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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 839, 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183254

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem in Togo and transmission to the child occurs mainly during childbirth. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV among childbearing women and infants born to HBV positive mothers in Togo. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study was carried out in six cities in Togo in the six health regions in Togo. Mother-child pairs were recruited from immunization centers or pediatric wards in Lomé, Tsévié, Atakpamé, Sokodé, Kara and Dapaong in 2017. Women aged 18 and over with one child of at least 6 months old were included. A standardized questionnaire was used for data collection and HBV screening was performed using Determine® rapid tests. The prevalence of HBV, defined by a positive HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), was estimated in mothers and then in infants of mothers who were positive for HBsAg. Logistic regression model was performed to identify risk factors for HBsAg positivity in mothers. RESULTS: A total of 2105 mothers-pairs child were recruited. The median age of mothers and infants was 29 years, interquartile range (IQR) [25-33] and 2.1 years, IQR [1-3] respectively. About 35% of women were screened for HBV during antenatal care and 85% of infants received three doses of HBV immunization. Among mothers, the prevalence of HBV was 10.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [9.4-12.0%], and 177 had detectable HBV viral load (> 10 IU/mL). Among mothers with positive HBsAg, three infants also had positive HBsAg, a prevalence of 1.3, 95% CI [0.2-3.8%]. In multivariable analysis, HIV-infection (aOR = 2.19; p = 0.018), having at least three pregnancies (aOR = 1.46; p = 0.025) and living in Tsévié (aOR = 0.31; p < 0.001) compared to those living in Lomé, were associated to HBV infection in mothers. CONCLUSION: In this study, one out of 10 childbearing women were infected with HBV, but less than 2% of infant born to HBV positive mothers under 5 years' old who received immunization under the Expanded Program on Immunization were infected. Improving antenatal screening and providing targeted interventions in babies could help eliminate HBV in Togo.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Vacunación , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Hepatitis B/virología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Atención Prenatal , Prevalencia , Togo/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236642, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756581

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The long-term prognosis of HIV-2-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is still challenging, due to the intrinsic resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and the suboptimal response to some protease inhibitors (PI). The objective was to describe the 5-years outcomes among HIV-2 patients harboring drug-resistant viruses. METHODS: A clinic-based cohort of HIV-2-patients experiencing virologic failure, with at least one drug resistance mutation was followed from January 2012 to August 2017 in Côte d'Ivoire. Follow-up data included death, lost to follow-up (LTFU), immuno-virological responses. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 31 HIV-2 patients with virologic failure and with at least one drug resistance mutation were included. Two-third of them were men, 28(90.3%) were on PI-based ART-regimen at enrolment and the median age was 50 years (IQR = 46-54). The median baseline CD4 count and viral load were 456 cells/mm3 and 3.7 log10 c/mL respectively, and the participants have been followed-up in median 57 months (IQR = 24-60). During this period, 21 (67.7%) patients switched at least one antiretroviral drug, including two (6.5%) and three (9.7%) who switched to a PI-based and an integrase inhibitor-based regimen respectively. A total of 10(32.3%) patients died and 4(12.9%) were LTFU. The 36 and 60-months survival rates were 68.5% and 64.9%, respectively. Among the 17 patients remaining in care, six(35.3%) had an undetectable viral load (<50 c/mL) and for the 11 others, the viral load ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 log10 c/mL. Twelve patients were receiving lopinavir at the time of first genotype, five(42%) had a genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) ≤1 and 4(33%) a GSS >2. CONCLUSIONS: The 36-months survival rate among ART-experienced HIV-2 patients with drug-resistant viruses is below 70%,lower than in HIV-1. There is urgent need to improve access to second-line ART for patients living with HIV-2 in West Africa.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/efectos adversos , Farmacorresistencia Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-2/genética , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/administración & dosificación , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Antirretrovirales/administración & dosificación , Antirretrovirales/efectos adversos , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/genética , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/administración & dosificación , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/efectos adversos , VIH-2/efectos de los fármacos , VIH-2/patogenicidad , Humanos , Lopinavir/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Ritonavir/administración & dosificación , Ritonavir/efectos adversos , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Carga Viral/genética
3.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(11): e13741, 2019 11 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719023

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of mobile technology in health care (mobile health [mHealth]) could be an innovative way to improve health care, especially for increasing retention in HIV care and adherence to treatment. However, there is a scarcity of studies on mHealth among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in West and Central Africa. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability of an mHealth intervention among PLHIV in three countries of West Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among PLHIV was conducted in 2017 in three francophone West African countries: Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, and Togo. PLHIV followed in the six preselected HIV treatment and care centers, completed a standardized questionnaire on mobile phone possession, acceptability of mobile phone for HIV care and treatment, preference of mobile phone services, and phone sharing. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe variables and assess factors associated with mHealth acceptability. RESULTS: A total of 1131 PLHIV-643 from Côte d'Ivoire, 239 from Togo, and 249 from Burkina Faso-participated in the study. Median age was 44 years, and 76.1% were women (n=861). Almost all participants owned a mobile phone (n=1107, 97.9%), and 12.6% (n=140) shared phones with a third party. Acceptability of mHealth was 98.8%, with the majority indicating their preference for both phone calls and text messages. Factors associated with mHealth acceptability were having a primary school education or no education (adjusted odds ratio=7.15, 95% CI 5.05-10.12; P<.001) and waiting over one hour before meeting a medical doctor on appointment day (adjusted odds ratio=1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.62; P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: The use of mHealth in HIV treatment and care is highly acceptable among PLHIV and should be considered a viable tool to allow West and Central African countries to achieve the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 goals.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/normas , Calidad de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Togo/epidemiología
4.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21(12): e25202, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549445

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption leads to unfavourable outcomes in people living with HIV (PLHIV), including reduced adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and engagement into care. However, there is limited information on alcohol consumption patterns among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional approach, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) was administered to PLHIV attending HIV clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Senegal and Zambia (2013 to 2015). Hazardous drinking was defined as an AUDIT-C score ≥4 for men or ≥3 for women, and binge drinking as ≥6 drinks at least once per month. The prevalence of binge drinking was compared to estimates from the general population using data from the World Health Organization. Factors associated with binge drinking among persons declaring any alcohol use in the past year were assessed using a logistic regression model to estimate odds ratio (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Among 1824 PLHIV (median age 39 years, 62.8% female), the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use ranged from 0.9% in Senegal to 38.4% in Zambia. The prevalence of binge drinking ranged from 14.3% among drinkers in Senegal to 81.8% in Zambia, with higher estimates among PLHIV than in the general population. Male sex (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.7), tobacco use (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9) and living in Zambia were associated with binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption patterns varied widely across settings and binge drinking was more frequent in HIV-positive individuals compared to the general population. Interventions to reduce excessive alcohol use are urgently needed to optimize adherence in the era of universal ART.


Asunto(s)
Borrachera/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia
5.
HIV AIDS (Auckl) ; 10: 239-252, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532600

RESUMEN

Background: Reporting mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) by age is essential as older HIV-positive patients might be at risk of long-term effects of living with HIV and/or taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). As age effects might not be linear and might impact HIV outcomes in the oldest more severely, people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged 50-59 years and PLHIV aged >60 years were considered separately. Setting: Seventeen adult HIV/AIDS clinics spread over nine countries in West Africa. Methods: Data were collected within the International Epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS West Africa Collaboration. ART-naïve PLHIV-1 adults aged >16 years initiating ART and attending ≥2 clinic visits were included (N=73,525). Age was divided into five groups: 16-29/30-39/40-49/50-59/≥60 years. The age effect on mortality and LTFU was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results: At month 36, 5.9% of the patients had died and 47.3% were LTFU. Patients aged ≥60 (N=1,736) and between 50-59 years old (N=6,792) had an increased risk of death in the first 36 months on ART (adjusted hazard ratio=1.66; 95% CI: 1.36-2.03 and adjusted hazard ratio=1.31; 95% CI: 1.15-1.49, respectively; reference: <30 years old). Patients ≥60 years old tend to be more often LTFU. Conclusion: The oldest PLHIV presented the poorest outcomes, suggesting that the PLHIV aged >50 years old should not be considered as a unique group irrespective of their age. Tailored programs focusing on improving the care services for older PLHIV in Sub-Saharan Africa are clearly needed to improve basic program outcomes.

7.
J Public Health Afr ; 9(2): 871, 2018 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687482

RESUMEN

Little is known on the impact of HIV-2 infection on HCV viral replication. The aim of the study was to compare HCV prevalence and viral replication based on HIV types in West Africa. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the IeDEA HIV-2 West Africa cohort from March to December 2012. All HIVinfected adult patients who attended participating HIV clinics during the study period were included. Blood samples were collected and re-tested for HIV type discrimination, HCV serology and viral load. A total of 767 patients were enrolled: 186 HIV-1, 431 HIV-2 and 150 HIV-1&2 dually reactive. At time of sampling, 531 (69.2%) were on ART and median CD4+ cell count was 472/mm3. Thirty (3.9%, 95% CI 2.7-5.5) patients were anti-HCV positive (4.3% in HIV-1, 4.0% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 3.7% in HIV-2; p=0.91). Detectable HCV RNA was identified in 21 (70.0%) patients (100% in HIV-1 and HIV- 1&2 dually reactive vs. 43.8% in HIV-2; p=0.003). Systematic screening should be promoted and performed in this population, since HCV is now potentially curable in sub- Saharan Africa.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(Suppl 1): 706, 2017 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143625

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of HIV-infected individuals are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Knowledge of HBV status is important to guide optimal selection of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and monitor/prevent liver-related complications. We describe changes in testing practices and management of HBV infection over a 3-year period in HIV clinics across SSA. METHODS: A medical chart review was conducted in large urban HIV treatment centers in Côte d'Ivoire (3 sites), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, Uganda and Zambia (1 site each). Of the patients who started ART between 2010 and 2012, 100 per year were randomly selected from each clinic. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information as well as individual treatment histories were collected using a standardized questionnaire. We examined changes over time in the proportion of patients screened for HBV infection (HBV surface antigen [HBsAg]-positivity), identified predictors of HBV testing using logistic regression, and assessed the proportion of patients initiating a tenofovir (TDF)-containing ART regimen. RESULTS: Overall, 3579 charts of patients initiating ART (64.4% female, median age 37 years) were reviewed in 12 clinics. The proportion of patients screened for HBsAg increased from 17.8% in 2010 to 24.4% in 2012 overall, and ranged from 0.7% in Kenya to 96% in South Africa. In multivariable analyses, age and region were associated with HBsAg screening. Among 759 individuals tested, 88 (11.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.4-14.1) were HBV-infected, of whom 71 (80.7%) received a TDF-containing ART regimen. HBsAg-positive individuals were twice as likely to receive a TDF-containing first-line ART regimen compared to HBsAg-negative patients (80.7% vs. 40.3%, p < 0.001). The proportion of patients on TDF-containing ART increased from 57.9% in 2010 to 90.2% in 2012 in HIV/HBV-co-infected patients (Chi-2 test for trend: p = 0.01). Only 114 (5.0%) patients were screened for anti-HCV antibodies and one of them (0.9%, 95% CI 0.02-4.79) had a confirmed HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic screening for HBV infection in HIV-positive patients before ART initiation was limited in most African countries and its uptake varied widely across clinics. Overall, the prescription of TDF increased over time, with 90% of HIV/HBV-coinfected patients receiving this drug in 2012.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , África , Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/virología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Hepatitis C/complicaciones , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/sangre , Humanos , Análisis Multivariante , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 466, 2017 07 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676076

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In West Africa where HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-circulate, the co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is not well described. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection according to HIV types and risk factors for HBV infection among West African HIV-infected patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the IeDEA West Africa cohort from March to December 2012 in Côte d'Ivoire (three sites), Burkina Faso and Mali (one site each). All HIV-infected adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) or not who attended one of the participating HIV clinics during the study period and agreed to participate were included. Blood samples were collected and re-tested for HIV type discrimination, HBV and HDV serology as well as HBV viral load. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for HBV infection. RESULTS: A total of 791 patients were included: 192 HIV-1, 447 HIV-2 and 152 HIV-1&2 dually reactive. At time of sampling, 555 (70.2%) were on ART and median CD4+ cell count was 472/mm3 (inter-quartile range [IQR]: IQR: 294-644). Sixty-seven (8.5%, 95% CI 6.6-10.6) patients were HBsAg positive without any difference according to HIV type (7.9% in HIV-1, 7.2% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 9.4% in HIV-2; p = 0.61). In multivariate logistic analysis, age ≤ 30 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.00, 95% CI 1.96-12.76), age between 31 and 49 years old (aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-2.21) and male gender (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.25-3.69) were associated with HBsAg positivity. HBV DNA testing was performed in 36 patients with blood sample available (25 on ART) and 8 (22.2%) had detectable HBV DNA. Among the HBsAg-positive individuals, 14.9% (95% CI 7.4-25.7) were also positive for anti-HDV antibody without any difference according to HIV type (28.6% in HIV-1, 14.3% in HIV-2 and 0.0% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive; p = 0.15). CONCLUSION: HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection are common in West Africa, irrespective of HIV type. Therefore, screening for both viruses should be systematically performed to allow a better management of HIV-infected patients. Follow-up studies are necessary to determine the impact of these two viruses on HIV infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/virología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/virología , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/epidemiología , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiología , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Coinfección/epidemiología , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , VIH-1/patogenicidad , VIH-2/patogenicidad , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Virus de la Hepatitis B/patogenicidad , Virus de la Hepatitis Delta/genética , Virus de la Hepatitis Delta/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Malí/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Trop Med Int Health ; 22(9): 1186-1195, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28653454

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cotrimoxazole (CTX) should be given to all HIV-infected adults with mild or severe HIV-disease or those with CD4 counts below 350/mm3 according to 2006 WHO guidelines. We assessed the impact of CTX prophylaxis on the risk of malaria episodes in HIV-1-infected adults from four West African countries with different patterns of malaria transmission. METHOD: Multicentric cohort study, conducted between September 2007 and March 2010 in four West African cities. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV-infected adults started CTX at enrolment (CTX group) if they had CD4 < 350 cells/mm3 or were at WHO clinical stage ≥2. For patients who did not start CTX at enrolment (non-CTX group) and started CTX afterwards, follow-up was censored at CTX initiation. We used Cox's proportional hazard model to compare the risk of malaria between CTX groups. RESULTS: A total of 514 participants (median CD4 count 238 cells/mm3 ) were followed for a median of 15 months. At enrolment, 347 started CTX, and 261 started ART. During the follow-up, 28 started CTX. The incidence of malaria was 8.7/100 PY (95%CI 6.3-11.5) overall, 5.2/100 PY (95%CI 3.1-8.3) in the CTX group and 15.5/100 PY (95%CI 10.3-22.1) in the non-CTX group. In multivariate analysis, CTX led to a 69% reduction in the risk of malaria (aHR 0.31, 95%CI 0.10-0.90). CONCLUSION: Patients in the CTX group had an adjusted risk of malaria three times lower than those in the non-CTX group. The prolonged large-scale use of CTX did not blunt the efficacy of CTX to prevent malaria in this region.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Malaria/prevención & control , Combinación Trimetoprim y Sulfametoxazol/uso terapéutico , Adulto , África Occidental , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1 , Humanos , Incidencia , Malaria/complicaciones , Malaria/epidemiología , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Riesgo
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 19(1): 21424, 2017 02 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362065

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Liver fibrosis is often the first stage of liver disease in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in industrialized countries. However, little is known about liver fibrosis and its correlates among PLWHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The study was undertaken in three HIV referral clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal and Togo. Enrolled PLWHIV underwent a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis combining liver stiffness measure (LSM) with transient elastography and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Significant liver fibrosis was defined as LSM ≥7.1 kPa. Patients were screened for alcohol use (alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT)-C questionnaire), hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen, hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) antibody and anti-hepatitis C (HCV) antibody. A logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with significant liver fibrosis. RESULTS: A total of 807 PLWHIV were screened at a median age of 43 years (interquartile range (IQR): 36-50). Their median CD4 count was 393 cells/mm3 (IQR: 234-563) and 682 (84.5%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The prevalence of significant fibrosis was 5.3% (3.8-6.7). Infections with HBV and HCV were identified in 74 (9.2%) and nine (1.1%) participants. Main factors associated with liver fibrosis were alcohol use (AUDIT-C >6): (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, confidence interval (CI): 1.2-14.0), (Ref. AUDIT-C <4) and HBV infection (OR = 2.9, CI: 1.2-7.2). Of the 74 patients positively screened for HBV, 50.0% were on a tenofovir-based ART regimen. Overall, 10% of HIV/HBV coinfected patients were detected with a positive HDV antibody with a higher prevalence in patients with a significant liver fibrosis (43.0%) compared to others (6.3%) (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Considering the WHO recommendations to screen for HBV infection and treat co-infected patients with tenofovir-based ART, screening of alcohol use and brief interventions to prevent alcohol abuse should be implemented in West Africa, especially in HBV/HIV co-infected patients.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Hepatitis Viral Humana/complicaciones , Cirrosis Hepática/complicaciones , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Coinfección/epidemiología , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis Viral Humana/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Senegal/epidemiología , Togo/epidemiología
12.
AIDS ; 30(17): 2707-2714, 2016 11 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536979

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: HIV-2-infected individuals usually initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an advanced age compared with HIV-1 patients, with a potential impact on treatment outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sex and age on mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV-2-infected individuals initiating ART. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using the database of the International Epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS's collaboration in West Africa. LTFU was considered if the interval between the last visit and the closing date for this analysis was more than 180 days. Probability of death and LTFU were estimated with Kaplan-Meier methods. A Cox regression model was used to identify factors associated with death and LTFU over the first 24 months on ART. RESULTS: A total of 1825 HIV-2-infected individuals, including 60% women were considered for this analysis. The median age, baseline CD4 cell count, and follow-up duration were 45 years [interquartile range (IQR; 38-52)], 185 cells/µl [IQR (95-297)], and 28.8 months [IQR (9.8-58.9)], respectively. Over the first 24 months, the mortality rate was 5.2/100 person-years of observation [95% confidence interval (CI; 4.4-6.1)] and 469 (25.7%) were LTFU. Male sex [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.9; 95% CI (1.4; 2.8)], baseline CD4 cell count less than 100 cell/µl [HR = 4.4 95% CI (1.7; 11.1); ref at least 350 cell/µl], haemoglobin 7.5-10 g/dl [HR = 2.4 95% CI (1.3; 4.4); ref at least 12 g/dl], and BMI less than 18 kg/m [HR = 2.1 95% CI (1.3; 3.4); ref = 18-25 kg/m] were associated with higher mortality over the first 24 months. Similar associations were found for LTFU. CONCLUSION: Mortality and LTFU are high among ART-receiving HIV-2-infected individuals and higher in men than in women. There is a critical need to further determine the causes of poor retention and implement sex-specific solutions that improve outcomes in HIV-2 ART programmes.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-2/aislamiento & purificación , Adolescente , Adulto , África Occidental , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/mortalidad , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Análisis de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
13.
BMC Oral Health ; 15(1): 154, 2015 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26631015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, female sex workers (FSW) represent a vulnerable population for oral diseases due to many risk factors including HIV infection and drug abuse. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the burden of oral diseases and their determinants in vulnerable populations. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of oral diseases among FSW. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among FSW who attended a dedicated non-profit clinic in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire from June to August 2013. Data about the presence of dental caries, periodontitis and oral-mucosal lesions were collected by a dentist during an oral examination. Behavioural information related to oral hygiene habits as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption were collected through a standardized questionnaire. Information related to HIV infection including HIV diagnosis, last known CD4 count and antiretroviral therapy were documented through a medical chart review. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with oral diseases. RESULTS: A total of 249 FSW with a median age of 29 years, [Inter Quartile Range (IQR) = 23-36] and a median duration of sex work of 24 months [IQR 9-60]) were included. Current tobacco use and hazardous alcohol use were reported in 21.7 % and 19.7 % of FSW, respectively. The estimated prevalence of HIV infection was 33.7 % [95 % confidence interval (CI); 27.8 - 39.6]) and 82.1 % of HIV-infected FSW were on antiretroviral therapy . The prevalence of dental caries, periodontitis and oral-mucosal lesions were 62.3 % [95 % CI 55.5 - 67.5], 14.5 % [95 % CI 10.2 - 18.9] and 8.2 % [95 % CI 4.8 - 11.5], respectively. In multivariate analysis, periodontitis, oral-mucosal lesions and HIV infection were associated with odds ratio of 2.6 [95 % CI, 1.2-5.8]) and 50.0 [95 % CI; 6.4-384.6]. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of oral diseases among FSW in Abidjan. HIV infection was common and significantly associated with periodontal diseases and oral-mucosal lesions. There is a need to integrate regular screening and treatment of oral lesions into the medical follow-up of FSW along with strategies for HIV prevention.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Salud Bucal , Trabajadores Sexuales , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Costa de Marfil , Caries Dental , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades de la Boca/epidemiología , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
14.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129886, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26111242

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Plasma HIV-1 RNA monitoring is one of the standard tests for the management of HIV-1 infection. While HIV-1 RNA can be quantified using several commercial tests, no test has been commercialized for HIV-2 RNA quantification. We studied the relationship between plasma HIV-2 viral load (VL) and CD4 count in West African patients who were either receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) or treatment-naïve. METHOD: A cross sectional survey was conducted among HIV-2-infected individuals followed in three countries in West Africa from March to December 2012. All HIV-2 infected-patients who attended one of the participating clinics were proposed a plasma HIV-2 viral load measurement. HIV-2 RNA was quantified using the new ultrasensitive in-house real-time PCR assay with a detection threshold of 10 copies/ mL (cps/mL). RESULTS: A total of 351 HIV-2-infected individuals participated in this study, of whom 131 (37.3%) were treatment naïve and 220 (62.7%) had initiated ART. Among treatment-naïve patients, 60 (46.5%) had undetectable plasma HIV-2 viral load (<10 cps/mL), it was detectable between 10-100 cps/mL in 35.8%, between 100-1000 cps/mL in 11.7% and >1000 cps/mL in 6.0% of the patients. Most of the treatment-naïve patients (70.2%) had CD4-T cell count ≥500 cells/mm3 and 43 (46.7%) of these patients had a detectable VL (≥10 cps/mL). Among the 220 patients receiving ART, the median CD4-T cell count rose from 231 to 393 cells/mm3 (IQR [259-561]) after a median follow-up duration of 38 months and 145 (66.0%) patients had CD4-T cell count ≤ 500 cells/mm3 with a median viral load of 10 cps/mL (IQR [10-33]). Seventy five (34.0%) patients had CD4-T cell count ≥ 500 cells/mm3, among them 14 (18.7%) had a VL between 10-100 cps/mL and 2 (2.6%) had VL >100 cps/mL. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the combination of CD4-T cell count and ultrasensitive HIV-2 viral load quantification with a threshold of 10 cps/mL, could improve ART initiation among treatment naïve HIV-2-infected patients and the monitoring of ART response among patients receiving treatment.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-2/genética , ARN Viral/sangre , Adulto , África Occidental , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-2/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Carga Viral
15.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 34(7): e159-68, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25955835

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate Aids West African paediatric cohort. METHODS: Malnutrition was defined at ART initiation (baseline) by a Z score <-2 standard deviations, according to 3 anthropometric indicators: weight-for-age (WAZ) for underweight, height-for-age (HAZ) for stunting and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age (WHZ/BAZ) for wasting. Kaplan-Meier estimates for catch-up growth (Z score ≥-2 standard deviations) on ART, adjusted for gender, immunodeficiency and malnutrition at ART initiation, ART regimen, time period and country, were compared by age at ART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression models determined predictors of catch-up growth on ART over 24 months. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2012, 2004 HIV-infected children <10 years of age were included. At ART initiation, 51% were underweight, 48% were stunted and 33% were wasted. The 24-month adjusted estimates for catch-up growth were 69% [95% confidence interval (CI): 57-80], 61% (95% CI: 47-70) and 90% (95% CI: 76-95) for WAZ, HAZ and WHZ/BAZ, respectively. Adjusted catch-up growth was more likely for children <5 years of age at ART initiation compared with children ≥5 years for WAZ, HAZ (P < 0.001) and WHZ/BAZ (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition among these children is an additional burden that has to be urgently managed. Despite a significant growth improvement after 24 months on ART, especially in children <5 years, a substantial proportion of children still never achieved catch-up growth. Nutritional care should be part of the global healthcare of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa/métodos , Desarrollo Infantil , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Desnutrición/complicaciones , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , África Occidental/epidemiología , Antropometría , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Desnutrición/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 17: 19064, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25128907

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: West Africa is characterized by the circulation of HIV-1 and HIV-2. The laboratory diagnosis of these two infections as well as the choice of a first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is challenging, considering the limited access to second-line regimens. This study aimed at confirming the classification of HIV-2 and HIV-1&2 dually reactive patients followed up in the HIV-2 cohort of the West African Database to evaluate AIDS collaboration. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to December 2012 in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire and Mali among patients classified as HIV-2 or HIV-1&2 dually reactive according to the national HIV testing algorithms. A 5-ml blood sample was collected from each patient and tested in a single reference laboratory in Côte d'Ivoire (CeDReS, Abidjan) with two immuno-enzymatic tests: ImmunoCombII® (HIV-1&2 ImmunoComb BiSpot - Alere) and an in-house ELISA test, approved by the French National AIDS and hepatitis Research Agency (ANRS). RESULTS: A total of 547 patients were included; 57% of them were initially classified as HIV-2 and 43% as HIV-1&2 dually reactive. Half of the patients had CD4≥500 cells/mm(3) and 68.6% were on ART. Of the 312 patients initially classified as HIV-2, 267 (85.7%) were confirmed as HIV-2 with ImmunoCombII® and in-house ELISA while 16 (5.1%) and 9 (2.9%) were reclassified as HIV-1 and HIV-1&2, respectively (Kappa=0.69; p<0.001). Among the 235 patients initially classified as HIV-1&2 dually reactive, only 54 (23.0%) were confirmed as dually reactive with ImmunoCombII® and in-house ELISA, while 103 (43.8%) and 33 (14.0%) were reclassified as HIV-1 and HIV-2 mono-infected, respectively (kappa= 0.70; p<0.001). Overall, 300 samples (54.8%) were concordantly classified as HIV-2, 63 (11.5%) as HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 119 (21.8%) as HIV-1 (kappa=0.79; p<0.001). The two tests gave discordant results for 65 samples (11.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HIV-2 mono-infection are correctly discriminated by the national algorithms used in West African countries. HIV-1&2 dually reactive patients should be systematically investigated, with a standardized algorithm using more accurate tests, before initiating ART as at least 4 out of 10 of them could initiate an effective first-line ART for HIV-1 and optimize their second-line treatment options.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/virología , Errores Diagnósticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anticuerpos Anti-VIH/sangre , VIH-1/inmunología , VIH-2/inmunología , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Coinfección/diagnóstico , Coinfección/virología , Costa de Marfil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , VIH-2/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Masculino , Malí , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 14: 461, 2014 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154616

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response among HIV-2 infected patients. We conducted a systematic review on treatment outcomes among HIV-2 infected patients on ART, focusing on the immunological and virological responses in adults. METHODS: Data were extracted from articles that were selected after screening of PubMed/MEDLINE up to November 2012 and abstracts of the 1996-2012 international conferences. Observational cohorts, clinical trials and program reports were eligible as long as they reported data on ART response (clinical, immunological or virological) among HIV-2 infected patients. The determinants investigated included patients' demographic characteristics, CD4 cell count at baseline and ART received. RESULTS: Seventeen reports (involving 976 HIV-2 only and 454 HIV1&2 dually reactive patients) were included in the final review, and the analysis presented in this report are related to HIV-2 infected patients only. There was no randomized controlled trial and only two cohorts had enrolled more than 100 HIV-2 only infected patients. The median CD4 count at ART initiation was 165 cells/mm3, [IQR; 137-201] and the median age at ART initiation was 44 years (IQR: 42-48 years). Ten studies included 103 patients treated with three nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Protease inhibitor (PI) based regimens were reported by 16 studies. Before 2009, the most frequent PIs used were Nelfinavir and Indinavir, whereas it was Lopinavir/ritonavir thereafter. The immunological response at month-12 was reported in six studies and the mean CD4 cell count increase was +118 cells/µL (min-max: 45-200 cells/µL). CONCLUSION: Overall, clinical and immuno-virologic outcomes in HIV-2 infected individuals treated with ART are suboptimal. There is a need of randomized controlled trials to improve the management and outcomes of people living with HIV-2 infection.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-2 , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/virología , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Indinavir/uso terapéutico , Lopinavir/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nelfinavir/uso terapéutico , Ritonavir/uso terapéutico , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 14: 165, 2014 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24721621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women in Côte d'Ivoire. Low resource countries can now prevent this cancer by using HPV vaccine and effective and affordable screening tests. However the implementation of these prevention strategies needs well-trained human resources. Part of the solution could come from midwives by integrating cervical cancer prevention into reproductive health services. The aim of this survey was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of midwives towards cervical cancer prevention in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and to find out factors associated with appropriate knowledge. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among midwives in the urban district of Abidjan, using a self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge was assessed by two scores. Factors associated with appropriate knowledge were determined using a logistic regression analysis. Attitudes and practices were described and compare using the Chi2 test. RESULTS: A total of 592 midwives were enrolled, including 24.5% of final-year students. 55.7% of midwives had appropriate knowledge on cervical cancer, and 42.4% of them had appropriate knowledge on cervical cancer prevention strategies. Conferences, courses taken at school of midwifery and special training sessions on cervical cancer (OR = 4.9, 95% CI [1.9 to 12.6], p <0.01) were associated with good knowledge on the management of this disease. Among these midwives, 18.4% had already benefited from a screening test for themselves, 37.7% had already advised screening to patients and 8.4% were able to perform a visual inspection. 50.3% of midwives knew HPV vaccine as a preventive method; among them 70.8% usually recommended it to young girls. CONCLUSION: Despite sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer prevention, attitudes and practices of midwives should be improved by organizing capacity building activities. This would ensure the success of integration of cervical cancer prevention into reproductive health services in countries like Côte d'Ivoire.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Partería , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/prevención & control , Adulto , Intervalos de Confianza , Costa de Marfil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e90625, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24595037

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Facing the dual burden of invasive cervical cancer and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the identification of preventable determinants of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) in HIV-infected women is of paramount importance. METHODS: A cervical cancer screening based on visual inspection methods was proposed to HIV-infected women in care in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Positively screened women were referred for a colposcopy to a gynaecologist who performed directed biopsies. RESULTS: Of the 2,998 HIV-infected women enrolled, 132 (4.4%) CIN of any grade (CIN+) were identified. Women had been followed-up for a median duration of three years [IQR: 1-5] and 76% were on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Their median most recent CD4 count was 452 [IQR: 301-621] cells/mm3. In multivariate analysis, CIN+ was associated with a most recent CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2-0.6) or ≥200-350 cells/mm3 (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-1.0) (Ref: <200 cells/mm3 CD4) (p<10-4). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of CIN+ is less common among HIV-infected women with limited or no immune deficiency. Despite the potential impact of immunological recovery on the reduction of premalignant cervical lesions through the use of ART, cervical cancer prevention, including screening and vaccination remains a priority in West Africa while ART is rolled-out.


Asunto(s)
Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/etiología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/etiología , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Cuello del Útero/patología , Colposcopía , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Femenino , VIH/efectos de los fármacos , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/diagnóstico
20.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e66135, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23824279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). METHODS: We collected data on all HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually seropositive patients (both ARV-naive and starting ART) and followed-up in clinical centres in the IeDEA-WA network including a total of 13 clinics in five countries: Benin, Burkina-Faso Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, in the West Africa region. RESULTS: Data was merged for 1,754 patients (56% female), including 1,021 HIV-2 infected patients (551 on ART) and 733 dually seropositive for both HIV-1 and HIV 2 (463 on ART). At ART initiation, the median age of HIV-2 patients was 45.3 years, IQR: (38.3-51.7) and 42.4 years, IQR (37.0-47.3) for dually seropositive patients (p = 0.048). Overall, 16.7% of HIV-2 patients on ART had an advanced clinical stage (WHO IV or CDC-C). The median CD4 count at the ART initiation is 166 cells/mm(3), IQR (83-247) among HIV-2 infected patients and 146 cells/mm(3), IQR (55-249) among dually seropositive patients. Overall, in ART-treated patients, the CD4 count increased 126 cells/mm(3) after 24 months on ART for HIV-2 patients and 169 cells/mm(3) for dually seropositive patients. Of 551 HIV-2 patients on ART, 5.8% died and 10.2% were lost to follow-up during the median time on ART of 2.4 years, IQR (0.7-4.3). CONCLUSIONS: This large multi-country study of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infection in West Africa suggests that routine clinical care is less than optimal and that management and treatment of HIV-2 could be further informed by ongoing studies and randomized clinical trials in this population.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1/aislamiento & purificación , VIH-2/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , África Occidental/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
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