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1.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 46(8): 538-544, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-5931

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Analizar el nivel de preparación, conocimiento y experiencia sobre la violencia de género de las/os tutoras/es médicas/os y las/os residentes de medicina de familia de las Unidades Docentes de Atención Familiar y Comunitaria de Galicia. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo transversal en las siete Unidades Docentes de Atención Familiar y Comunitaria de Galicia. Se utilizó el cuestionario Physician Readiness Manage Intimate Violence Survey (PREMIS), en su versión validada en español. Esta encuesta permite recoger información de las/os profesionales sanitarios de atención primaria sobre sus actitudes, conocimientos y prácticas con respecto a la violencia de género. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo y comparativo de los datos. RESULTADOS: Se recibieron 159 cuestionarios, 72,32% procedían de mujeres, 59,1% de las respuestas fueron de médicas/os tutoras/es. Se apreció que existían diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la detección/diagnóstico de violencia a favor que aquellas/os profesionales que tenían conocimiento del protocolo de violencia de género o que habían recibido formación sobre esta materia (p < 0,01). En la autopercepción de la formación sobre violencia de género se observaron peores resultados con significación estadística en aquellas/os profesionales con mayor carga asistencial (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: Haber recibido formación o conocer el protocolo de atención sanitaria se asocia con una mayor detección de casos de violencia de género. Se ha constatado déficit en formación en violencia de género tanto en tutoras/es como en residentes de medicina de familia, especialmente en los que tienen mayor carga asistencial, por lo que es una prioridad desarrollar estrategias de formación médica en este campo


OBJECTIVE: To analyse the level of preparation, knowledge and experience of gender violence of medical tutors and family medicine trainees of the Teaching Units of Family and Community Care of Galicia. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the 7 Teaching Units of Family and Community Care in Galicia. The Physician Readiness Manage Intimate Violence Survey (PREMIS), in its validated version in Spanish was used. This survey allows the collection of information from primary health care professionals about their attitudes, knowledge, and practices as regards gender violence. A descriptive and comparative statistical analysis was performed on the data. RESULTS: Out of a total of 159 questionnaires received, 72.32% came from women, and 59.1% of the responses were from doctors / tutors. It was noted that there were statistically significant differences in the detection / diagnosis of violence by those professionals who were aware of the gender violence protocol or who had received training in this area (P<.01). In the self-perception of gender violence training, statistically significant worse results were observed in those professionals with greater care burden (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Having received training or knowing the health care protocol on gender violence is associated with greater detection of cases of gender violence. There has been a deficit in training in gender-based violence both in tutors and in family medicine residents, especially in those with greater care burden, so it is a priority to develop medical training strategies in this field

3.
Semergen ; 46(6): 368-378, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873502

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence in clinical practice of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as their causal relationship, in the study inclusion visit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the study inclusion visit of 8,066 patients of 18 to 85years of age included in the IBERICAN study. By reviewing the medical history, analytics and medical visits, the patient's physician has collected socio-demographic information, personal and family history and prevalence of CVRF and CVD and renal disease. A multivariate analysis was carried out using a logistic regression that included the autonomous region variable as a random effect variable, in order to analyse the impact of certain variables on the development of each CVRF, metabolic syndrome, subclinical organ damage, renal disease, and CVD. RESULTS: Dyslipidaemia was 2.4 times more frequent in diabetics, and the risk was increased by 59% in hypertensive patients. Arterial hypertension was twice as frequent in diabetics, and increased 94% in hyperuricaemic patients and 62.1% in dyslipidaemia patients. Diabetes mellitus was 2.5 times higher in dyslipidaemia patients, and 2.2 times higher in hypertensive patients. CVD was four times more frequent in patients with a family history, and the risk in women was increased by 90.8% and by 53.8% in patients with renal disease. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish population seen in Primary Care that were analysed in the IBERICAN study had a high prevalence of CVRF and CVD, which gives it a high CVR. The multivariate analysis performed shows a close causal relationship between the CVRF with each other, and with renal disease and CVD.

4.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 35(5): 305-311, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972902

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of a management plan for the diabetes process on the level of control of HbA1c and the rate of hypoglycaemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Health Area had a catchment population of 446,603. An anti-diabetic drug prescription (29,705 patients) was used to select diabetic patients. The variables recorded were: percentage of patients with HbA1c <8% and the hypoglycaemia rate before and after implementation of the quality program. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes was 11.8%, with 71.3% of them receiving some pharmacological treatment. In the year 2016, in the Integrated Health Area of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 59.6% (95% CI: 57.9% -61.2%) of the patients had an HbA1c of less than 8%. After the implementation of the quality program, there was an increase in the number of controlled patients, reaching 63.6% (IRQ: 16.0%) in 2017, and 63.8% (95% CI: 62.5% - 65.2%) in 2018. The annual rate of hypoglycaemia increased non-significantly from 2.8 (95% CI: 2.22-3.35) in 2016, to 2.94 (95% CI: 2.35-2.35) in 2017 (P=.083), and 3.0 (95% CI: 2.44-3.56) in 2018 (P=.399). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the diabetes process management program enabled the level of control of HbA1c to be improved, as well as increase the percentage of patients who undergo regular check-ups, without increasing hypoglycaemia.

5.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 46(6): 368-378, sept. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-6823

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia en práctica clínica de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV) y la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV), así como su relación causal, en la visita de inclusión. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Análisis transversal de la visita de inclusión de los 8.066 pacientes de 18 a 85años de edad incluidos en el estudio IBERICAN. Se analizó la información socio-demográfica, los antecedentes personales y familiares, y la prevalencia de FRCV, de ECV y de enfermedad renal. Se ha realizado un análisis multivariante, mediante regresión logística que incluía la variable comunidad autónoma como variable de efectos aleatorios, para analizar el impacto de determinadas variables en el desarrollo de cada FRCV, síndrome metabólico, lesión de orden subclínica (LOS), enfermedad renal y ECV. RESULTADOS: La dislipemia fue 2,4 veces más frecuente en diabéticos y se incrementó el riesgo un 59% en hipertensos. La hipertensión arterial fue dos veces más frecuente en diabéticos y se incrementó un 94% en hiperuricémicos y un 62,1% en dislipémicos. La diabetes mellitus fue 2,5 veces mayor en dislipémicos y 2,2 veces mayor en hipertensos. La ECV fue cuatro veces más frecuente en pacientes con antecedentes familiares, y se incrementó un 90,8% el riesgo en mujeres y un 53,8% en pacientes con enfermedad renal. CONCLUSIONES: La población española asistida en atención primaria (AP) que ha sido analizada en el estudio IBERICAN presenta una elevada prevalencia de FRCV y ECV establecida, lo que le confiere un elevado RCV. El análisis multivariante realizado muestra una estrecha relación causal entre los FRCV entre sí y con la enfermedad renal y la ECV


OBJECTIVE: To analyse the prevalence in clinical practice of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as their causal relationship, in the study inclusion visit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the study inclusion visit of 8,066 patients of 18 to 85years of age included in the IBERICAN study. By reviewing the medical history, analytics and medical visits, the patient's physician has collected socio-demographic information, personal and family history and prevalence of CVRF and CVD and renal disease. A multivariate analysis was carried out using a logistic regression that included the autonomous region variable as a random effect variable, in order to analyse the impact of certain variables on the development of each CVRF, metabolic syndrome, subclinical organ damage, renal disease, and CVD. RESULTS: Dyslipidaemia was 2.4 times more frequent in diabetics, and the risk was increased by 59% in hypertensive patients. Arterial hypertension was twice as frequent in diabetics, and increased 94% in hyperuricaemic patients and 62.1% in dyslipidaemia patients. Diabetes mellitus was 2.5 times higher in dyslipidaemia patients, and 2.2 times higher in hypertensive patients. CVD was four times more frequent in patients with a family history, and the risk in women was increased by 90.8% and by 53.8% in patients with renal disease. CONCLUSIONS: The Spanish population seen in Primary Care that were analysed in the IBERICAN study had a high prevalence of CVRF and CVD, which gives it a high CVR. The multivariate analysis performed shows a close causal relationship between the CVRF with each other, and with renal disease and CVD

6.
Semergen ; 46(8): 538-544, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536438

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the level of preparation, knowledge and experience of gender violence of medical tutors and family medicine trainees of the Teaching Units of Family and Community Care of Galicia. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the 7 Teaching Units of Family and Community Care in Galicia. The Physician Readiness Manage Intimate Violence Survey (PREMIS), in its validated version in Spanish was used. This survey allows the collection of information from primary health care professionals about their attitudes, knowledge, and practices as regards gender violence. A descriptive and comparative statistical analysis was performed on the data. RESULTS: Out of a total of 159 questionnaires received, 72.32% came from women, and 59.1% of the responses were from doctors / tutors. It was noted that there were statistically significant differences in the detection / diagnosis of violence by those professionals who were aware of the gender violence protocol or who had received training in this area (P<.01). In the self-perception of gender violence training, statistically significant worse results were observed in those professionals with greater care burden (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Having received training or knowing the health care protocol on gender violence is associated with greater detection of cases of gender violence. There has been a deficit in training in gender-based violence both in tutors and in family medicine residents, especially in those with greater care burden, so it is a priority to develop medical training strategies in this field.

7.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 46(3): 175-185, abr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-196701

RESUMEN

OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el grado de cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica (GPC) en el diagnóstico y seguimiento de las principales complicaciones crónicas vasculares de los pacientes con diabetes tipo2 (DM2) en atención primaria (AP). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo en pacientes de 18 o más años de edad seleccionados consecutivamente a medida que acudieron a la consulta en AP. Los datos de los pacientes se obtuvieron mediante acceso a la historia informatizada, registrándose variables clínicas y analíticas de interés. Se consideró adecuada la determinación y el registro de microalbuminuria (MALB), filtrado glomerular (FG), exploración pies (palpación pulsos, monofilamento o diapasón) y electrocardiograma (ECG) si habían sido realizados de manera anual, y del fondo de ojo (FO) cada dos años. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 1.420 pacientes (55,8% varones), con una edad media (DE) de 70,6 (10,8) años y una media de 9,3 (6,2) años de evolución de su diabetes. El índice de masa corporal (IMC) medio (kg/m2) fue de 30,1 (5,4) en mujeres y de 29,5 (4,7) en varones (p = 0,023) y la HbA1c (%), de 6,9 (1,2). El buen control metabólico de la DM se alcanzó en el 63,0% (IC95%: 60,4-65,5). Tenían realizado FO en los dos últimos años 976 pacientes (68,7%; IC95%: 66,2-71,1). La MALB se había realizado a 1.228 pacientes (86,5%; IC95%: 84,6-88,2), el FG estimado a 1.391 (98,0%; IC95%: 97,1-98,6), la exploración de los pulsos del pie a 626 (44,1%; IC95%: 41,5-46,7) y la exploración neurológica a 473 (33,3%; IC95%: 30,8-35,8). CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de nuestro estudio indican que en una proporción importante de los pacientes con DM2 no se explora la presencia de retinopatía ni de neuropatía. A siete de cada diez pacientes se les ha cribado de retinopatía, uno de cada tres tiene realizada exploración neurológica y uno de cada cuatro tiene realizadas todas las exploraciones recomendadas por las GPC


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of compliance to the clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations for the diagnosis and monitoring of the main chronic vascular complications of patients with type2 diabetes (DM2) in Primary Care (PC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on patients aged 18years and over and consecutively selected in PC. Patient data were obtained by direct interview and access to the computerised history, and recording the clinical and analytical variables of interest. The determination and recording of urine microalbumin (MALB), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), foot examination (pulse palpation, monofilament or tuning fork), and electrocardiogram (ECG), if performed annually, and the eye fundus (FO) every two years. RESULTS: A total of 1,420 patients were included, of which 55.8% were male. The mean age (SD) was 70.6 (10.8) years and the mean onset of the diabetes was 9.3 (6.2) years. The mean BMI (kg /m2) was 30.1 (5.4) in females and 29.5 (4.7) in males (P=.023), and a mean HbA1c (%) of 6.9 (1.2). Good metabolic control of DM was achieved in 63.0% (95%CI: 60.4-65.5). In the last two years, 976 (68.7%; 95%CI: 66.2-71.1) patients had an eye fundus examination. The urine microalbumin had been performed on 1,228 patients (86.5%; 95%CI: 84.6-88.2). The mean glomerular filtration rate was performed on 1,391 patients (98.0%; 95%CI: 97.1-98.6), the foot pulses examination on 626 (44.1%; 95%CI: 41.5-46.7), and the neurological examination on 473 patients (33.3%; 95%CI: 30.8-35.8). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicate that the presence of retinopathy or neuropathy is not explored in a significant percentage of patients with DM2. Only seven out of ten patients have been screened for retinopathy, one in three had a neurological examination, and only one in four have all the scans recommended by the CPG


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Angiopatías Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Atención Primaria de Salud
8.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 46(2): 107-114, mar. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-195629

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hypotension and associated factors in hypertensive patients treated in the Primary Care setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and multicentre study was conducted with a total of 2635 general practitioners consecutively including 12,961 hypertensive patients treated in a Primary Care setting in Spain. An analysis was performed on the variables of age, gender, weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, dyslipidaemia, smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle), fasting plasma glucose, complete lipid profile, as well as the presence of target organ damage (left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, carotid atherosclerosis) and associated clinical conditions. Hypotension was defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 110mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure less than 70mmHg. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the variables associated with the presence of hypotension. RESULTS: The mean age was 66.2 years, and 51.7% of patients were women. The mean time of onset of hypertension was 9.1 years. A total of 13.1% of patients (95% confidence interval 12.4-13.6%) had hypotension, 95% of whom had low diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence of hypotension was higher in elderly patients (25.7%) and in those individuals with coronary heart disease (22.6%). The variables associated with the presence of hypotension included a history of cardiovascular disease, being treated with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, diabetes, and age. CONCLUSIONS: One out of 4-5 elderly patients, or those with cardiovascular disease, had hypotension. General practitioners should identify these patients in order to determine the causes and adjust treatment to avoid complications


OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de hipotensión y los factores asociados en pacientes hipertensos tratados en atención primaria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, descriptivo y multicéntrico; 2.635 médicos generales incluyeron consecutivamente a 12.961 pacientes hipertensos tratados y atendidos en atención primaria en España. Fueron analizados: edad, sexo, peso, altura, índice de masa corporal, perímetro de cintura, factores de riesgo cardiovascular (diabetes, dislipidemia, tabaquismo, obesidad, sedentarismo), glucemia en ayunas, perfil de lípidos, así como la presencia de daño en órgano diana (hipertrofia ventricular, microalbuminuria, aterosclerosis carotídea) y enfermedades clínicas asociadas. La hipotensión se definió como presión arterial sistólica inferior a 110mmHg o presión arterial diastólica inferior a 70mmHg. Se realizó un análisis multivariante para determinar las variables asociadas a la presencia de hipotensión. RESULTADOS: La edad media fue de 66,2 años, un 51,7% de los pacientes eran mujeres. La antigüedad de la hipertensión fue de 9,1 años. Un 13,1% de los pacientes (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 12,4-13,6%) tenían hipotensión, de los cuales el 95% era presión arterial diastólica baja. La prevalencia de hipotensión fue mayor en pacientes de edad avanzada (25,7%) y en individuos con enfermedad coronaria (22,6%). Las variables asociadas con la presencia de hipotensión incluyeron los antecedentes de enfermedad cardiovascular, pacientes tratados con al menos 3 fármacos antihipertensivos, diabetes y edad. CONCLUSIONES: Uno de cada 4-5 pacientes de edad avanzada o con enfermedad cardiovascular tenía hipotensión. Los médicos generales deben identificar a estos pacientes para determinar las causas y ajustar el tratamiento para evitar complicaciones


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Antihipertensivos/administración & dosificación , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Presión Arterial/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Primeros Auxilios , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología
9.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 46(1): 4-15, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-194402

RESUMEN

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son la primera causa de muerte en nuestro país, y aunque las tasas de incidencia disminuyen desde hace años por las mejoras en la prevención y el tratamiento, aún hay margen para una mayor reducción. La atención primaria tiene un papel primordial en la prevención y el control de estas enfermedades. Conocer la prevalencia e incidencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en población adulta española asistida en atención primaria es el objetivo del estudio para la identificación de la población española de riesgo cardiovascular y renal (IBERICAN). MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohortes prospectivas. Población asistida en centros de atención primaria entre 18 y 85 años seleccionada mediante muestreo consecutivo no probabilístico entre el 1 de abril de 2014 y el 31 de octubre de 2018. Mediante revisión de la historia clínica, analíticas y visitas médicas el médico del paciente ha recogido información sociodemográfica, antecedentes personales y familiares y prevalencia e incidencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y enfermedad cardiovascular y renal. Se estimarán las incidencias y factores asociados mediante modelos de riesgos proporcionales de Cox y curvas de Kaplan-Meier. RESULTADOS: Forman parte de la cohorte IBERICAN 8.066 pacientes reclutados por 531 médicos de atención primaria de todas las CC. AA. de España, con la excepción de Ceuta. La edad media de la cohorte es de 57,9 años, con un 54,5% de mujeres. La obesidad, la dislipidemia y la HTA son los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más prevalentes. El 16,3% presentaba antecedentes de ECV y el 25,5% alguna lesión de órgano subclínica. CONCLUSIÓN: El estudio IBERICAN es una cohorte de personas atendidas en atención primaria que espera aportar información relevante sobre los factores que determinan la incidencia de ECV y renal en España


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in Spain, and although the incidence rates have been declining for years due to improvements in prevention and treatment, there is still room for further reduction. Primary Care has a leading role in the prevention and control of these diseases. Determining the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in the Spanish adult population attended in Primary Care is the objective of the study to identify the Spanish population at cardiovascular and renal risk (IBERICAN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted using a consecutive non-probabilistic sampling population between 18 and 85 years that attended Primary Care centres between April 1, 2014 and October 31, 2018. By reviewing the medical history, laboratory results, and medical visits, the Primary Care physicians collected socio-demographic information, personal and family history of the patients, as well as prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular and renal disease. The incidents and associated factors will be estimated using proportional risk models of Cox and Kaplan-Meier Curves. RESULTS: A total of 8,066 patients have been recruited by 531 Primary Care physicians from all Autonomous Communities of Spain as part of the IBERICAN cohort, with the exception of Ceuta. The mean age of the cohort is 57.9 years with 54.5% women. Obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension are the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. There was a history of CVD in16.3%, and 25.5% had a subclinical organ lesion. CONCLUSION: The IBERICAN study is a cohort of people treated in Primary Care that expects to provide relevant information on the factors that determine the incidence of cardiovascular and renal disease in Spain


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Primeros Auxilios , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Dislipidemias/complicaciones , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Incidencia , Enfermedades Renales/etiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología
10.
Semergen ; 46(3): 175-185, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899151

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of compliance to the clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommendations for the diagnosis and monitoring of the main chronic vascular complications of patients with type2 diabetes (DM2) in Primary Care (PC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on patients aged 18years and over and consecutively selected in PC. Patient data were obtained by direct interview and access to the computerised history, and recording the clinical and analytical variables of interest. The determination and recording of urine microalbumin (MALB), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), foot examination (pulse palpation, monofilament or tuning fork), and electrocardiogram (ECG), if performed annually, and the eye fundus (FO) every two years. RESULTS: A total of 1,420 patients were included, of which 55.8% were male. The mean age (SD) was 70.6 (10.8) years and the mean onset of the diabetes was 9.3 (6.2) years. The mean BMI (kg /m2) was 30.1 (5.4) in females and 29.5 (4.7) in males (P=.023), and a mean HbA1c (%) of 6.9 (1.2). Good metabolic control of DM was achieved in 63.0% (95%CI: 60.4-65.5). In the last two years, 976 (68.7%; 95%CI: 66.2-71.1) patients had an eye fundus examination. The urine microalbumin had been performed on 1,228 patients (86.5%; 95%CI: 84.6-88.2). The mean glomerular filtration rate was performed on 1,391 patients (98.0%; 95%CI: 97.1-98.6), the foot pulses examination on 626 (44.1%; 95%CI: 41.5-46.7), and the neurological examination on 473 patients (33.3%; 95%CI: 30.8-35.8). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicate that the presence of retinopathy or neuropathy is not explored in a significant percentage of patients with DM2. Only seven out of ten patients have been screened for retinopathy, one in three had a neurological examination, and only one in four have all the scans recommended by the CPG.

11.
Semergen ; 46(2): 107-114, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395479

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hypotension and associated factors in hypertensive patients treated in the Primary Care setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive, and multicentre study was conducted with a total of 2635 general practitioners consecutively including 12,961 hypertensive patients treated in a Primary Care setting in Spain. An analysis was performed on the variables of age, gender, weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, dyslipidaemia, smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle), fasting plasma glucose, complete lipid profile, as well as the presence of target organ damage (left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, carotid atherosclerosis) and associated clinical conditions. Hypotension was defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 110mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure less than 70mmHg. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the variables associated with the presence of hypotension. RESULTS: The mean age was 66.2 years, and 51.7% of patients were women. The mean time of onset of hypertension was 9.1 years. A total of 13.1% of patients (95% confidence interval 12.4-13.6%) had hypotension, 95% of whom had low diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence of hypotension was higher in elderly patients (25.7%) and in those individuals with coronary heart disease (22.6%). The variables associated with the presence of hypotension included a history of cardiovascular disease, being treated with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, diabetes, and age. CONCLUSIONS: One out of 4-5 elderly patients, or those with cardiovascular disease, had hypotension. General practitioners should identify these patients in order to determine the causes and adjust treatment to avoid complications.

12.
Semergen ; 46(1): 4-15, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870705

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in Spain, and although the incidence rates have been declining for years due to improvements in prevention and treatment, there is still room for further reduction. Primary Care has a leading role in the prevention and control of these diseases. Determining the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in the Spanish adult population attended in Primary Care is the objective of the study to identify the Spanish population at cardiovascular and renal risk (IBERICAN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted using a consecutive non-probabilistic sampling population between 18 and 85 years that attended Primary Care centres between April 1, 2014 and October 31, 2018. By reviewing the medical history, laboratory results, and medical visits, the Primary Care physicians collected socio-demographic information, personal and family history of the patients, as well as prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular and renal disease. The incidents and associated factors will be estimated using proportional risk models of Cox and Kaplan-Meier Curves. RESULTS: A total of 8,066 patients have been recruited by 531 Primary Care physicians from all Autonomous Communities of Spain as part of the IBERICAN cohort, with the exception of Ceuta. The mean age of the cohort is 57.9 years with 54.5% women. Obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension are the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. There was a history of CVD in16.3%, and 25.5% had a subclinical organ lesion. CONCLUSION: The IBERICAN study is a cohort of people treated in Primary Care that expects to provide relevant information on the factors that determine the incidence of cardiovascular and renal disease in Spain.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Dislipidemias/complicaciones , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Incidencia , Enfermedades Renales/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 45(8): 528-534, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-189292

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Evaluar el riesgo de caídas y su relación con el policonsumo de fármacos en ancianos no institucionalizados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: El estudio PYCAF (Prevalencia Y Características del Anciano Frágil) es un estudio transversal, descriptivo y multicéntrico en pacientes > 65 años. Se consideró riesgo elevado de caídas cuando se tardó más de 20 s en realizar el test Timed Up and Go. Se consideró polimedicación el consumo entre 5 y 9 fármacos, y polimedicación extrema (PE) el consumo de 10 o más fármacos. Mediante modelos de regresión logística ajustados se valoró la asociación de la polimedicación y la PE con el riesgo de caídas. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 2.461 pacientes (57,9% mujeres), edad media +/- desviación estándar 76,0 +/- 7,0 años. El consumo medio de medicamentos fue de 6,6 +/- 3,7, rango 0-23. La polimedicación estaba presente en el 50,6% y la PE en el 19,2% de los pacientes. El 13,7% de los pacientes presentaron elevado riesgo de caídas. La prevalencia de riesgo elevado de caídas fue más de 2veces superior en los pacientes con PE (ORa = 2,07; IC del 95%, 1,27-3,38) y polimedicados (ORa =1,95; IC del 95%, 1,26-2,99). CONCLUSIONES: La polimedicación y la PE se asocian con un elevado riesgo de caídas en pacientes de más de 65 años. Debe valorarse el riesgo de caídas de los pacientes ancianos antes de prescribir medicación


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of falls and its relationship with the multiple drug use in the non-institutionalised elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PYCAF study (Prevalence and Characteristics of the Fragile Elderly) is a cross-sectional, descriptive and multicentre study in patients> 65 years of age. A fall was considered high risk when it took more than 20seconds to perform the Timed Up and Go test. Consuming between 5 and 9 drugs is considered multiple drug (MD) use, and extreme multiple drug (EMD) use the consumption of 10 or more drugs. Adjusted logistic regression models evaluated the association between multiple drug use and EMD and the risk of falls. RESULTS: A total of 2,461 patients (57.9% women), with a mean age (SD) 76.0 (+/- 7.0) years, were included in the study. The mean consumption of medications was 6.6 +/- 3.7, range 0-23. Multiple drug use was present in 50.6%, and EMD in 19.2% of patients. A high risk of falls was observed in 13.7% of patients. The prevalence of high risk of falls was more than 2times higher in patients with EMD (ORa = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.27 - 3.38) and MD (ORa = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.26 - 2.99). CONCLUSIONS: MD and EMD are associated with a high risk of falls in patients over 65 years of age. The risk of falls in elderly patients should be assessed before prescribing medication


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Polifarmacia , Estudios Transversales , Factores de Riesgo
15.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 45(6): 366-374, sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-188530

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Describir las características clínicas y sociosanitarias de los pacientes mayores de 65 años atendidos en consultas de atención primaria. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio PYCAF (Prevalencia Y Características del Anciano Frágil) es un estudio descriptivo, transversal y multicéntrico. Se incluyeron de manera consecutiva sujetos mayores de 65 años, atendidos en las consultas de atención primaria de toda España en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron un total de 2.461 pacientes (edad media de 76,0+/-6,9 años; 57,9% mujeres). La coexistencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y comorbilidades fue frecuente, siendo las más prevalentes: hipertensión arterial (73,7%), dislipidemia (58,3%), artrosis (56,4%), obesidad (34,0%) y diabetes (28,9%). El 13,4% de los pacientes tenían algún grado de deterioro cognitivo. Las mujeres mostraron un mayor grado de fragilidad (61,0% vs.51,8%; p < 0,001). El 47,4% de los pacientes tomaban más de 6 fármacos, siendo mayor el consumo en las mujeres (44,2% vs.49,8%; p = 0,047). El 49,5% de los pacientes realizaron más de 10 visitas a atención primaria, el 25,9% 4 o más visitas a atención especializada y un 22,3% estuvieron ingresados en el último año. CONCLUSIONES: El estudio PYCAF nos muestra que los pacientes ancianos tienen mayor prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas cardiovasculares y no cardiovasculares, lo que conduce a una elevada polimedicación. Esta última tiene consecuencias tanto en la seguridad del paciente como en los costes directos e indirectos sobre el Sistema Nacional de Salud que emanan de la asistencia al paciente mayor de 65 años. La prevalencia de fragilidad alcanza a la mitad de la muestra


OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and socio-sanitary characteristics of adults older than 65 years attended in a Primary Care setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PYCAF study (Prevalence and Characteristics of the Fragile Elderly) is a descriptive, cross-sectional and multicentre study, in which patients older than 65 years attended in clinical practice in Primary Care in Spain were consecutively included. RESULTS: A total of 2,461 patients (mean age 76.0+/-6.9 years, 57.9% women) were included in the study. The coexistence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities was frequent, with arterial hypertension (73.7%) being the most prevalent, followed by dyslipidaemia (58.3%), arthrosis (56.4%), obesity (34.0%), and diabetes (28.9%). Some degree of cognitive impairment was observed in 13.4% of patients. Women had higher rates of frailty (61.0% vs.51.8%; P<.001). Just under half (47.4%) of subjects were taking more than 6 drugs, with the prescription being higher in women (44.2% vs.49.8%; P=.047). Just under half (49.5%) of patients made more than 10 visits to Primary Care, 25.9% of patients 4 or more visits to the specialist, and 22.3% of patients were admitted to hospital in the last year. CONCLUSIONS: The PYCAF study shows that elderly patients have a higher prevalence of chronic cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases, which leads to high polypharmacy. The latter has consequences both on patient safety and on the direct and indirect costs of the National Health System that emanate from the care of patients over 65 years of age. Half the sample has fragility


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Polifarmacia , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales , Prevalencia , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología
16.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 45(6): 413-429, sept. 2019. tab, mapas
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-188536

RESUMEN

Los anticoagulantes orales de acción directa (ACOD) son fármacos que han demostrado tener un perfil de seguridad superior a los antivitaminaK (AVK). En España la prescripción de los ACOD está subordinada a un visado de inspección que recoge las condiciones clínicas definidas en el Informe de Posicionamiento Terapéutico (IPT) de la Agencia Española del Medicamento del año 2013, actualizado en 2016. Estas recomendaciones no coinciden con las de la Sociedad Europea de Cardiología (2016), limitando el uso de ACOD a un tratamiento de segunda línea en la mayoría de los casos. Además, el IPT se aplica de manera distinta en las comunidades autónomas e incluso en las áreas sanitarias, lo que origina una gran variabilidad en las condiciones de prescripción, generando desigualdades territoriales en la accesibilidad a estos fármacos por parte de los pacientes. La eliminación del visado y la adecuación de la prescripción a las recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica son dos aspectos clave para neutralizar las actuales barreras administrativas y clínicas para el uso eficiente de los ACOD en atención primaria (AP). SEMERGEN apuesta por el refuerzo de la formación clínica del médico de AP y la alianza con los pacientes para promover la concienciación y el conocimiento de la fibrilación auricular


The direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are drugs that have been shown to have a safety profile superior to the vitaminK antagonists (VKA). The prescribing of DOACs in Spain is subject to approval in the form of an inspection visa. This sets out the clinical conditions defined in the Spanish Medicines Agency Therapeutic Positioning Report (TPR) of 2013, updated in 2016. These recommendations do not coincide with those of the European Cardiology Society (2016), restricting the use of DOACs to a second-line treatment in the majority of cases. Furthermore, this TPR is applied differently in the Regional Autonomous Communities and even in different health areas. This leads to a wide variation in the prescribing conditions, causing territorial inequalities in accessibility to these drugs by patients. The removal of the visa, and the appropriateness of the prescription to the recommendations of the Clinical Practice guidelines are key aspects to neutralise the current administrative and clinical barriers for the efficient use of DOACs in Primary Care. SEMERGEN supports the boosting of the clinical training and alliance with the patients in order to promote awareness and knowledge of atrial fibrillation


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Anticoagulantes/administración & dosificación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Atención Primaria de Salud , Administración Oral , Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inhibidores , Sociedades Médicas , España
17.
Semergen ; 45(8): 528-534, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402100

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of falls and its relationship with the multiple drug use in the non-institutionalised elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PYCAF study (Prevalence and Characteristics of the Fragile Elderly) is a cross-sectional, descriptive and multicentre study in patients> 65 years of age. A fall was considered high risk when it took more than 20seconds to perform the Timed Up and Go test. Consuming between 5 and 9 drugs is considered multiple drug (MD) use, and extreme multiple drug (EMD) use the consumption of 10 or more drugs. Adjusted logistic regression models evaluated the association between multiple drug use and EMD and the risk of falls. RESULTS: A total of 2,461 patients (57.9% women), with a mean age (SD) 76.0 (± 7.0) years, were included in the study. The mean consumption of medications was 6.6 ± 3.7, range 0-23. Multiple drug use was present in 50.6%, and EMD in 19.2% of patients. A high risk of falls was observed in 13.7% of patients. The prevalence of high risk of falls was more than 2times higher in patients with EMD (ORa = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.27 - 3.38) and MD (ORa = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.26 - 2.99). CONCLUSIONS: MD and EMD are associated with a high risk of falls in patients over 65 years of age. The risk of falls in elderly patients should be assessed before prescribing medication.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Polifarmacia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
18.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 45(5): 311-322, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-188088

RESUMEN

OBJETIVOS: Analizar la prevalencia de obesidad y su asociación con otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular y la enfermedad cardiovascular en una muestra de pacientes del estudio IBERICAN. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Análisis de la visita de inclusión de los primeros 5.013 individuos reclutados del estudio IBERICAN, estudio longitudinal, observacional y multicéntrico en el que se están incluyendo individuos de 18 a 85 años en las consultas de Atención Primaria en las diferentes comunidades autónomas de España. En este trabajo se definió la obesidad como índice de masa corporal ≥ 30 kg/m2. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de obesidad fue del 35,7% (IC 95%: 35,0-36,4%), 36,6% en varones y 34,9% en mujeres (p = 0,214), que se incrementa con la edad de manera significativa (p < 0,001). Los obesos presentaron, respecto a los no obesos, mayor prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (62,8 vs. 39,4%; p < 0,001), dislipidemia (56,9 vs. 47,1%; p < 0,001), sedentarismo (40,6 vs. 24,6%; p < 0,001), diabetes mellitus (27,5 vs. 14,8%; p < 0,001), hiperuricemia (23,6 vs. 12,7%; p < 0,001), lesión subclínica de órgano (33,7 vs. 26,5%; p <0,001) y enfermedad cardiovascular (21,2 vs. 15,3%; p < 0,001). El análisis multivariante mostró que las variables asociadas con la obesidad fueron: hipertensión arterial (p < 0,001), hiperuricemia (p < 0,001), sedentarismo (p < 0,001), diabetes mellitus (p < 0,001), edad (p <0,001), bajo nivel educativo (p < 0,001) y menor consumo de tabaco (p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: El análisis del estudio IBERICAN muestra que aproximadamente una tercera parte de la población analizada cumple criterios de obesidad y que los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, lesión en órganos diana y enfermedad cardiovascular eran más frecuentes en los obesos


OBJECTIVES: To analyse the prevalence of obesity and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease in a sample of patients from the (Identification of the Spanish population at cardiovascular and renal risk) IBERICAN study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of the inclusion visit of the first 5,013 patients of the IBERICAN longitudinal, observational, and multicentre study in which individuals aged 18 to 85 years were included in Primary Care Clinics in the different regions of Spain. In this work obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity was 35.7% (95% CI: 35.0-36.4%), of which 36.6% were men and 34.9% were women (P = 0.214), and significantly increasing with age (0.001). The obesity had the associated higher prevalence of hypertension (62.8% vs. 39.4%, P < 001), dyslipidaemia (56.9% vs. 47.1%, P <0.001), sedentary lifestyle (40.6% vs. 24.6%, P <.001), diabetes (27.5% vs. 14.8%, P <.001), hyperuricaemia (23.6% vs. 12.7%, P <.001), subclinical organ injury (33.7% vs. 26.5%, P < .001) and cardiovascular disease (21.2% vs. 15.3%, P <.001). The multivariate analysis showed that the variables associated with obesity were: arterial hypertension (P <.001), hyperuricemia (P < .001), sedentary lifestyle (P < .001), diabetes mellitus (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), low educational level (P < 0.001) and lower consumption of tobacco (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the IBERICAN study shows that approximately one third of the analysed population meets criteria of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Target organ damage and cardiovascular disease were more frequent in obese patients


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , España/epidemiología
19.
Semergen ; 45(6): 413-429, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331766

RESUMEN

The direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are drugs that have been shown to have a safety profile superior to the vitaminK antagonists (VKA). The prescribing of DOACs in Spain is subject to approval in the form of an inspection visa. This sets out the clinical conditions defined in the Spanish Medicines Agency Therapeutic Positioning Report (TPR) of 2013, updated in 2016. These recommendations do not coincide with those of the European Cardiology Society (2016), restricting the use of DOACs to a second-line treatment in the majority of cases. Furthermore, this TPR is applied differently in the Regional Autonomous Communities and even in different health areas. This leads to a wide variation in the prescribing conditions, causing territorial inequalities in accessibility to these drugs by patients. The removal of the visa, and the appropriateness of the prescription to the recommendations of the Clinical Practice guidelines are key aspects to neutralise the current administrative and clinical barriers for the efficient use of DOACs in Primary Care. SEMERGEN supports the boosting of the clinical training and alliance with the patients in order to promote awareness and knowledge of atrial fibrillation.


Asunto(s)
Anticoagulantes/administración & dosificación , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Atención Primaria de Salud , Administración Oral , Anticoagulantes/efectos adversos , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Fibrilación Atrial/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , España , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inhibidores
20.
SEMERGEN, Soc. Esp. Med. Rural Gen. (Ed. Impr.) ; 45(4): 251-272, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-188077

RESUMEN

Parece necesario que las sociedades científicas de AP, ámbito en el cual la prevalencia de HTA es considerable, evalúen periódicamente las directrices internacionales para el manejo de la HTA, sobre todo ante recomendaciones dispares que dificultan la toma de decisiones, en la práctica clínica diaria. El presente documento tiene como objetivo analizar los cambios y novedades propuestos en la guía del American College of Cardiology y de la American Heart Association (ACC/AHA 2017) y en la guía de la European Society of Cardiology y de la European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH 2018). Además, analizar las posibles diferencias, limitaciones y su aplicabilidad a la AP de España. En definitiva, se trata de extraer la información más relevante disponible y pertinente, e integrarla para homogeneizar la asistencia al paciente hipertenso desde una perspectiva crítica, pero también razonada. Las discrepancias entre ambas GPC en aspectos tan trascendentales como el manejo de la enfermedad obligan a la recopilación y análisis crítico de la información que nos permita tomar posición como sociedad científica, interesada en trasladar a todos los médicos de AP las recomendaciones más relevantes, pero a la vez sensatas, de ambas GPC


The Scientific Societies of Primary Care, being the area in which there is a considerable prevalence of Arterial Hypertension (AHT), need to periodically evaluate the international guidelines for its management. This is particularly relevant when disparate guidelines make it difficult to make decisions in daily clinical practice. The present document has as its aim to analyse the changes and new developments proposed in the guidelines of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA 2017), as well as in the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH 2018). An analysis will be made of any differences, limitations, and their applicability to Primary Care in Spain. Finally, the most relevant available and appropriate information is extracted and integrated in order to homogenise the care of the hypertensive patient, from a critical, but also a reasoned, perspective. The discrepancies between the recommendations in such essential aspects as the management of the disease, require the compiling and critical analysis of the information that enables us as scientific society, interested in providing all PC physicians with the most relevant, and at the same time, sensible, recommendations of all the guidelines


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Hipertensión/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Médicos de Atención Primaria/organización & administración , Sociedades Médicas , España
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