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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130733, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375890

RESUMEN

We used computational molecular dynamics (MD) to assess molecular conformations of apo- and holo-forms (respectively without and with Ca2+) of bovine α-lactalbumin (α-La) at different temperatures, and to correlate them with the protein's foaming properties. At 4 °C and 25 °C no major protein conformation changes occurred. At 75 °C, lots of changes were evidenced: the Ca2+ depletion triggered the complete loss of h2b, h3c helices and S1, S2 and S3 ß-sheets, and partial losses of H1, H2 and H3 α-helices. The absence of Ca2+ in apo-α-La and its leaving from holo-α-La triggered electrostatic repulsion among Asp82, Asp84 and Asp87, leading to the formation of a hydrophobic cluster involving Phe9, Phe31, Ile1, Va42, Ile55, Phe80 and Leu81. These conformational changes were related to an interfacial tension decrease and to a foaming capacity increase, for both apo-α-La and holo-α-La. This study exemplifies how powerful MD is as a tool to provide a better understanding of the molecular origins of food proteins' techno-functionalities.


Asunto(s)
Lactalbúmina , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Animales , Cationes , Bovinos , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Temperatura
2.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(1): e20200293, 2022. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1286037

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: The harvesting process is a current challenge for the commercial production of microalgae because the biomass is diluted in the culture medium. Several methods have been proposed to harvest microalgae cells, but there is not a consensus about the optimum method for such application. Herein, the methods based on sedimentation, flocculation, and centrifugation were evaluated on the recovery of Chlorella sorokiniana BR001 cultivated in a low-nitrogen medium. C. sorokiniana BR001 was cultivated using a low-nitrogen medium to trigger the accumulation of neutral lipids and neutral carbohydrates. The biomass of C. sorokiniana BR001 cultivated in a low-nitrogen medium showed a total lipid content of 1.9 times higher (23.8 ± 4.5%) when compared to the biomass produced in a high-nitrogen medium (12.3 ± 1.2%). In addition, the biomass of the BR001 strain cultivated in a low-nitrogen medium showed a high content of neutral carbohydrates (52.1 ± 1.5%). The natural sedimentation-based process was evaluated using a sedimentation column, and it was concluded that C. sorokiniana BR001 is a non-flocculent strain. Therefore, it was evaluated the effect of different concentrations of ferric sulfate (0.005 to 1 g L-1) or aluminum sulfate (0.025 to 0.83 g L-1) on the flocculation process of C. sorokiniana BR001, but high doses of flocculant agents were required for an efficient harvest of biomass. It was evaluated the centrifugation at low speed (300 to 3,000 g) as well, and it was possible to conclude that this process was the most adequate to harvest the non-flocculent strain C. sorokiniana BR001.


RESUMO: O processo de colheita é um desafio atual para a produção comercial de microalgas porque a biomassa é diluída no meio de cultivo. Diversos métodos têm sido propostos para coletar células de microalgas, porém não existe um consenso sobre um método ótimo para tal aplicação. Neste estudo, métodos baseados em sedimentação, floculação e centrifugação foram avaliados na recuperação de Chlorella sorokiniana BR001 cultivada em um meio com baixo teor de nitrogênio. C. sorokiniana BR001 foi cultivada em um meio com baixo teor de nitrogênio para induzir ao acúmulo de lipídeos e carboidratos neutros. A biomassa de C. sorokiniana BR001 cultivada em um meio com baixo teor de nitrogênio apresentou um teor de lipídeos 1,9 vezes superior (23,8 ± 4,5%), quando comparada à biomassa produzida em um meio com alto teor de nitrogênio (12,3 ± 1,2%). Adicionalmente, a biomassa da linhagem BR001 cultivada em um meio com baixo teor de nitrogênio apresentou alto teor de carboidratos neutros (52,1 ± 1,5%). O processo baseado em sedimentação natural foi avaliado utilizando uma coluna de sedimentação e concluiu-se que C. sorokiniana BR001 é uma linhagem não floculante. Portanto, o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sulfato férrico (0,005 a 1 g L-1) ou sulfato de alumínio (0,025 a 0,83 g L-1) foram avaliados no processo de floculação de C. sorokiniana BR001, mas altas doses de floculantes foram necessárias para uma colheita de biomassa eficiente. Também foi avaliada a centrifugação em baixa velocidade (300 a 3.000 g), e foi possível concluir que este processo constituiu o mais adequado para a colheita da linhagem não floculante C. sorokiniana BR001.

3.
J Hum Lact ; : 8903344211031456, 2021 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308701

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The retention of human milk nutrients in gastric tubes used to feed premature infants is a challenge to be overcome. RESEARCH AIMS: To evaluate (1) the performance of six homogenizers (mixing processor, piston valve, ultrasonic bath, ultraturrax, stirring mixer, and ultrasound probe) for the fat retention reduction in gastric tubes; (2) the influence of the best homogenization conditions on the fatty acid and protein profiles of human milk; and (3) the cost/benefit ratio for the inclusion of homogenization as a new step in human milk processing. METHODS: The influence of different levels and times of homogenization on reducing fat retention of human milk in probes was evaluated in this comparative prospective cross-sectional study. After homogenization, human milk flowed through a gavage and infusion pump apparatus used for feeding. Fat content was quantified before and after feeding. The techniques that reduced fat globule sizes and/or promoted a lower percentage of fat holding were evaluated for efficiency, variations in the fatty acid and protein profiles, and energy density and operating costs. RESULTS: Homogenization led to a reduction in fat retention in feeding probes. The mixer processor and the ultrasound probe reduced fat retention by 99.23% (SD = 0.07) and 99.95% (SD = 0.02), respectively, and did not negatively influence fatty acid and protein profiles. The mixer processor demonstrated low energy density and low cost for human milk processing. CONCLUSION: Homogenization promoted reduced fat retention in the feed probe and could help maintain fat nutrients of human milk during enteral feeding.

4.
J Food Sci Technol ; 58(5): 1797-1807, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897016

RESUMEN

Chitosan (CH) is a biopolymer derived from chitin, which is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, after cellulose. Their functional groups -NH2 and -OH can form intermolecular interactions with water and other molecules, enabling a variety of applications for CH. -NH2 groups become protonated in acidic solutions, causing an increase in electrostatic repulsion between CH chains, which facilitates their dispersion in aqueous media. Aqueous solutions of acetic acid and/or acetates buffers have been used to disperse CH, but may not be adequate for technological applications, espeacially because of the strong flavor this acid confers to formulations. In this study, 0.125; 0.250; 0.500; 0.750 and 1.000 g (100 g)-1 CH dispersions were prepared in acidic aqueous media (50 mmol L-1), not only with acetic (AA), but also with glycolic (GA), propionic (PA), or lactic (LA), acid aiming to evaluate the effects of biopolymer concentration and type of organic acid on: electrical conductivity, pH, density and rheological characteristics of dispersions. Moreover, ζ potential values of CH chains dispersed in these acidic aqueous media were assessed. pH, density and consistency index were influenced by the biopolymer concentration, but not by the acid type. At a given biopolymer concentration, ζ potential signs (+) and values suggested that electrostatic interactions between CH chains and counter-anions occurred, regardless of the type of the organic acid. Thus, at least from a physicochemical point of view, GA, PA or LA showed to be suitable to replace AA when preparing dispersions containing from 0.125 to 1.000 g (100 g)-1 CH for technological purposes, such as thickening or stabilizer in formulated food products.

5.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 44(8): 1639-1647, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689015

RESUMEN

Taking into account that the industrial processing of passion fruit generates significant amounts of waste (only the peels represent 51% of the total mass of the fruit), in the present study an economic analysis was conducted to evaluate industrial line viability for pectin extraction from passion fruit peels. Knowing that absolute ethanol (99.50% purity), used in the precipitation and washing steps, has a higher cost, a simulation of extractive distillation was performed using solvents ethylene glycol and glycerol, in the software Aspen Plus v.11, being possible to recover 99.63% of ethanol for both solvents. The results of the economic evaluation showed that the process using ethylene glycol has an advantage, mainly due to its higher profitability (1.13 times higher), lower production cost (94.86% of the price using glycerol), and a lower breakeven point (around 3% smaller). The financial indicators showed profitability and attractiveness for the implementation of this processing line.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 255: 117526, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436258

RESUMEN

Biopolymers mixtures appear as a strategy to improve sensorial/technological characteristics of gel-like products. Thus, self-sustaining starch (S100/C0) hydrogels were prepared with a partial replacement of the gelling agent by 5.0 % (S95/C5), 7.5 % (S92.5/C7.5), or 10.0 % chitosan (S90/C10), and containing yellow sunset (INS 110). Major visual changes or significant differences on L*a*b* parameters were not observed for starch/chitosan hydrogels. Creep-recovery data was modeled using the simulated annealing algorithm, and relative recovery results showed an increase for S95/C5 (82.6 %), when compared to S100/C0 (72.9 %). After 312 h, chitosan strongly reduced the INS 110 release from hydrogels to an ethanolic solution (3.1∙10-4 and 4.1∙10-3 g/100 mL for S95/C5 and S100/C0, respectively) or to a sucrose solution (1.1∙10-3 and 6.5∙10-3 g/100 mL for S95/C5 and S100/C0, respectively). Such results highlighted that chitosan not only presented a techno-functionality on starch hydrogels by improving their elasticity but also by hindering the release of yellow sunset.

7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(4): 1386-1403, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066337

RESUMEN

The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a key role in blood pressure regulation process, and its inhibition is one of the main drug targets for the treatment of hypertension. Though various peptides from milk proteins are well-known for their ACE-inhibitory capacity, research devoted to understand the molecular bases of such property remain scarce, specifically for such peptides. Therefore, in this work, computational molecular docking and molecular dynamics calculations were performed to enlighten the intermolecular interactions involved in ACE inhibition by six different casein-derived peptides (FFVAPFPEVFGK, FALPQYLK, ALNEINQFYQK, YLGYLEQLLR, HQGLPQEVLNENLLR and NAVPITPTLNR). Two top ranked docking poses for each peptide (one with N- and the other C-terminal peptide extremity oriented towards the ACE active site) were selected for dynamic simulations (50 ns; GROMOS53A6 force field), and the results were correlated to in vitro ACE inhibition capacity. Two molecular features appeared to be essential for peptides to present high ACE inhibition capacity in vitro: i) to interact with the S1 active site residues (Ala354, Glu384, and Tyr523) by hydrogen bonds; ii) to interact with Zn2+ coordinated residues (His383, His387, and Glu411) by short-lenght hydrogen bonds, as observed in the cases of ALNEINQFYQK (IACE = 80.7%), NAVPITPTLNR (IACE = 80.7%), and FALPQYLK (IACE = 79.0%). Regardless of the temporal stability of these strong interactions, they promoted some disruption of Zn2+ tetrahedral coordination during the molecular dynamics trajectories, and were pointed as the main reason for the greatest ACE inhibition by these peptides. On the other hand, peptides with intermediate inhibition capacity (50% < IACE < 45%) interacted mainly by weaker interactions (e.g.: electrostatic and hydrophobic) with the Zn2+ coordinated residues, and were not able to change significantly its tetrahedral coordination structure. These findings may: i) assist the discrimination in silico of "good" and "bad" ACE-inhibitory peptides from other food sources, and/or ii) aid in designing de novo new molecules with ACE-inhibitory capacity. Communicated by Ramaswamy Sarma.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Caseínas , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/farmacología , Angiotensinas , Animales , Bovinos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Péptidos , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo
8.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(12): 1976-2002, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462889

RESUMEN

Many countries have been experienced an increase in protein consumption due to the population growth and adoption of protein-rich dietaries. Unfortunately, conventional-based protein agroindustry is associated with environmental impacts that might aggravate as the humankind increase. Thus, it is important to screen for novel protein sources that are environmentally friendly. Microalgae farming is a promising alternative to couple the anthropic emissions with the production of food and feed. Some microalgae show protein contents two times higher than conventional protein sources. The use of whole microalgae biomass as a protein source in food and feed is simple and well-established. Conversely, the production of microalgae protein supplements and isolates requires the development of feasible and robust processes able to fractionate the microalgae biomass in different value-added products. Since most of the proteins are inside the microalgae cells, several techniques of disruption have been proposed to increase the efficiency to extract them. After the disruption of the microalgae cells, the proteins can be extracted, concentrated, isolated or purified allowing the development of different products. This critical review addresses the current state of the production of microalgae proteins for multifarious applications, and possibilities to concatenate the production of proteins and advanced biofuels.


Asunto(s)
Microalgas , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Alimentos , Proteínas
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 153: 995-1004, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751721

RESUMEN

Nanostructures from conjugates of tara gum and α-lactalbumin were obtained via the heat-gelation process with pH adjustment. The conjugates were produced by Maillard reaction using the dry-heating method in lyophilized or spray-dried mixtures of TG and α-la and were characterized by browning index (BI) and percentage of free amino groups (% FAG). Nanostructured systems were characterized by dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential, circular dichroism, and intrinsic fluorescence to evaluate the structures. The most appropriate time of conjugation was 2 days. The spray-dried and lyophilized mixtures presented different values of BI and % FAG (p < 0.05), indicating that the glycosylation was more intense in lyophilized mixtures. Nanostructures with average sizes lower than 300 nm were formed under different conditions of temperature, pH, and heating time. Analyses of circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence showed conformational changes in the nanostructures, mainly a decrease in the α-helix content in spray-dried systems. The characteristics presented by the studied systems showed that it is possible to obtain nanostructures from conjugates of tara gum and α-lactalbumin.


Asunto(s)
Lactalbúmina/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Gomas de Plantas/química , Liofilización , Modelos Moleculares , Conformación Proteica
10.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 59: 104754, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479885

RESUMEN

Chitosan is a natural polycationic polysaccharide with several known biotechnological functionalities, but its application in food products as ingredient or additive remains nowadays unusual. Additionally, ultrasonic production of food-grade emulsions is still an open research field, so ultrasound applicability for such purpose must be evaluated case by case. In this study, chitosan was dispersed in acid aqueous media containing acetic, glycolic, propionic or lactic acid (50 mmol·L-1), then added of the emulsifier Tween 20, and finally mixed to sunflower oil, through ultrasonic homogenization (20 kHz, 500 W, 4 min), in order to prepare O/W emulsions (oil fraction = 0.25). In all studied systems, oil droplets with average hydrodynamic diameter < 600 nm were obtained. The increase of chitosan concentration promoted the augment in consistency and the elastic character of the emulsions. Emulsions containing more than 0.500 g·(100 g)-1 of chitosan presented a minor increase of both oil droplets average hydrodynamic diameter and PDI, during storage for 28 days. Furthermore, such systems showed no phase separation when exposed to centrifugation, freeze-thawing, and freeze-thaw-heating cycles. Two main findings may be highlighted from this study: i) ultrasound processing is a promising approach to produce food-grade emulsified systems containing chitosan, and ii) chitosan is a suitable alternative as thickener/stabilizer for acidic emulsions, being its performance influenced by the biopolymer concentration and not by the organic acid present in the medium.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 128: 140-148, 2019 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682485

RESUMEN

Chitosan is a polysaccharide well-known for its applicability as a biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic material to produce drugs excipients and food coatings. Acidic media are required to disperse chitosan, and aqueous solutions of acetic acid have been typically used for this purpose. However, this acid has several sensory drawbacks. In this study, chitosan was dispersed [0.1 g·(100 mL)-1] in aqueous media containing acetic (AA), glycolic (GA), propionic (PA), or lactic (LA) acid, at 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mmol·L-1. The increase of acid concentration reduced pH and viscosity of the dispersions, and |ζ potential| of dispersed particles. Conversely, it increased electrical conductivity and density of the dispersions, and hydrodynamic diameter of dispersed particles. At a given concentration, these effects were slightly more pronounced for dispersions formed with GA or LA, compared to AA or PA. FT-IR data suggested more intense attractive interactions of chitosan chains with glycolate and lactate anions, than with acetate and propionate. Chitosan chains interacted more strongly with hydroxylated acids counter-anions than with their non-hydroxylated counterparts, leading to slight quantitative changes of physicochemical properties of these systems. Then, in physicochemical terms, GA, LA or PA are suitable to replace AA when preparing aqueous chitosan dispersions for technological applications.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Acético/química , Fenómenos Químicos , Quitosano/química , Glicolatos/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Acetilación , Conductividad Eléctrica , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Peso Molecular , Reología , Soluciones , Viscosidad
12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 57(8): 1618-1630, 2017 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26114306

RESUMEN

We have prepared a review of the physical-chemical composition and the functional and anti-nutritional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is a plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, originally from the Andean regions, adaptable to different types of soils and climatic conditions. Its composition has attracted the attention of scientific community for its high nutritional value, being rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, vitamins, and minerals, with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is also gluten-free, a characteristic that enables its use by celiac patients. In spite of all these attributes, quinoa is not widely used by consumers due to the high cost of imported grain and little knowledge of its benefits. More studies are required to increase knowledge about this "pseudo-cereal" to demonstrate its functional and nutritional benefits and to study its anti-nutritional effects, since it presents high commercial value and excellent nutritional quality.


Asunto(s)
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Valor Nutritivo , Aminoácidos Esenciales/análisis , Antioxidantes/análisis , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/análisis , Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Proteínas en la Dieta/análisis , Flavonoides/análisis , Humanos , Micronutrientes/análisis , Nitratos/análisis , Oxalatos/análisis , Ácido Fítico/análisis , Polifenoles/análisis , Saponinas/análisis , Taninos/análisis , Inhibidores de Tripsina/análisis , Granos Enteros/química
13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 56(7): 1108-25, 2016 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24824044

RESUMEN

The products formed by glycosylation of food proteins with carbohydrates via the Maillard reaction, also known as conjugates, are agents capable of changing and improving techno-functional characteristics of proteins. The Maillard reaction uses the covalent bond between a group of a reducing carbohydrates and an amino group of a protein. This reaction does not require additional chemicals as it occurs naturally under controlled conditions of temperature, time, pH, and moisture. Moreover, there is growing interest in modifying proteins for industrial food applications. This review analyses the current state of art of the Maillard reaction on food protein functionalities. It also discusses the influence of the Maillard reaction on the conditions and formulation of reagents that improve desirable techno-functional characteristics of food protein.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas en la Dieta/química , Alimentos , Reacción de Maillard , Polisacáridos/química , Fenómenos Químicos , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Glicosilación , Calor
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1395: 16-22, 2015 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25857540

RESUMEN

The influence of temperature, pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in IDA-Cu(2+) cryogel system was studied by batch equilibrium measurements. The adsorptive equilibrium data were obtained at 17 and 27°C, pH 5.0 and 6.5, and at ionic strength of 50 and 200mmolL(-1) NaCl. Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models were fitted to equilibrium data, while the enthalpy of adsorption of IgY in IDA-Cu(2+) cryogel system was calculated through Van't Hoff analysis. The binding of IgY on cryogel was stronger at 27°C and lowest pH and ionic strength values, with apparent maximum adsorption capacity of 27mgg(-1). The adsorption of protein in the resin was spontaneous in all analyzed cases. The results provide valuable information to enable the improvement of IgY purification processes.


Asunto(s)
Biotecnología/métodos , Cobre/química , Criogeles/química , Inmunoglobulinas/aislamiento & purificación , Adsorción , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Iones/química , Concentración Osmolar , Proteínas , Cloruro de Sodio , Temperatura , Termodinámica
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25464099

RESUMEN

Peptides inhibiting the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were obtained by trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of bovine milk casein, performed at 37°C, during 1, 2, 5, 8 and 24h. Results of in vitro inhibitory activity ranged between 13.4% and 78.5%. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was evidenced for hydrolysates obtained after 2h of reaction. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) formed by polyethylene glycol of 1500gmol-1 (PEG 1500)+sodium phosphate or potassium phosphates were produced and evaluated, in terms of partition coefficients (K) and extraction yields (y), to recovery the casein hydrolysates at room temperature. In ATPS containing sodium phosphate, the peptides showed a slightly greater affinity toward the bottom salt-rich phase (0.1≤K≤0.9; 5.7%≤y≤47%). In the case of ATPS containing potassium phosphates, these molecules showed substantially greater affinity toward the top polymer-rich phase (137≤K≤266; y≥99%). These results point out extraction using PEG 1500/potassium phosphate ATPS is an efficient technique to recover casein hydrolysates containing ACE inhibitors peptides. Outlined data will be helpful in integrating such unit operation to larger scale processes.

16.
Food Res Int ; 64: 157-165, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011635

RESUMEN

The study of protein interactions has generated great interest in the food industry. Therefore, research on new supramolecular structures shows promise. Supramolecular structures of the whey proteins α-lactalbumin and glycomacropeptide were produced under varying heat treatments (25 to 75°C) and acidic conditions (pH3.5 to 6.5). Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed protein interactions and demonstrated that this is an enthalpically driven process. Supramolecular protein structures in aqueous solutions were characterized by circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Additional photon correlation spectroscopy experiments showed that the size distribution of the structures ranged from 4 to 3545nm among the different conditions. At higher temperatures, lower pH increased particle size. The foamability of the supramolecular protein structures was evaluated. Analysis of variance and analysis of regression for foaming properties indicated that the two-factor interactions between pH and temperature exhibited a significant effect on the volume and stability of the foam.

17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 94(1): 199-208, 2013 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23544529

RESUMEN

This work aimed to develop nanocomposite films of methyl cellulose (MC) incorporated with pediocin and zinc oxide nanoparticles (nanoZnO) using the central composite design and response surface methodology. This study evaluated film physical-mechanical properties, including crystallography by X-ray diffraction, mechanical resistance, swelling and color properties, microscopy characterization, thermal stability, as well as antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. NanoZnO and pediocin affected the crystallinity of MC. Load at break and tensile strength at break did not differ among films. NanoZnO and pediocin significantly affected the elongation at break. Pediocin produced yellowish films, but nano ZnO balanced this effect, resulting in a whitish coloration. Nano ZnO exhibited good intercalation in MC and the addition of pediocin in high concentrations resulted crater-like pits in the film surfaces. Swelling of films diminished significantly compared to control. Higher concentrations of Nano ZnO resulted in enhanced thermal stability. Nanocomposite films presented antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/química , Bacteriocinas/química , Nanocompuestos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óxido de Zinc/química , Algoritmos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacteriocinas/farmacología , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco , Embalaje de Alimentos , Modelos Lineales , Listeria monocytogenes/efectos de los fármacos , Metilcelulosa/química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Propiedades de Superficie , Resistencia a la Tracción , Termogravimetría , Difracción de Rayos X , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología
18.
Pesticidas ; 21: 55-72, jan.-out. 2011. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: lil-671115

RESUMEN

Esta revisão de literatura teve como objetivo descrever aspropriedades físico-químicas do biodiesel obtido a partir de diferentesmatérias-primas. Foram estudados dados de viscosidade, densidade,número de cetanos, ponto de fulgor, ponto de fluidez, ponto de névoae poder calorífi co de biodiesel obtido de óleo de soja, de coco, farelode arroz, algodão, pequi, babaçu, mamona, palma, dendê, girassol,milho, canola, pinhão manso e karanja. Considerando a diversidadede fontes vegetais e animais que podem gerar biodiesel ressaltasea carência de dados de propriedades físico-químicas para asmatérias-primas ainda inexploradas. Espera-se com este trabalhocontribuir para a criação de banco de dados de propriedades físicoquímicasdo óleo e do biodiesel de diferentes fontes, o que permitiráprojetar e dimensionar tanto os equipamentos necessários à linhade produção quanto motores alternativos.


Asunto(s)
Cocos , Aceites Combustibles/análisis
19.
Talanta ; 80(3): 1139-44, 2010 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20006065

RESUMEN

A greener and more sensitive spectrophotometric procedure has been developed for the determination of phenol and o-cresol that exploits an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) using a liquid-liquid extraction technique. An ATPS is formed mostly by water and does not require organic solvent. Other ATPS components used in this study were the polymer, polyethylene oxide, and some salts (i.e., Li(2)SO(4), Na(2)SO(4) or K(2)HPO(4)+KOH). The method is based on the reaction between phenol, sodium nitroprusside (NPS) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HL) in an alkaline medium (pH 12.0), producing the complex anion [Fe(2)(CN)(10)](10-) that spontaneously concentrates in the top phase of the system. The linear range was 1.50-500microgkg(-1) (R>or=0.9997; n=8) with coefficients of variation equal to 0.38% for phenol and 0.30% for o-cresol (n=5). The method yielded limits of detection (LODs) of 1.27 and 1.88microgkg(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of 4.22 and 6.28microgkg(-1) for phenol and o-cresol, respectively. Recoveries between 95.7% and 107% were obtained for the determination of phenol in natural water and wastewater samples. In addition, excellent agreement was observed between this new ATPS method and the standard 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) method.

20.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 877(24): 2579-84, 2009 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19617006

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to determine the thermodynamic parameters (Delta(tr)G, Delta(tr)H and Delta(tr)S) associated with lysozyme and conalbumin partitioning in aqueous two-phases systems (ATPS). Influence of salt type and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations on the partition coefficient of lysozyme and conalbumin from egg white was studied. The evaluated ATPS were composed of PEG 1500 and inorganic salts (sodium citrate and sodium sulfate) at a temperature of 25 degrees C and pH 7.0, with PEG 1500 g mol(-1) concentrations of 14%, 16% and 18% (mass basis). Partitioning of lysozyme in PEG-citrate ATPS was enthalpically driven, however the PEG-sulfate ATPS was entropically driven. The tested systems can be employed for the separation of these two proteins in egg white, due to the fact that lysozyme migrates toward the polymeric phase and conalbumin to the saline phase in both ATPS. A high recovery of conalbumin in the saline phase of the PEG-sulfate ATPS was determined to be enthalpically driven.


Asunto(s)
Conalbúmina/química , Muramidasa/química , Termodinámica , Conalbúmina/aislamiento & purificación , Muramidasa/aislamiento & purificación , Polietilenglicoles/química , Solubilidad
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