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Sci Total Environ ; 817: 153002, 2022 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031364


COVID-19 lockdown brought to a drastic reduction of anthropic impacts on the environment worldwide, including the marine-coastal system. Earth-Observation (EO) data have the potential to monitor and diagnose the effects of the lockdown in terms of water quality. Here we connect the dots among some coastal environmental changes that occurred during the Italian COVID-19 lockdown by using EO data, also seeking to assess connectivity between inland and marine systems. We present a holistic analysis of spatial and temporal variability of environmental parameters in the North Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean basin, exploiting the synergy of different satellite sensors, as well as hydrologic data from in situ observations. Our analysis indicates a favourable interplay of environmental variability that resulted in negative anomalies of Chlorophyll-a concentration, with respect to the climatologic values. Peculiar meteo-oceanographic and hydrological conditions made hard to disentangle potential anthropogenic effects. However, a multi-year hierarchical cluster analysis of riverine remote sensing reflectances groups together the optical properties of inland waters during the lockdown. This emergent cluster highlights the possibility of a second-order, anthropogenic effect that, superimposed to the (first-order) environmental natural causes, may have enhanced water quality during the lockdown.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Clorofila A , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Percepción , SARS-CoV-2
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0155756, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27258025


In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends that we document are consistent with the findings of several previous studies.

Clorofila/análisis , Color , Eutrofización/fisiología , Fitoplancton/fisiología , Agua de Mar/química , Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Mar Mediterráneo
Mar Pollut Bull ; 62(1): 140-53, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20880556


MOON (Mediterranean Operational Oceanography Network provides near-real-time information on oil-spill detection (ocean color and SAR) and predictions [ocean forecasts (MFS and CYCOFOS) and oil-spill predictions (MEDSLIK)]. We employ this system to study the Lebanese oil-pollution crisis in summer 2006 and thus to assist regional and local decision makers in Europe, regionally and locally. The MEDSLIK oil-spill predictions obtained using CYCOFOS high-resolution ocean fields are compared with those obtained using lower-resolution MFS hydrodynamics, and both are validated against satellite observations. The predicted beached oil distributions along the Lebanese and Syrian coasts are compared with in situ observations. The oil-spill predictions are able to simulate the northward movement of the oil spill, with the CYCOFOS predictions being in better agreement with satellite observations. Among the free MEDSLIK parameters tested in the sensitivity experiments, the drift factor appears to be the most relevant to improve the quality of the results.

Liberación de Peligros Químicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Petróleo/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química , Contaminación Química del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Predicción , Líbano , Mar Mediterráneo , Modelos Químicos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Movimientos del Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis