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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(3): 033602, 2022 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119876

RESUMEN

We demonstrate how the presence of continuous weak symmetry can be used to analytically diagonalize the Liouvillian of a class of Markovian dissipative systems with strong interactions or nonlinearity. This enables an exact description of the full dynamics and dissipative spectrum. Our method can be viewed as implementing an exact, sector-dependent mean-field decoupling, or alternatively, as a kind of quantum-to-classical mapping. We focus on two canonical examples: a nonlinear bosonic mode subject to incoherent loss and pumping, and an inhomogeneous quantum Ising model with arbitrary connectivity and local dissipation. In both cases, we calculate and analyze the full dissipation spectrum. Our method is applicable to a variety of other systems, and could provide a powerful new tool for the study of complex driven-dissipative quantum systems.

2.
Sci Adv ; 7(48): eabj1916, 2021 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826241

RESUMEN

We present a mechanism that harnesses extremely weak Kerr-type nonlinearities in a single driven cavity to deterministically generate single-photon Fock states and more general photon-blockaded states. Our method is effective even for nonlinearities that are orders-of-magnitude smaller than photonic loss. It is also completely distinct from so-called unconventional photon blockade mechanisms, as the generated states are non-Gaussian, exhibit a sharp cutoff in their photon number distribution, and can be arbitrarily close to a single-photon Fock state. Our ideas require only standard linear and parametric drives and are hence compatible with a variety of different photonic platforms.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(20): 203601, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258660

RESUMEN

Spin-spin interactions generated by a detuned cavity are a standard mechanism for generating highly entangled spin squeezed states. We show here how introducing a weak detuned parametric (two-photon) drive on the cavity provides a powerful means for controlling the form of the induced interactions. Without a drive, the induced interactions cannot generate Heisenberg-limited spin squeezing, but a weak optimized drive gives rise to an ideal two-axis twist interaction and Heisenberg-limited squeezing. Parametric driving is also advantageous in regimes limited by dissipation, and enables an alternate adiabatic scheme which can prepare optimally squeezed, Dicke-like states. Our scheme is compatible with a number of platforms, including solid-state systems where spin ensembles are coupled to superconducting quantum circuits or mechanical modes.

4.
Nature ; 568(7750): 65-69, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944494

RESUMEN

Mechanical resonators are important components of devices that range from gravitational wave detectors to cellular telephones. They serve as high-performance transducers, sensors and filters by offering low dissipation, tunable coupling to diverse physical systems, and compatibility with a wide range of frequencies, materials and fabrication processes. Systems of mechanical resonators typically obey reciprocity, which ensures that the phonon transmission coefficient between any two resonators is independent of the direction of transmission1,2. Reciprocity must be broken to realize devices (such as isolators and circulators) that provide one-way propagation of acoustic energy between resonators. Such devices are crucial for protecting active elements, mitigating noise and operating full-duplex transceivers. Until now, nonreciprocal phononic devices3-11 have not simultaneously combined the features necessary for robust operation: strong nonreciprocity, in situ tunability, compact integration and continuous operation. Furthermore, they have been applied only to coherent signals (rather than fluctuations or noise), and have been realized exclusively in travelling-wave systems (rather than resonators). Here we describe a scheme that uses the standard cavity-optomechanical interaction to produce robust nonreciprocal coupling between phononic resonators. This scheme provides about 30 decibels of isolation in continuous operation and can be tuned in situ simply via the phases of the drive tones applied to the cavity. In addition, by directly monitoring the dynamics of the resonators we show that this nonreciprocity can control thermal fluctuations, and that this control represents a way to cool phononic resonators.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(9): 090502, 2019 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932510

RESUMEN

We demonstrate the use of shortcuts to adiabaticity protocols for initialization, read-out, and coherent control of dressed states generated by closed-contour, coherent driving of a single spin. Such dressed states have recently been shown to exhibit efficient coherence protection, beyond what their two-level counterparts can offer. Our state transfer protocols yield a transfer fidelity of ∼99.4(2)% while accelerating the transfer speed by a factor of 2.6 compared to the adiabatic approach. We show bidirectionality of the accelerated state transfer, which we employ for direct dressed state population read-out after coherent manipulation in the dressed state manifold. Our results enable direct and efficient access to coherence-protected dressed states of individual spins and thereby offer attractive avenues for applications in quantum information processing or quantum sensing.

6.
Nature ; 556(7702): 478-482, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695847

RESUMEN

Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon whereby systems cannot be described independently of each other, even though they may be separated by an arbitrarily large distance 1 . Entanglement has a solid theoretical and experimental foundation and is the key resource behind many emerging quantum technologies, including quantum computation, cryptography and metrology. Entanglement has been demonstrated for microscopic-scale systems, such as those involving photons2-5, ions 6 and electron spins 7 , and more recently in microwave and electromechanical devices8-10. For macroscopic-scale objects8-14, however, it is very vulnerable to environmental disturbances, and the creation and verification of entanglement of the centre-of-mass motion of macroscopic-scale objects remains an outstanding goal. Here we report such an experimental demonstration, with the moving bodies being two massive micromechanical oscillators, each composed of about 10 12 atoms, coupled to a microwave-frequency electromagnetic cavity that is used to create and stabilize the entanglement of their centre-of-mass motion15-17. We infer the existence of entanglement in the steady state by combining measurements of correlated mechanical fluctuations with an analysis of the microwaves emitted from the cavity. Our work qualitatively extends the range of entangled physical systems and has implications for quantum information processing, precision measurements and tests of the limits of quantum mechanics.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(9): 093602, 2018 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547301

RESUMEN

We present and analyze a method where parametric (two-photon) driving of a cavity is used to exponentially enhance the light-matter coupling in a generic cavity QED setup, with time-dependent control. Our method allows one to enhance weak-coupling systems, such that they enter the strong coupling regime (where the coupling exceeds dissipative rates) and even the ultrastrong coupling regime (where the coupling is comparable to the cavity frequency). As an example, we show how the scheme allows one to use a weak-coupling system to adiabatically prepare the highly entangled ground state of the ultrastrong coupling system. The resulting state could be used for remote entanglement applications.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(4): 040505, 2018 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29437450

RESUMEN

Microwave squeezing represents the ultimate sensitivity frontier for superconducting qubit measurement. However, measurement enhancement has remained elusive, in part because integration with standard dispersive readout pollutes the signal channel with antisqueezed noise. Here we induce a stroboscopic light-matter coupling with superior squeezing compatibility, and observe an increase in the final signal-to-noise ratio of 24%. Squeezing the orthogonal phase slows measurement-induced dephasing by a factor of 1.8. This scheme provides a means to the practical application of squeezing for qubit measurement.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(14): 140401, 2016 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27740800

RESUMEN

The standard quantum limit constrains the precision of an oscillator position measurement. It arises from a balance between the imprecision and the quantum backaction of the measurement. However, a measurement of only a single quadrature of the oscillator can evade the backaction and be made with arbitrary precision. Here we demonstrate quantum backaction evading measurements of a collective quadrature of two mechanical oscillators, both coupled to a common microwave cavity. The work allows for quantum state tomography of two mechanical oscillators, and provides a foundation for macroscopic mechanical entanglement and force sensing beyond conventional quantum limits.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(10): 100801, 2016 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636463

RESUMEN

We use a reservoir engineering technique based on two-tone driving to generate and stabilize a quantum squeezed state of a micron-scale mechanical oscillator in a microwave optomechanical system. Using an independent backaction-evading measurement to directly quantify the squeezing, we observe 4.7±0.9 dB of squeezing below the zero-point level surpassing the 3 dB limit of standard parametric squeezing techniques. Our measurements also reveal evidence for an additional mechanical parametric effect. The interplay between this effect and the optomechanical interaction enhances the amount of squeezing obtained in the experiment.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(1): 013603, 2016 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26799019

RESUMEN

The Keldysh-ordered full counting statistics is a quasiprobability distribution describing the fluctuations of a time-integrated quantum observable. While it is well known that this distribution can fail to be positive, the interpretation and origin of this negativity has been somewhat unclear. Here, we show how the full counting statistics can be tied to trajectories through Hilbert space, and how this directly connects negative quasiprobabilities to an unusual interference effect. Our findings are illustrated with the example of energy fluctuations in a driven bosonic resonator; we discuss how negative quasiprobability here could be detected experimentally using superconducting microwave circuits.

12.
Science ; 349(6251): 952-5, 2015 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315431

RESUMEN

According to quantum mechanics, a harmonic oscillator can never be completely at rest. Even in the ground state, its position will always have fluctuations, called the zero-point motion. Although the zero-point fluctuations are unavoidable, they can be manipulated. Using microwave frequency radiation pressure, we have manipulated the thermal fluctuations of a micrometer-scale mechanical resonator to produce a stationary quadrature-squeezed state with a minimum variance of 0.80 times that of the ground state. We also performed phase-sensitive, back-action evading measurements of a thermal state squeezed to 1.09 times the zero-point level. Our results are relevant to the quantum engineering of states of matter at large length scales, the study of decoherence of large quantum systems, and for the realization of ultrasensitive sensing of force and motion.

13.
Nat Commun ; 5: 5562, 2014 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424422

RESUMEN

Among the most exciting recent advances in the field of superconducting quantum circuits is the ability to coherently couple microwave photons in low-loss cavities to quantum electronic conductors. These hybrid quantum systems hold great promise for quantum information-processing applications; even more strikingly, they enable exploration of new physical regimes. Here we study theoretically the new physics emerging when a quantum electronic conductor is exposed to nonclassical microwaves (for example, squeezed states, Fock states). We study this interplay in the experimentally relevant situation where a superconducting microwave cavity is coupled to a conductor in the tunnelling regime. We find that the conductor acts as a nontrivial probe of the microwave state: the emission and absorption of photons by the conductor is characterized by a nonpositive definite quasi-probability distribution, which is related to the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function of quantum optics. These negative quasi-probabilities have a direct influence on the conductance of the conductor.

14.
Science ; 344(6189): 1262-5, 2014 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24831528

RESUMEN

Quantum fluctuations of the light field used for continuous position detection produce stochastic back-action forces and ultimately limit the sensitivity. To overcome this limit, the back-action forces can be avoided by giving up complete knowledge of the motion, and these types of measurements are called "back-action evading" or "quantum nondemolition" detection. We present continuous two-tone back-action evading measurements with a superconducting electromechanical device, realizing three long-standing goals: detection of back-action forces due to the quantum noise of a microwave field, reduction of this quantum back-action noise by 8.5 ± 0.4 decibels (dB), and measurement imprecision of a single quadrature of motion 2.4 ± 0.7 dB below the mechanical zero-point fluctuations. Measurements of this type will find utility in ultrasensitive measurements of weak forces and nonclassical states of motion.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(13): 133904, 2014 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24745423

RESUMEN

We describe a new kind of phase-preserving quantum amplifier which utilizes dissipative interactions in a parametrically coupled three-mode bosonic system. The use of dissipative interactions provides a fundamental advantage over standard cavity-based parametric amplifiers: large photon number gains are possible with quantum-limited added noise, with no limitation on the gain-bandwidth product. We show that the scheme is simple enough to be implemented both in optomechanical systems and in superconducting microwave circuits.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(12): 123602, 2012 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23005947

RESUMEN

We analyze the use of a driven nonlinear cavity to make a weak continuous measurement of a dispersively coupled qubit. We calculate the backaction dephasing rate and measurement rate beyond leading-order perturbation theory using a phase-space approach which accounts for cavity noise squeezing. Surprisingly, we find that increasing the coupling strength beyond the regime describable by leading-order perturbation theory (i.e., linear response) allows one to come significantly closer to the quantum limit on the measurement efficiency. We interpret this behavior in terms of the non-Gaussian photon number fluctuations of the nonlinear cavity. Our results are relevant to recent experiments using superconducting microwave circuits to study quantum measurement.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 109(25): 253601, 2012 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23368459

RESUMEN

In the past few years, coupling strengths between light and mechanical motion in optomechanical setups have improved by orders of magnitude. Here we show that, in the standard setup under continuous laser illumination, the steady state of the mechanical oscillator can develop a nonclassical, strongly negative Wigner density if the optomechanical coupling is comparable to or larger than the optical decay rate and the mechanical frequency. Because of its robustness, such a Wigner density can be mapped using optical homodyne tomography. This feature is observed near the onset of the instability towards self-induced oscillations. We show that there are also distinct signatures in the photon-photon correlation function g(2)(t) in that regime, including oscillations decaying on a time scale not only much longer than the optical cavity decay time but even longer than the mechanical decay time.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(21): 213603, 2010 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867097

RESUMEN

We provide a full quantum mechanical analysis of a weak energy measurement of a driven mechanical resonator. We demonstrate that measurements too weak to resolve individual mechanical Fock states can nonetheless be used to detect the nonclassical energy fluctuations of the driven mechanical resonator, i.e., "phonon shot noise". We also show that the third moment of the oscillator's energy fluctuations provides a far more sensitive probe of quantum effects than the second moment, and that measuring the third moment via the phase shift of light in an optomechanical setup directly yields the type of operator ordering postulated in the theory of full-counting statistics.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(18): 186803, 2010 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20482197

RESUMEN

We study theoretically transitions of a double quantum-dot qubit caused by nonequilibrium charge fluctuations in a nearby quantum point contact (QPC) used as a detector. We show that these transitions are related to the fundamental Heisenberg backaction associated with the measurement, and use the uncertainty principle to derive a lower bound on the transition rates. We also derive simple expressions for the transition rates for the usual model of a QPC as a mesoscopic conductor, with screening treated at the RPA level. Finally, numerical results are presented which demonstrate that the charge noise and shot noise backaction mechanisms can be distinguished in QPCs having nonadiabatic potentials. The enhanced sensitivity of the charge noise to the QPC potential is explained in terms of interference contributions similar to those which cause Friedel oscillations.

20.
Nature ; 463(7277): 72-5, 2010 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20010604

RESUMEN

Cold, macroscopic mechanical systems are expected to behave contrary to our usual classical understanding of reality; the most striking and counterintuitive predictions involve the existence of states in which the mechanical system is located in two places simultaneously. Various schemes have been proposed to generate and detect such states, and all require starting from mechanical states that are close to the lowest energy eigenstate, the mechanical ground state. Here we report the cooling of the motion of a radio-frequency nanomechanical resonator by parametric coupling to a driven, microwave-frequency superconducting resonator. Starting from a thermal occupation of 480 quanta, we have observed occupation factors as low as 3.8 +/- 1.3 and expect the mechanical resonator to be found with probability 0.21 in the quantum ground state of motion. Further cooling is limited by random excitation of the microwave resonator and heating of the dissipative mechanical bath. This level of cooling is expected to make possible a series of fundamental quantum mechanical observations including direct measurement of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and quantum entanglement with qubits.

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