines (SCM) leads to significant health and economic consequences, like treatment failure, rise of antimicrobial resistance, extra expenditures of individuals or households and serious adverse drug reactions including death. Our objective was to systematically search, identify and compare relevant available mobile applications (apps) for smartphones and tablets, which use could potentially affect clinical and public health outcomes. We carried out a systematic review of the literature in January 2020, including major medical databases, and app stores. We used the validated Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) to assess the quality of apps, (1 worst score, 3 acceptable score, and 5 best score). We planned to evaluate the accuracy of the mobile apps to detect SCM. We retrieved 335 references through medical databases and 42 from Apple, Google stores and Google Scholar. We finally included two studies of the medical database, 25 apps (eight from the App Store, eight from Google Play, eight from both stores, and one from Google Scholar), and 16 websites. We only found one report on the accuracy of a mobile apps detecting SCMs. Most apps use the imprint, color or shape for pill identification, and only a few offer pill detection through photographs or bar code. The MARS mean score for the apps was 3.17 (acceptable), with a maximum of 4.9 and a minimum of 1.1. The 'functionality' dimension resulted in the highest mean score (3.4), while the 'engagement' and 'information' dimensions showed the lowest one (3.0). In conclusion, we found a remarkable evidence gap about the accuracy of mobile apps in detecting SCMs. However, mobile apps could potentially be useful to screen for SCM by assessing the physical characteristics of pills, although this should still be assessed in properly designed research studies.

2.
Oncologist ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women. It imposes a huge disease burden and a significant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our study focused on HRQoL of patients with BC in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We conducted a systematic review to identify relevant articles published between 2008 and August 2018. We conducted several meta-analyses and subgroup analyses by country, disease stage, and instrument used (Prospective Register Of Systematic Reviews registration number: CRD42018106835). RESULTS: From 2,265 initial references, we finally included 75 articles (8,806 participants) that assessed HRQoL. The European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and B23 modules (34 studies; 8 countries; 4,866 participants) were the most used instruments, followed by the Short Form 36-item, the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast instrument. Only four studies reported specific HRQoL data of patients with metastatic disease. Half the studies were rated as having moderate quality (38/75), and 38% (29/75) as high quality. We identified substantial heterogeneity. As expected, the meta-analyses revealed that patients with metastatic disease reported lower HRQoL values and high symptom burden compared with patients at earlier stages. Similar results can be observed when we compared patients with early breast cancer in active treatment phases versus those in follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study provides a synthesis of breast cancer HRQoL reported in LAC and exposes existing evidence gaps. Patients with BC in active treatment or with metastatic disease had worse HRQoL compared with survivors during the follow-up period. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This systematic review provides an exhaustive synthesis of breast cancer health-related quality of life in women in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Patients with breast cancer in active treatment or with metastatic disease had worse health-related quality of life compared with survivors during the different follow-up periods. This study also shows important evidence and methods gaps that can help inform future research.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499250

RESUMEN

Calcium supplementation and fortification are strategies widely used to prevent adverse outcome in population with low-calcium intake which is highly frequent in low-income settings. We aimed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of calcium fortified foods on calcium intake and related health, or economic outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis involving participants of any age or gender, drawn from the general population. We searched PubMed, Agricola, EMBASE, CINAHL, Global Health, EconLit, the FAO website and Google until June 2019, without language restrictions. Pair of reviewers independently selected, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies using Covidence software. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. We performed meta-analyses using RevMan 5.4 and subgroup analyses by study design, age group, and fortification levels. We included 20 studies of which 15 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three were non-randomised studies and two were economic evaluations. Most RCTs had high risk of bias on randomization or blinding. Most represented groups were women and children from 1 to 72 months, most common intervention vehicles were milk and bakery products with a fortification levels between 96 and 1200 mg per 100 g of food. Calcium intake increased in the intervention groups between 460 mg (children) and 1200 mg (postmenopausal women). Most marked effects were seen in children. Compared to controls, height increased 0.83 cm (95% CI 0.00; 1.65), plasma parathyroid hormone decreased -1.51 pmol/L, (-2.37; -0.65), urine:calcium creatinine ratio decreased -0.05, (-0.07; -0.03), femoral neck and hip bone mineral density increased 0.02 g/cm2 (0.01; 0.04) and 0.03 g/cm2 (0.00; 0.06), respectively. The largest cost savings (43%) reported from calcium fortification programs came from prevented hip fractures in older women from Germany. Our study highlights that calcium fortification leads to a higher calcium intake, small benefits in children's height and bone health and also important evidence gaps for other outcomes and populations that could be solved with high quality experimental or quasi-experimental studies in relevant groups, especially as some evidence of calcium supplementation show controversial results on the bone health benefit on older adults.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043004, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408209

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Testing used in screening, diagnosis and follow-up of COVID-19 has been a subject of debate. Several organisations have developed formal advice about testing for COVID-19 to assist in the control of the disease. We collated, delineated and appraised current worldwide recommendations about the role and applications of tests to control SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. METHODS: We searched for documents providing recommendations for COVID-19 testing in PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, the Coronavirus Open Access Project living evidence database and relevant websites such as TRIP database, ECRI Guidelines Trust, the GIN database, from inception to 21 September 2020. Two reviewers applied the eligibility criteria to potentially relevant citations without language or geographical restrictions. We extracted data in duplicate, including assessment of methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation-II tool. RESULTS: We included 47 relevant documents and 327 recommendations about testing. Regarding the quality of the documents, we found that the domains with the lowest scores were 'Editorial independence' (Median=4%) and 'Applicability' (Median=6%). Only six documents obtained at least 50% score for the 'Rigour of development' domain. An important number of recommendations focused on the diagnosis of suspected cases (48%) and deisolation measures (11%). The most frequently recommended test was the reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay (87 recommendations) and the chest CT (38 recommendations). There were 22 areas of agreement among guidance developers, including the use of RT-PCR for SARS-Cov-2 confirmation, the limited role of bronchoscopy, the use chest CT and chest X-rays for grading severity and the co-assessment for other respiratory pathogens. CONCLUSION: This first scoping review of recommendations for COVID-19 testing showed many limitations in the methodological quality of included guidance documents that could affect the confidence of clinicians in their implementation. Future guidance documents should incorporate a minimum set of key methodological characteristics to enhance their applicability for decision making.


Asunto(s)
/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , /epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; : 100312, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482400

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the comparative clinical effectiveness and safety of dexamethasone versus betamethasone for preterm birth. DATA SOURCES: The sources searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Clinical Trials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform without language restrictions until October 2019, along with reference lists of included studies. Field experts were also contacted. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing any corticosteroids against each other or against placebo at any dose for preterm birth were included in the study. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Three researchers independently selected, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies by using EROS and COVIDENCE software. Random-effects pairwise meta-analysis and Bayesian network meta-analysis were performed. The primary outcomes were chorioamnionitis, endometritis/puerperal sepsis, neonatal death, respiratory distress syndrome and neurodevelopmental disability. RESULTS: Forty-five trials (11227 women, 11878 infants) were included in the study. No clinical or statistical difference was found between dexamethasone versus betamethasone in neonatal death (odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.62-1.84; moderate-certainty evidence), neurodevelopmental disability (OR 1.03; 95%CI 0.80-1.33; moderate -certainty evidence), intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 1.04 95%CI 0.56-1.78); low-certainty evidence), or birthweight (+5.29 gr; 95%CI -49.79 to 58.97; high-certainty evidence). No statistically significant difference, but potentially clinically important effect, was found between dexamethasone and betamethasone in chorioamnionitis (OR 0.70; 95%CI 0.45-1.06; moderate-certainty evidence), fetal death (OR 0.81; 95%CI 0.24-2.41; low-certainty evidence), puerperal sepsis (OR 2.04; 95%CI 0.72-6.06; low-certainty evidence) and respiratory distress syndrome (OR 1.34; 95%CI 0.96-2.11; moderate-certainty evidence). Meta-regression, subgroup and sensitivity analysis did not reveal important changes regarding the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids have proven effective for most neonatal and child relevant outcomes compared with placebo or no treatment for women at risk of preterm birth. No important difference was found on neonatal death, neurodevelopmental disability, intraventricular hemorrhage, and birthweight between corticosteroids, and no statistically significant but potentially important difference was found in chorioamnionitis, fetal death, endometritis/puerperal sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome. Further research is warranted to improve the certainty of evidence and inform health policies.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242958, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301459

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A false-negative case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is defined as a person with suspected infection and an initial negative result by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, with a positive result on a subsequent test. False-negative cases have important implications for isolation and risk of transmission of infected people and for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to review and critically appraise evidence about the rate of RT-PCR false-negatives at initial testing for COVID-19. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, as well as COVID-19 repositories, including the EPPI-Centre living systematic map of evidence about COVID-19 and the Coronavirus Open Access Project living evidence database. Two authors independently screened and selected studies according to the eligibility criteria and collected data from the included studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. We calculated the proportion of false-negative test results using a multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression model. The certainty of the evidence about false-negative cases was rated using the GRADE approach for tests and strategies. All information in this article is current up to July 17, 2020. RESULTS: We included 34 studies enrolling 12,057 COVID-19 confirmed cases. All studies were affected by several risks of bias and applicability concerns. The pooled estimate of false-negative proportion was highly affected by unexplained heterogeneity (tau-squared = 1.39; 90% prediction interval from 0.02 to 0.54). The certainty of the evidence was judged as very low due to the risk of bias, indirectness, and inconsistency issues. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial and largely unexplained heterogeneity in the proportion of false-negative RT-PCR results. The collected evidence has several limitations, including risk of bias issues, high heterogeneity, and concerns about its applicability. Nonetheless, our findings reinforce the need for repeated testing in patients with suspicion of SARS-Cov-2 infection given that up to 54% of COVID-19 patients may have an initial false-negative RT-PCR (very low certainty of evidence). SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Protocol available on the OSF website: https://tinyurl.com/vvbgqya.

7.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(12): 2913-2928, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219862

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of starting the ovarian stimulation on the early follicular phase ("Conventional") with the newer range of non-conventional approaches starting in the luteal phase ("Luteal"), random-start, and studies implementing them in DuoStim ("Conventional"+"Luteal"). METHODS: Systematic review. We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, and Embase, on March 2020. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that compared "Luteal," random-start ovarian stimulation or DuoStim with "Conventional"; we analyzed them by subgroups: oocyte freezing and patients undergoing ART treatments, both, in the general infertile population and among poor responders. RESULTS: The following results come from a sensitivity analysis that included only the low/moderate risk of bias studies. When comparing "Luteal" to "Conventional," clinically relevant differences in MII oocytes were ruled out in all subgroups. We found that "Luteal" probably increases the COH length both, in the general infertile population (OR 2.00 days, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.19, moderate-quality evidence) and in oocyte freezing cycles (MD 0.85 days, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.18, moderate-quality evidence). When analyzing DuoStim among poor responders, we found that it appears to generate a higher number of MII oocytes in comparison with a single "Conventional" (MD 3.35, 95%CI 2.54-4.15, moderate-quality evidence). CONCLUSION: Overall, this systematic review of the available data demonstrates that in poor responders, general infertile population and oocyte freezing for cancer stimulation in the late follicular and luteal phases can be utilized in non-conventional approaches such as random-start and DuoStim cycles, offering similar outcomes to the conventional cycles but potentially with increased flexibility, within a reduced time frame. However, more well-designed trials are required to establish certainty.

8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006359, 2020 10 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112418

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle is when one or more embryos (frozen during a previous treatment cycle) are thawed and transferred to the uterus. Some women undergo fresh embryo transfer (ET) cycles with embryos derived from donated oocytes. In both situations, the endometrium is primed with oestrogen and progestogen in different doses and routes of administration. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the most effective endometrial preparation for women undergoing transfer with frozen embryos or embryos from donor oocytes with regard to the subsequent live birth rate (LBR). SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group trials register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, LILACS, trials registers and abstracts of reproductive societies' meetings were searched in June 2020 together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts in the field to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating endometrial preparation in women undergoing fresh donor cycles and frozen embryo transfers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. We analysed all available interventions versus placebo, no treatment, or between each other. The primary review outcome was live birth rate. Secondary outcomes were clinical and multiple pregnancy, miscarriage, cycle cancellation, endometrial thickness and adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Thirty-one RCTs (5426 women) were included. Evidence was moderate to very low-quality: the main limitations were serious risk of bias due to poor reporting of methods, and serious imprecision. Stimulated versus programmed cycle We are uncertain whether a letrozole-stimulated cycle compared to a programmed cycle, for endometrial preparation, improves LBR (odds ratio (OR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 3.26; 100 participants; one study; very low-quality evidence). Stimulating with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), letrozole or clomiphene citrate may improve clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.38; 656 participants; five studies; I2 = 11%; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain if they reduce miscarriage rate (MR) (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.71; 355 participants; three studies; I2 = 0%; very low-quality evidence). Endometrial thickness (ET) may be reduced with clomiphene citrate (mean difference(MD) -1.04, 95% CI -1.59 to -0.49; 92 participants; one study; low-quality evidence). Other outcomes were not reported. Natural versus programmed cycle We are uncertain of the effect from a natural versus programmed cycle for LBR (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.28; 1285 participants; four studies; I2 = 0%; very low-quality evidence) and CPR (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.01; 1249 participants; five studies; I2 = 60%; very low-quality evidence), while a natural cycle probably reduces the cycle cancellation rate (CCR) (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82; 734 participants; one study; moderate-quality evidence). We are uncertain of the effect on MR and ET. No study reported other outcomes. Transdermal versus oral oestrogens From low-quality evidence we are uncertain of the effect transdermal compared to oral oestrogens has on CPR (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.25; 504 participants; three studies; I2 = 58%) or MR (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.09; 414 participants; two studies; I2 = 0%). Other outcomes were not reported. Day of starting administration of progestogen When doing a fresh ET using donated oocytes in a synchronised cycle starting progestogen on the day of oocyte pick-up (OPU) or the day after OPU, in comparison with recipients that start progestogen the day prior to OPU, probably increases the CPR (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.08; 282 participants; one study, moderate-quality evidence). We are uncertain of the effect on multiple pregnancy rate (MPR) or MR. It probably reduces the CCR (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.74; 282 participants; one study; moderate-quality evidence). No study reported other outcomes. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist versus control A cycle with GnRH agonist compared to without may improve LBR (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 5.78; 234 participants; one study; low-quality evidence). From low-quality evidence we are uncertain of the effect on CPR (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.43; 1289 participants; eight studies; I2 = 20%), MR (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.36 to 2.00; 828 participants; four studies; I2 = 0%), CCR (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.17; 530 participants; two studies; I2 = 0%) and ET (MD -0.08, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.16; 697 participants; four studies; I2 = 4%). No study reported other outcomes. Among different GnRH agonists From very low-quality evidence we are uncertain if cycles among different GnRH agonists improves CPR or MR. No study reported other outcomes. GnRH agonists versus GnRH antagonists GnRH antagonists compared to agonists probably improves CPR (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.90; 473 participants; one study; moderate-quality evidence). We are uncertain of the effect on MR and MPR. No study reported other outcomes. Aspirin versus control From very low-quality evidence we are uncertain whether a cycle with aspirin versus without improves LBR, CPR, or ET. Steroids versus control From very low-quality evidence we are uncertain whether a cycle with steroids compared to without improves LBR, CPR or MR. No study reported other outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence on the use of any particular intervention for endometrial preparation in women undergoing fresh donor cycles and frozen embryo transfers. In frozen embryo transfers, low-quality evidence showed that clinical pregnancy rates may be improved in a stimulated cycle compared to a programmed one, and we are uncertain of the effect when comparing a programmed cycle to a natural cycle. Cycle cancellation rates are probably reduced in a natural cycle. Although administering a GnRH agonist, compared to without, may improve live birth rates, clinical pregnancy rates will probably be improved in a GnRH antagonist cycle over an agonist cycle. In fresh synchronised oocyte donor cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate is probably improved and cycle cancellation rates are probably reduced when starting progestogen the day of or day after donor oocyte retrieval. Adequately powered studies are needed to evaluate each treatment more accurately.


Asunto(s)
Criopreservación , Transferencia de Embrión/métodos , Embrión de Mamíferos , Endometrio/efectos de los fármacos , Hormona Liberadora de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Donación de Oocito , Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología , Sesgo , Clomifeno/administración & dosificación , Esquema de Medicación , Implantación del Embrión/fisiología , Endometrio/fisiología , Femenino , Hormona Folículo Estimulante/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Letrozol/administración & dosificación , Nacimiento Vivo/epidemiología , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo , Progesterona/administración & dosificación , Progestinas/administración & dosificación , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008529, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804966

RESUMEN

Chagas disease is a neglected disease that remains a public health threat, particularly in Latin America. The most important treatment options are nitroimidazole derivatives, such as nifurtimox and benznidazole (BZN). Some studies suggest that for adults seropositive to T. cruzi but without clinically evident chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), a simple fixed-dose scheme of BZN could be equivalent to a weight-adjusted dose. We compared the efficacy and safety of a fixed dose of BZN with an adjusted dose for T. cruzi seropositive adults without CCC. We used the Cochrane methods, and reported according to the PRISMA statement. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) allocating participants to fixed and/or adjusted doses of BZN for T. cruzi seropositive adults without CCC. We searched (December 2019) Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Clinicaltrials.gov, and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and contacted Chagas experts. Selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment, using the Cochrane tool, were performed independently by pairs of reviewers. Discrepancies were solved by consensus within the team. Primary outcomes were parasite-related outcomes and efficacy or patient-related safety outcomes. We conducted a meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3 software and used GRADE summary of finding tables to present the certainty of evidence by outcome. We identified 655 records through our search strategy and 10 studies (four of them ongoing) met our inclusion criteria. We did not find any study directly comparing fixed vs adjusted doses of BZN, however, some outcomes allowed subgroup comparisons between fixed and adjusted doses of BZN against placebo. Moderate-certainty evidence suggests no important subgroup differences for positive PCR at one year and for three safety outcomes (drug discontinuation, peripheral neuropathy, and mild rash). The same effect was observed for any serious adverse events (low-certainty evidence). All subgroups showed similar effects (I2 0% for all these subgroup comparisons but 32% for peripheral neuropathy), supporting the equivalence of BZN schemes. We conclude that there is no direct evidence comparing fixed and adjusted doses of BZN. Based on low to very low certainty of evidence for critical clinical outcomes and moderate certainty of evidence for important outcomes, fixed and adjusted doses may be equivalent in terms of safety and efficacy. An individual patient data network meta-analysis could better address this issue.


Asunto(s)
Cardiomiopatías , Enfermedad de Chagas/tratamiento farmacológico , Nitroimidazoles/administración & dosificación , Nitroimidazoles/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Nifurtimox/uso terapéutico , Seguridad del Paciente , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Triazoles/uso terapéutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/efectos de los fármacos
10.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 159, 2020 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660571

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to summarize and compare relevant recommendations from evidence-based CPGs (EB-CPGs). METHODS: Systematic review of clinical practice guidelines. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Library, LILACS, Tripdatabase, and additional sources. In July 2017, we searched CPGs that were published in the last 10 years, without language restrictions, in electronic databases, and also searched specific CPG sources, reference lists, and consulted experts. Pairs of independent reviewers selected EB-CPGs and rated their methodological quality using the AGREE-II instrument. We summarized recommendations, its supporting evidence, and strength of recommendations according to the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: We included 16 EB-CPGs out of 2262 references identified. Only nine of them had searches within the last 5 years and seven used GRADE. The median (percentile 25-75) AGREE-II scores for rigor of development was 49% (35-76%) and the domain "applicability" obtained the worst score 16% (9-31%). We summarized 31 risk stratification recommendations, 21.6% of which were supported by high/moderate quality of evidence (41% of them were strong recommendations), and 16 therapeutic/preventive recommendations, 59% of which were supported by high/moderate quality of evidence (75.7% strong). We found inconsistency in ratings of evidence level. "Guidelines' applicability" and "monitoring" were the most deficient domains. Only half of the EB-CPGs were updated in the past 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: We present many strong recommendations that are ready to be considered for implementation as well as others to be interrupted, and we reveal opportunities to improve guidelines' quality.

11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697824

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Disease burden due to tobacco smoking in Latin America remains very high. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential impact of implementing smoke-free air interventions on health and cost outcomes in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, using a mathematical model. METHODS: We built a probabilistic Montecarlo microsimulation model, considering natural history, direct health system costs and quality of life impairment associated with main tobacco-related diseases. We followed individuals in hypothetical cohorts and calculated health outcomes on an annual basis to obtain aggregated 10-year population health outcomes (deaths, events) and costs. To populate the model, we completed an overview and systematic review of literature. Also, we calibrated the model comparing the predicted disease-specific mortality rates with those coming from local national statistics. RESULTS: With current policies, over 10 years, of 137,121 deaths and 917,210 events could be averted, adding 3.84 million years of healthy life and saving USD 9.2 billion in these seven countries. If countries fully implemented smoke-free air strategies, it would be possible avert nearly 180,000 premature deaths and 1,2 million events, adding 5 million healthy years of life and saving USD 13.1 billion in direct healthcare. CONCLUSION: Implementing the smoke-free air strategy would substantially reduce deaths, diseases, and health care costs attributed to smoking. Latin American countries should not delay the full implementation of this strategy. IMPLICATIONS: Tobacco smoking is the single most preventable and premature mortality cause in the world. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported by the World Health Organization, introduced a package of evidence-based measures for tobacco control. This study adds quality evidence on the potential health effects and savings of implementing smoke-free air policies in countries representing almost 80% of the LAC population.

12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(11): 2032-2040, 2020 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531063

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The burden of disease attributable to tobacco use in Latin America is very high. Our objective was to evaluate the 10-year potential impact of current legislation related to cigarette packaging and warnings and expected effects of moving to a higher level of strategies implementing cigarette plain packaging on health and cost outcomes in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, using a microsimulation model. AIMS AND METHODS: We used a probabilistic state-transition microsimulation model, considering natural history, costs, and quality of life losses associated with main tobacco-related diseases. We followed up individuals in hypothetical cohorts and calculated health outcomes annually to obtain aggregated long-term population health outcomes and costs. We performed a literature review to estimate effects and analyzed studies and information from ministries, relevant organizations, and national surveys. We calibrated the model comparing the predicted disease-specific mortality rates with local statistics. RESULTS: Current graphic warnings already in place in each country could avert, during 10 years, 69 369 deaths and 638 295 disease events, adding 1.2 million years of healthy life and saving USD 5.3 billion in the seven countries. If these countries implemented plain packaging strategies, additional 155 857 premature deaths and 4 133 858 events could be averted, adding 4.1 million healthy years of life and saving USD 13.6 billion in direct health care expenses of diseases attributable to smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Latin American countries should not delay the implementation of this strategy that will alleviate part of the enormous health and financial burden that tobacco poses on their economies and health care systems. IMPLICATIONS: Tobacco smoking is the single most preventable and premature mortality cause in the world. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported by the World Health Organization, introduced a package of evidence-based measures for tobacco control. This study adds evidence on the potential health effects and savings of implementing cigarette plain packaging in countries representing almost 80% of the Latin American population; findings are valuable resources for policy makers in the region.

13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012726, 2020 06 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a common neurological disorder, caused by a progressive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the intracranial space that can lead to increased intracranial pressure, enlargement of the ventricles (ventriculomegaly) and, consequently, to brain damage. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt systems are the mainstay therapy for this condition, however there are different types of shunt systems. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and adverse effects of conventional and complex shunt devices for CSF diversion in people with hydrocephalus. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2020 Issue 2); Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to February 2020); Embase (Elsevier) (1974 to February 2020); Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database (LILACS) (1980 to February 2020); ClinicalTrials.gov; and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised trials of different types of ventriculo-peritoneal shunting devices for people with hydrocephalus. Primary outcomes included: treatment failure, adverse events and mortality. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened studies for selection, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Due to the scarcity of data, we performed a Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) incorporating GRADE for the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included six studies with 962 participants assessing the effects of standard valves compared to anti-syphon valves, other types of standard valves, self-adjusting CSF flow-regulating valves and external differential programmable pressure valves. All included studies started in a hospital setting and offered ambulatory follow-up. Most studies were conducted in infants or children with hydrocephalus from diverse causes. The certainty of the evidence for most comparisons was low to very low. 1. Standard valve versus anti-syphon valve Three studies with 296 randomised participants were included under this comparison. We are uncertain about the incidence of treatment failure in participants with standard valve and anti-syphon valves (very low certainty of the evidence). The incidence of adverse events may be similar in those with standard valves (range 0 to 1.9%) and anti-syphon valves (range 0 to 2.9%) (low certainty of the evidence). Mortality may be similar in those with standard valves (0%) and anti-syphon valves (0.9%) (RD 0.01%, 95% CI -0.02% to 0.03%, low certainty of the evidence). Ventricular size and head circumference may be similar in those with standard valves and anti-syphon valves (low certainty of the evidence). None of the included studies reported the quality of life of participants. 2. Comparison between different types of standard valves Two studies with 174 randomised participants were included under this comparison. We are uncertain about the incidence of treatment failure in participants with different types of standard valves (early postoperative period: RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.27; at 12 months follow-up: RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.92, very low certainty of the evidence). None of the included studies reported adverse events beyond those included under "treatment failure". We are uncertain about the effects of different types of standard valves on mortality (range 2% to 17%, very low certainty of the evidence). The included studies did not report the effects of these interventions on quality of life, ventricular size reduction or head circumference. 3. Standard valve versus self-adjusting CSF flow-regulating valve One study with 229 randomised participants addressed this comparison. The incidence of treatment failure may be similar in those with standard valves (42.98%) and self-adjusting CSF flow-regulating valves (39.13%) (low certainty of the evidence). The incidence of adverse events may be similar in those with standard valves (range 0 to 1.9%) and those with self-adjusting CSF flow-regulating valves (range 0 to 7.2%) (low certainty of the evidence). The included study reported no deaths in either group in the postoperative period. Beyond the early postoperative period, the authors stated that nine patients died (no disaggregated data by each type of intervention was available, low certainty of the evidence). The included studies did not report the effects of these interventions on quality of life, ventricular size reduction or head circumference. 4. External differential programmable pressure valve versus non-programmable valve One study with 377 randomised participants addressed this comparison. The incidence of treatment failure may be similar in those with programmable valves (52%) and non-programmable valves (52%)  (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.24, low certainty of the evidence). The incidence of adverse events may be similar in those with programmable valves (6.19%) and non-programmable valves (6.01%) (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.15, low certainty of the evidence). The included study did not report the effect of these interventions on mortality, quality of life or head circumference. Ventricular size reduction may be similar in those with programmable valves and non-programmable valves (low certainty of the evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Standard shunt valves for hydrocephalus compared to anti-syphon or self-adjusting CSF flow-regulating valves may cause little to no difference on the main outcomes of this review, however we are very uncertain due to the low to very low certainty of evidence. Similarly, different types of standard valves and external differential programmable pressure valves versus non-programmable valves may be associated with similar outcomes. Nevertheless, this review did not include valves with the latest technology, for which we need high-quality randomised controlled trials focusing on patient-important outcomes including costs.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocefalia/cirugía , Derivación Ventriculoperitoneal/instrumentación , Niño , Diseño de Equipo , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/complicaciones , Hidrocefalia/mortalidad , Lactante , Microcomputadores , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Incertidumbre , Derivación Ventriculoperitoneal/efectos adversos , Derivación Ventriculoperitoneal/mortalidad
14.
Environ Int ; 142: 105876, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Short-term exposure (from one hour to days) to selected air pollutants has been associated with human mortality. This systematic review was conducted to analyse the evidence on the effects of short-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less or equal than 10 and 2.5 µm (PM10, PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3), on all-cause mortality, and PM10 and PM2.5 on cardiovascular, respiratory, and cerebrovascular mortality. METHODS: We included studies on human populations exposed to outdoor air pollution from any source, excluding occupational exposures. Relative risks (RRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants concentrations were used as the effect estimates. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using 80% prediction intervals. Risk of bias (RoB) in individual studies was analysed using a new domain-based assessment tool, developed by a working group convened by the World Health Organization and designed specifically to evaluate RoB within eligible air pollution studies included in systematic reviews. We conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses by age, sex, continent, study design, single or multicity studies, time lag, and RoB. The certainty of evidence was assessed for each exposure-outcome combination. The protocol for this review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018087749). RESULTS: We included 196 articles in quantitative analysis. All combinations of pollutants and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were positively associated in the main analysis, and in a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The only exception was NO2, but when considering a 1-hour maximum exposure. We found positive associations between pollutants and all-cause mortality for PM10 (RR: 1.0041; 95% CI: 1.0034-1.0049), PM2.5 (RR: 1.0065; 95% CI: 1.0044-1.0086), NO2 (24-hour average) (RR: 1.0072; 95% CI: 1.0059-1.0085), and O3 (RR: 1.0043; 95% CI: 1.0034-1.0052). PM10 and PM2.5 were also positively associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, and cerebrovascular mortality. We found some degree of heterogeneity between studies in three exposure-outcome combinations, and this heterogeneity could not be explained after subgroup analysis. RoB was low or moderate in the majority of articles. The certainty of evidence was judged as high in 10 out of 11 combinations, and moderate in one combination. CONCLUSIONS: This study found evidence of a positive association between short-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, NO2, and O3 and all-cause mortality, and between PM10 and PM2.5 and cardiovascular, respiratory and cerebrovascular mortality. These results were robust through several sensitivity analyses. In general, the level of evidence was high, meaning that we can be confident in the associations found in this study.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228256, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986191

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD) have a major impact on quality of life and medical costs. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence, incidence and clinical phenotypes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) cases in Mexico and Colombia. METHODS: We analyzed official administrative and health databases, used mathematical modelling to estimate the incidence and complete prevalence, and performed a case-series of IBD patients at a referral center both in Mexico and Colombia. RESULTS: The age-adjusted complete prevalence of UC per 100,000 inhabitants for 2015/2016 ranged from 15.65 to 71.19 in Mexico and from 27.40 to 69.97 in Colombia depending on the model considered. The prevalence of CD per 100,000 inhabitants in Mexico ranged from 15.45 to 18.08 and from 16.75 to 18.43 in Colombia. In Mexico, the age-adjusted incidence of UC per 100,000 inhabitants per year ranged from 0.90 to 2.30, and from 0.55 to 2.33 in Colombia. The incidence for CD in Mexico ranged from 0.35 to 0.66 whereas in Colombia, the age-adjusted incidence of CD ranged from 0.30 to 0.57. The case-series included 200 IBD patients from Mexico and 204 patients from Colombia. The UC/CD prevalence ratio in Mexico and Colombia was 1.50:1 and 4.5:1 respectively. In Mexico, the female/male prevalence ratio for UC was 1.50:1 and 1.28:1 for CD, while in Colombia this ratio was 0.68:1 for UC and 0.8:1 for CD. In Mexico the relapse rate for UC was 63.3% and 72.5% for CD, while those rates in Colombia were 58.2% for UC and 58.3% for CD. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated burden of disease of IBD in Mexico and Colombia is not negligible. Although these findings need to be confirmed by population-based studies, they are useful for decision-makers, practitioners and patients with this condition.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Crohn/epidemiología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Anciano , Colombia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 59(2): 339-364.e10, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404638

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Specialized pediatric palliative care (SPPC) is increasingly involved in the care of seriously ill children, yet the evidence on its impact has not been comprehensively reviewed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of providing SPPC to seriously ill children on patient-, caregiver-, and systems-level outcomes. METHODS: We performed a Systematic Review following Cochrane methods. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Global Health, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, and Web of Science were searched from January 1996 to June 2018. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: We included randomized controlled, cohort, case-control, and before-after studies in which exposure to SPPC services was the intervention of interest. All outcomes reported in these studies were included. Two investigators independently selected articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias of included studies using standardized criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included in qualitative synthesis: one nonrandomized controlled trial, 16 cohort studies, and seven before-after studies. Evidence certainty was low. Twenty-one studies had one or more area with high risk of bias, most commonly selection bias, low group comparability, risk for confounding, and inadequate statistical reporting. Studies analyzed 46 domains, operationalized as 136 distinct outcomes. SPPC was associated with better child quality of life scores in all four studies that assessed this outcome. No other outcome showed this consistency. CONCLUSION: Receiving SPPC was associated with better child quality of life. However, the paucity and low certainty of the evidence precluded any firm recommendations about SPPC practice. Larger collaborative networks and greater consensus regarding SPPC research standards are needed.

17.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(2): 263-268, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867689

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate if the authors of published systematic reviews (SRs) reported the level of quality of evidence (QoE) in the top 5 impact factor infertility journals and to analyze if they used an appropriate wording to describe it. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. We searched in PubMed for SRs published in 2017 in the five infertility journals with the highest impact factor. We analyzed the proportion of SRs published in the top 5 impact factor infertility journals that reported the SRs' QoE, and the proportion of those SRs in which authors used consistent wording to describe QoE and magnitude of effect. RESULTS: The QoE was reported in only 21.4% of the 42 included SRs and in less than 10% of the abstracts. Although we did not find important differences in the report of QoE of those that showed statistically significant differences or not, p value was associated with the wording chosen by the authors. We found inconsistent reporting of the size the effect estimate in 54.8% (23/42) and in the level of QoE in 92.9% (39/42). Whereas the effect size was more consistently expressed in studies with statistically significant findings, QoE was better expressed in those cases in which the p value was over 0.05. CONCLUSION: We found that in 2017, less than 25% of the authors reported the overall QoE when publishing SRs. Authors focused more on statistical significance as a binary concept than on methodological limitations like study design, imprecision, indirectness, inconsistency, and publication bias. Authors should make efforts to report the QoE and interpret results accordingly.

19.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(3): e002073, 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119511

RESUMEN

El autor aborda el caso de la cloroquina y la hidroxicloroquina en el contexto de la actual pandemia de COVID-19, a través de dos ejes centrales. Por un lado, el escándalo a nivel editorial y de comunicación de la evidencia, y por otro, el de la toma de decisiones en salud pública. Describe flagrantes debilidades en la cadena de generación, difusión y aplicación del nuevo conocimiento. Adicionalmente, explora iniciativas y propuestas que podrían contribuir a solucionar estos problemas. (AU)


The author addresses the case of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, through two central axes. On the one hand, the scandal at the editorial and communication level of the evidence, and on the other, that of decision-making in public health. He describes flagrant weaknesses in the chain of generation, diffusion,and application of new knowledge. Additionally, it explores initiatives and proposals that could contribute to solving these problems. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cloroquina/efectos adversos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Hidroxicloroquina/efectos adversos , Arritmias Cardíacas/inducido químicamente , Bioética , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Mala Conducta Científica , Cloroquina/uso terapéutico , Salud Pública , Paroxetina/uso terapéutico , Revisión de la Investigación por Pares/ética , Azitromicina/uso terapéutico , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Ética en Investigación , Virus del SRAS/efectos de los fármacos , Comunicación y Divulgación Científica , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Comunicación en Salud , Pandemias , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Neuraminidasa/antagonistas & inhibidores
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