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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 705182, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970537

RESUMEN

Atxn10 is a gene known for its role in cytokinesis and is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA10), a slowly progressing cerebellar syndrome caused by an intragenic pentanucleotide repeat expansion. Atxn10 is also implicated in the ciliopathy syndromes nephronophthisis (NPHP) and Joubert syndrome (JBTS), which are caused by the disruption of cilia function leading to nephron loss, impaired renal function, and cerebellar hypoplasia. How Atxn10 disruption contributes to these disorders remains unknown. Here, we generated Atxn10 congenital and conditional mutant mouse models. Our data indicate that while ATXN10 protein can be detected around the base of the cilium as well as in the cytosol, its loss does not cause overt changes in cilia formation or morphology. Congenital loss of Atxn10 results in embryonic lethality around E10.5 associated with pericardial effusion and loss of trabeculation. Similarly, tissue-specific loss of ATXN10 in the developing endothelium (Tie2-Cre) and myocardium (cTnT-Cre) also results in embryonic lethality with severe cardiac malformations occurring in the latter. Using an inducible Cagg-CreER to disrupt ATXN10 systemically at postnatal stages, we show that ATXN10 is also required for survival in adult mice. Loss of ATXN10 results in severe pancreatic and renal abnormalities leading to lethality within a few weeks post ATXN10 deletion in adult mice. Evaluation of these phenotypes further identified rapid epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these tissues. In the pancreas, the phenotype includes signs of both acinar to ductal metaplasia and EMT with aberrant cilia formation and severe defects in glucose homeostasis related to pancreatic insufficiency or defects in feeding or nutrient intake. Collectively, this study identifies ATXN10 as an essential protein for survival.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(3-4): 234-246, 2021 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560420

RESUMEN

Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling compartments present on most mammalian cell types. These specialized structures require a unique signaling protein composition relative to the rest of the cell to carry out their functions. Defects in ciliary structure and signaling result in a broad group of disorders collectively known as ciliopathies. One ciliopathy, Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS; OMIM 209900), presents with diverse clinical features, many of which are attributed to defects in ciliary signaling during both embryonic development and postnatal life. For example, patients exhibit obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, developmental delay and skeletal abnormalities along with sensory and cognitive deficits, but for many of these phenotypes it is uncertain, which are developmental in origin. A subset of BBS proteins assembles into the core BBSome complex, which is responsible for mediating transport of membrane proteins into and out of the cilium, establishing it as a sensory and signaling hub. Here, we describe two new mouse models for BBS resulting from a targeted LacZ gene trap allele (Bbs5-/-) that is a predicted congenital null mutation and conditional (Bbs5flox/flox) allele of Bbs5. Bbs5-/- mice develop a complex phenotype consisting of increased pre-weaning lethality craniofacial and skeletal defects, ventriculomegaly, infertility and pituitary anomalies. Utilizing the conditional allele, we show that the male fertility defects, ventriculomegaly and pituitary abnormalities are only present when Bbs5 is disrupted prior to postnatal day 7, indicating a developmental origin. In contrast, mutation of Bbs5 results in obesity, independent of the age of Bbs5 loss.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/metabolismo , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/genética , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Mutación , Proteínas de Unión a Fosfato/genética , Hipófisis/anomalías , Animales , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/patología , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/fisiopatología , Proteínas del Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Fenotipo , Proteínas de Unión a Fosfato/metabolismo , Hipófisis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hipófisis/metabolismo
3.
Neuroscience ; 455: 195-211, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346120

RESUMEN

Synapse or dendritic spine loss is the strongest correlate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), but not amyloid-ß plaques, associate more closely with transition to mild cognitive impairment. Yet, how dendritic spine architecture is affected by hyperphosphorylated tau is still an ongoing question. To address this, we combined cell and biochemical analyses of the Tau P301S mouse line (PS19). Individual pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were targeted for iontophoretic microinjection of fluorescent dye, followed by high-resolution confocal microscopy and 3D morphometry analysis. In the hippocampus, PS19 mice and non-transgenic (NTG) littermates displayed equivalent spine density at 6 and 9 months, but both genotypes exhibited age-related thin spine loss. PS19 mice exhibited significant increases in synaptic tau protein levels and mean dendritic spine head diameter with age. This suggests that CA1 pyramidal neurons in PS19 mice may undergo spine remodeling in response to tau accumulation and age. In the mPFC, spine density was similar among PS19 mice and NTG littermates at 6 and 9 months, but age-related reductions in synaptic tau levels were observed among PS19 mice. Collectively, these studies reveal brain region-specific changes in dendritic spine density and morphology in response to age and the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau in the PS19 mouse line.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Espinas Dendríticas , Tauopatías , Proteínas tau , Animales , Espinas Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Transgénicos , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
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