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4.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637424

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on burnout syndrome in the multiprofessional ICU team and to identify factors associated with burnout syndrome. DESIGN: Longitudinal, cross-sectional survey. SETTING: All adult ICUs within an academic health system. SUBJECTS: Critical care nurses, advanced practice providers, physicians, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, social workers, and spiritual health workers were surveyed on burnout in 2017 and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Burnout syndrome and contributing factors were measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory of Health and Human Service and Areas of Worklife Survey. Response rates were 46.5% (572 respondents) in 2017 and 49.9% (710 respondents) in 2020. The prevalence of burnout increased from 59% to 69% (p < 0.001). Nurses were disproportionately impacted, with the highest increase during the pandemic (58-72%; p < 0.0001) with increases in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and personal achievement decreases. In contrast, although burnout was high before and during coronavirus disease 2019 in all specialties, most professions had similar or lower burnout in 2020 as they had in 2017. Physicians had the lowest rates of burnout, measured at 51% and 58%, respectively. There was no difference in burnout between clinicians working in ICUs who treated coronavirus disease 2019 than those who did not (71% vs 67%; p = 0.26). Burnout significantly increased in females (71% vs 60%; p = 0.001) and was higher than in males during the pandemic (71% vs 60%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Burnout syndrome was common in all multiprofessional ICU team members prior to and increased substantially during the pandemic, independent of whether one treated coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Nurses had the highest prevalence of burnout during coronavirus disease 2019 and had the highest increase in burnout from the prepandemic baseline. Female clinicians were significantly more impacted by burnout than males. Different susceptibility to burnout syndrome may require profession-specific interventions as well as work system improvements.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0246270, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237078

RESUMEN

During infectious disease, pathogen load drives inflammation and immune response that together contribute to tissue injury often resulting in organ dysfunction. Pulmonary failure in SARS-CoV2-infected hospitalized COVID-19 patients is one such prominent example. Intervention strategies require characterization of the host-pathogen interaction by accurately assessing all of the above-mentioned disease parameters. To study infection in intact mammals, mice are often used as essential genetic models. Due to humane concerns, there is a constant unmet demand to develop studies that reduce the number of mice utilized while generating objective data. Here, we describe an integrated method of evaluating lung inflammation in mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV)-68. This method conserves animal resources while permitting evaluation of disease mechanisms in both infection settings. Lungs from a single euthanized mouse were used for two purposes-biological assays to determine inflammation and infection load, as well as histology to evaluate tissue architecture. For this concurrent assessment of multiple parameters from a single euthanized mouse, we limit in-situ formalin fixation to the right lung of the cadaver. The unfixed left lung is collected immediately and divided into several segments for biological assays including determination of pathogen titer, assessment of infection-driven cytokine levels and appearance of cell death markers. In situ fixed right lung was then processed for histological determination of tissue injury and confirmation of infection-driven cell death patterns. This method reduces overall animal use and minimizes inter-animal variability that results from sacrificing different animals for different types of assays. The technique can be applied to any lung disease study in mice or other mammals.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Herpesviridae/patología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/patología , Pulmón/patología , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/patología , Animales , Gammaherpesvirinae , Ratones , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
8.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259667

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between time period of hospitalization and hospital mortality among critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Observational cohort study from March 6, 2020, to January 31, 2021. SETTING: ICUs at four hospitals within an academic health center network in Atlanta, GA. PATIENTS: Adults greater than or equal to 18 years with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to an ICU during the study period (i.e., Surge 1: March to April, Lull 1: May to June, Surge 2: July to August, Lull 2: September to November, Surge 3: December to January). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 1,686 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to an ICU during the study period, all-cause hospital mortality was 29.7%. Mortality differed significantly over time: 28.7% in Surge 1, 21.3% in Lull 1, 25.2% in Surge 2, 30.2% in Lull 2, 34.7% in Surge 3 (p = 0.007). Mortality was significantly associated with 1) preexisting risk factors (older age, race, ethnicity, lower body mass index, higher Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, admission from a nursing home); 2) clinical status at ICU admission (higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, higher D-dimer, higher C-reactive protein); and 3) ICU interventions (receipt of mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, renal replacement therapy, inhaled vasodilators). After adjusting for baseline and clinical variables, there was a significantly increased risk of mortality associated with admission during Lull 2 (relative risk, 1.37 [95% CI = 1.03-1.81]) and Surge 3 (relative risk, 1.35 [95% CI = 1.04-1.77]) as compared to Surge 1. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased experience and evidence-based treatments, the risk of death for patients admitted to the ICU with coronavirus disease 2019 was highest during the fall and winter of 2020. Reasons for this increased mortality are not clear.

9.
JCI Insight ; 6(11)2021 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100383

RESUMEN

TIGIT is a recently identified coinhibitory receptor that is upregulated in the setting of cancer and functionally contributes to the impairment of antitumor immunity. However, its role during sepsis is unknown. Because patients with cancer are 10 times more likely to die of sepsis than previously healthy (PH) patients with sepsis, we interrogated the role of TIGIT during sepsis in the context of preexistent malignancy. PH mice or cancer (CA) mice inoculated with lung carcinoma cells were made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that sepsis induced TIGIT upregulation predominantly on Tregs and NK cells in both PH and CA mice. Anti-TIGIT Ab improved the 7-d survival of CA septic mice but not PH mice after CLP. Treatment of CA septic animals but not PH septic animals with anti-TIGIT mAb significantly reversed sepsis-induced loss of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, Foxp3+ Treg, and CD19+ B cells in the spleen, which was the result of decreased caspase-3+ apoptotic cells. In sum, we found that anti-TIGIT Ab reversed sepsis-induced T cell apoptosis in CA septic mice and led to a significant survival benefit, suggesting its use as a potential immunotherapy to improve outcomes in septic patients with cancer.

10.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1151-1158, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125574

RESUMEN

The development of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines began in March 2020 in response to a request from the White House Coronavirus Task Force. Within 4 days of the request, the NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel was established and the first meeting took place (virtually-as did subsequent meetings). The Panel comprises 57 individuals representing 6 governmental agencies, 11 professional societies, and 33 medical centers, plus 2 community members, who have worked together to create and frequently update the guidelines on the basis of evidence from the most recent clinical studies available. The initial version of the guidelines was completed within 2 weeks and posted online on 21 April 2020. Initially, sparse evidence was available to guide COVID-19 treatment recommendations. However, treatment data rapidly accrued based on results from clinical studies that used various study designs and evaluated different therapeutic agents and approaches. Data have continued to evolve at a rapid pace, leading to 24 revisions and updates of the guidelines in the first year. This process has provided important lessons for responding to an unprecedented public health emergency: Providers and stakeholders are eager to access credible, current treatment guidelines; governmental agencies, professional societies, and health care leaders can work together effectively and expeditiously; panelists from various disciplines, including biostatistics, are important for quickly developing well-informed recommendations; well-powered randomized clinical trials continue to provide the most compelling evidence to guide treatment recommendations; treatment recommendations need to be developed in a confidential setting free from external pressures; development of a user-friendly, web-based format for communicating with health care providers requires substantial administrative support; and frequent updates are necessary as clinical evidence rapidly emerges.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/terapia , Pandemias , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Comités Consultivos , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Aprobación de Drogas , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2 , Participación de los Interesados , Estados Unidos
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2321: 169-175, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048016

RESUMEN

Gut barrier function has been hypothesized to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Measuring intestinal permeability allows for a determination of barrier dysfunction under conditions of health and disease. Fluorescence-conjugated dyes such as fluorescein isothiocyanate-4 kDa dextran (FD4) have been commonly used for evaluating hyperpermeability. Here we describe a common method to measure gut permeability in vivo, following gavage with different sized dyes. In addition, we describe an ex vivo everted gut sac model that allows for discrimination of permeability by segmental geographic location along the intestine.


Asunto(s)
Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Sepsis/metabolismo , Animales , Dextranos/metabolismo , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/análogos & derivados , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/metabolismo , Ratones , Permeabilidad
12.
J Immunol ; 206(10): 2412-2419, 2021 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911005

RESUMEN

Sepsis induces significant immune dysregulation characterized by lymphocyte apoptosis and alterations in the cytokine milieu. Because cancer patients exhibit a 10-fold greater risk of developing sepsis compared with the general population, we aimed to understand how pre-existing malignancy alters sepsis-induced immune dysregulation. To address this question, we assessed the impact of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells on the immune response in a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Tumor-bearing animals containing Thy1.1+ tumor-specific CD8+ T cells were subjected to CLP, and groups of animals received anti-Thy1.1 mAb to deplete tumor-specific CD8+ T cells or isotype control. Results indicated that depleting tumor-specific T cells significantly improved mortality from sepsis. The presence of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells resulted in increased expression of the 2B4 coinhibitory receptor and increased apoptosis of endogenous CD8+ T cells. Moreover, tumor-specific T cells were not reduced in number in the tumors during sepsis but did exhibit impaired IFN-γ production in the tumor, tumor draining lymph node, and spleen 24 h after CLP. Our research provides novel insight into the mechanisms by which pre-existing malignancy contributes to increased mortality during sepsis.


Asunto(s)
Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/inmunología , Inmunidad , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicaciones , Neoplasias Pulmonares/inmunología , Melanoma Experimental/complicaciones , Melanoma Experimental/inmunología , Sepsis/complicaciones , Sepsis/inmunología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/complicaciones , Neoplasias Cutáneas/inmunología , Animales , Apoptosis/inmunología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/sangre , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangre , Ganglios Linfáticos/inmunología , Masculino , Melanoma Experimental/sangre , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Transgénicos , Fenotipo , Sepsis/sangre , Sepsis/mortalidad , Neoplasias Cutáneas/sangre , Bazo/inmunología , Antígenos Thy-1/genética
14.
Crit Care Med ; 49(4): 623-635, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731607

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Expand upon the priorities of fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy research priorities identified by a group of experts assigned by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. DATA SOURCES: Original article, literature search. STUDY SELECTION: Several members of the original task force with expertise specific to the area of fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy. DATA EXTRACTION: None. DATA SYNTHESIS: None. CONCLUSION: In the second of a series of manuscripts subsequent to the original article, members with expertise in the subjects expound upon the three identified priorities related to fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapies. This analysis summarizes what is known and what were identified as ongoing and future research.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Fluidoterapia/métodos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Sepsis/terapia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Masculino , Vasoconstrictores/uso terapéutico
15.
JCI Insight ; 6(5)2021 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682797

RESUMEN

Mounting evidence suggests that the balance of T cell costimulatory and coinhibitory signals contributes to mortality during sepsis. Here, we identified a critical role of the coinhibitory molecule T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) in regulating sepsis mortality. Because TIGIT is significantly upregulated on memory T cells, we developed a "memory mouse" model to study the role of TIGIT during sepsis in a more physiologically relevant context. Mice received sequential pathogen exposure and developed memory T cell frequencies, similar to those observed in adult humans, and were then subjected to sepsis induction via cecal ligation and puncture. Our results show that targeting the TIGIT pathway during sepsis is fundamentally different in previously naive versus memory mice, in that αTIGIT Ab had no effect on survival in previously naive septic mice but sharply worsened survival in memory septic mice. Mechanistically, αTIGIT increased apoptosis of memory T cells, decreased T cell function, and downregulated the costimulatory receptor DNAM on memory CD8+ T cells in memory septic mice, but not in previously naive septic mice. Additionally, αTIGIT diminished Helios expression in Tregs in memory but not previously naive septic mice. These data highlight fundamental differences in the pathophysiological impact of targeting TIGIT in immunologically experienced versus previously naive hosts during sepsis.

17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(4)2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586672

RESUMEN

Estrogen deficiency causes a gut microbiome-dependent expansion of BM Th17 cells and TNF-α-producing T cells. The resulting increased BM levels of IL-17a (IL-17) and TNF stimulate RANKL expression and activity, causing bone loss. However, the origin of BM Th17 cells and TNF+ T cells is unknown. Here, we show that ovariectomy (ovx) expanded intestinal Th17 cells and TNF+ T cells, increased their S1P receptor 1-mediated (S1PR1-mediated) egress from the intestine, and enhanced their subsequent influx into the BM through CXCR3- and CCL20-mediated mechanisms. Demonstrating the functional relevance of T cell trafficking, blockade of Th17 cell and TNF+ T cell egress from the gut or their influx into the BM prevented ovx-induced bone loss. Therefore, intestinal T cells are a proximal target of sex steroid deficiency relevant for bone loss. Blockade of intestinal T cell migration may represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Celular/inmunología , Intestinos , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica , Ovariectomía , Células Th17/inmunología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/inmunología , Animales , Quimiocina CCL20/genética , Quimiocina CCL20/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Intestinos/inmunología , Intestinos/microbiología , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica/inmunología , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica/microbiología , Receptores CXCR3/genética , Receptores CXCR3/inmunología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética
18.
Shock ; 56(4): 621-628, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606476

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Sepsis-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is mediated by disruption of the epithelial tight junction, which is closely associated with the peri-junctional actin-myosin ring. Genetic deletion of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) reverses intestinal hyperpermeability and improves survival in a murine model of intra-abdominal sepsis. In an attempt to determine whether these findings could be translated using a more clinically relevant strategy, this study aimed to determine if pharmacologic inhibition of MLCK using the membrane permeant inhibitor of MLCK (PIK) improved gut barrier function and survival following sepsis. C57BL/6 mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce sepsis and were then randomized to receive either PIK or vehicle. Unexpectedly, PIK significantly worsened 7-day survival following sepsis (24% vs. 62%). The three pathways of intestinal permeability were then interrogated by orally gavaging septic mice with creatinine (6Å), FD-4 (28Å), and rhodamine70 (120Å) and assaying their appearance in the bloodstream. PIK led to increased permeability in the leak pathway with higher levels of FD-4 in the bloodstream compared to septic mice given vehicle. In contrast, no differences were detected in the pore or unrestricted pathways of permeability. Examination of jejunal tight junctions for potential mechanisms underlying increased leak permeability revealed that mice that received PIK had increased phosphorylated MLC without alterations in occludin, ZO-1, or JAM-A. PIK administration was not associated with significant differences in systemic or peritoneal bacterial burden, cytokines, splenic or Peyer's Patches immune cells or intestinal integrity. These results demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of MLCK unexpectedly increases mortality, associated with worsened intestinal permeability through the leak pathway, and suggest caution is required in targeting the gut barrier as a potential therapy in sepsis.

19.
JAMA ; 325(8): 742-750, 2021 02 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620405

RESUMEN

Importance: Sepsis is a common syndrome with substantial morbidity and mortality. A combination of vitamin C, thiamine, and corticosteroids has been proposed as a potential treatment for patients with sepsis. Objective: To determine whether a combination of vitamin C, thiamine, and hydrocortisone every 6 hours increases ventilator- and vasopressor-free days compared with placebo in patients with sepsis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, adaptive-sample-size, placebo-controlled trial conducted in adult patients with sepsis-induced respiratory and/or cardiovascular dysfunction. Participants were enrolled in the emergency departments or intensive care units at 43 hospitals in the United States between August 2018 and July 2019. After enrollment of 501 participants, funding was withheld, leading to an administrative termination of the trial. All study-related follow-up was completed by January 2020. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive intravenous vitamin C (1.5 g), thiamine (100 mg), and hydrocortisone (50 mg) every 6 hours (n = 252) or matching placebo (n = 249) for 96 hours or until discharge from the intensive care unit or death. Participants could be treated with open-label corticosteroids by the clinical team, with study hydrocortisone or matching placebo withheld if the total daily dose was greater or equal to the equivalent of 200 mg of hydrocortisone. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of consecutive ventilator- and vasopressor-free days in the first 30 days following the day of randomization. The key secondary outcome was 30-day mortality. Results: Among 501 participants randomized (median age, 62 [interquartile range {IQR}, 50-70] years; 46% female; 30% Black; median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 27 [IQR, 20.8-33.0]; median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, 9 [IQR, 7-12]), all completed the trial. Open-label corticosteroids were prescribed to 33% and 32% of the intervention and control groups, respectively. Ventilator- and vasopressor-free days were a median of 25 days (IQR, 0-29 days) in the intervention group and 26 days (IQR, 0-28 days) in the placebo group, with a median difference of -1 day (95% CI, -4 to 2 days; P = .85). Thirty-day mortality was 22% in the intervention group and 24% in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among critically ill patients with sepsis, treatment with vitamin C, thiamine, and hydrocortisone, compared with placebo, did not significantly increase ventilator- and vasopressor-free days within 30 days. However, the trial was terminated early for administrative reasons and may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03509350.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapéutico , Hidrocortisona/uso terapéutico , Respiración Artificial , Sepsis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tiamina/uso terapéutico , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedad Crítica , Método Doble Ciego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Terminación Anticipada de los Ensayos Clínicos , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Puntuaciones en la Disfunción de Órganos , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/etiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia , Sepsis/complicaciones , Sepsis/mortalidad , Sepsis/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Vasoconstrictores/uso terapéutico
20.
Crit Care Med ; 49(3): e219-e234, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to affect millions worldwide. Given the rapidly growing evidence base, we implemented a living guideline model to provide guidance on the management of patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. METHODS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Disease 2019 panel has expanded to include 43 experts from 14 countries; all panel members completed an electronic conflict-of-interest disclosure form. In this update, the panel addressed nine questions relevant to managing severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. We used the World Health Organization's definition of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019. The systematic reviews team searched the literature for relevant evidence, aiming to identify systematic reviews and clinical trials. When appropriate, we performed a random-effects meta-analysis to summarize treatment effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, then used the evidence-to-decision framework to generate recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel issued nine statements (three new and six updated) related to ICU patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019. For severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019, the panel strongly recommends using systemic corticosteroids and venous thromboprophylaxis but strongly recommends against using hydroxychloroquine. In addition, the panel suggests using dexamethasone (compared with other corticosteroids) and suggests against using convalescent plasma and therapeutic anticoagulation outside clinical trials. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel suggests using remdesivir in nonventilated patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and suggests against starting remdesivir in patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 outside clinical trials. Because of insufficient evidence, the panel did not issue a recommendation on the use of awake prone positioning. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign Coronavirus Diease 2019 panel issued several recommendations to guide healthcare professionals caring for adults with critical or severe coronavirus disease 2019 in the ICU. Based on a living guideline model the recommendations will be updated as new evidence becomes available.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Dexametasona/uso terapéutico , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Adenosina Monofosfato/uso terapéutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapéutico , Anticoagulantes , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina , Inmunización Pasiva , Posicionamiento del Paciente , Ventilación
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