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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682362

RESUMEN

Risk perception (RP) evaluation during pregnancy and its relationship with lifestyles are considered useful tools for understanding communities living in high-risk areas and preventing dangerous exposure. It is well known that exposure to pollutants and less-healthy lifestyles may result in increased disease occurrence during life. Our work investigated environmental RP through ad hoc questionnaires administered to 611 mothers within the NEHO birth cohort, recruited in three heavily contaminated areas of Southern Italy. Four different RP indices, an exploratory factorial analysis (EFA), and a latent class analysis were evaluated from questionnaires. The highest values of risk perception index were observed in the Milazzo site (0.64 ± 0.16) and the lowest in the Crotone site (0.5 ± 0.18). EFA revealed four latent factors, including different items describing environmental pollution, and subjects were classified into four latent classes with different RP indices. Significant RP profiles were different among the sites (p < 0.001). Our results did not demonstrate any association between RP and lifestyles during pregnancy. Improving healthy lifestyle behaviours, particularly in polluted areas, would generate co-benefits by preventing further risk factors. As remediation interventions can take a long time, it needs to improve healthy lifestyles in residents until remediation is completed.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Mujeres Embarazadas , Contaminación Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Percepción , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801074

RESUMEN

The study analyzed the association of the fear of contagion for oneself and for family members (FMs) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, with demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) and health factors. The study was performed within the EPICOVID19 web-based Italian survey, involving adults from April-June 2020. Out of 207,341 respondents, 95.9% completed the questionnaire (60% women with an average age of 47.3 vs. 48.9 years among men). The association between fear and demographic and SES characteristics, contacts with COVID-19 cases, nasopharyngeal swab, self-perceived health, flu vaccination, chronic diseases and specific symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression model; odds ratios adjusted for sex, age, education and occupation were calculated (aORs). Fear for FMs prevailed over fear for oneself and was higher among women than men. Fear for oneself decreased with higher levels of education and in those who perceived good health. Among those vaccinated for the flu, 40.8% responded they had feelings of fear for themselves vs. 34.2% of the not vaccinated. Fear increased when diseases were declared and it was higher when associated with symptoms such as chest pain, olfactory/taste disorders, heart palpitations (aORs > 1.5), lung or kidney diseases, hypertension, depression and/or anxiety. Trends in fear by region showed the highest percentage of positive responses in the southern regions. The knowledge gained from these results should be used to produce tailored messages and shared public health decisions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Ansiedad , Estudios Transversales , Familia , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899325

RESUMEN

The adverse health effects of exposure to air pollutants, notably to particulate matter (PM), are well-known, as well as the association with measured or estimated concentration levels. The role of perception can be relevant in exploring effects and pollution control actions. The purpose of this study was to explore studies that analyse people's perception, together with the measurement of air pollution, in order to elucidate the relationship between them. We conducted a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In March 2020, PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were explored in an attempt to search for studies published from 2000 to 2020. The review included 38 studies, most of which were conducted in China (n = 13) and the United States (n = 11) and published over the last four years (n = 26). Three studies were multicenter investigations, while five articles were based on a national-level survey. The air quality (AQ) was assessed by monitoring stations (n = 24) or dispersion models (n = 7). Many studies were population questionnaire-based, air monitoring and time-series studies, and web-based investigations. A direct association between exposure and perception emerged in 20 studies. This systematic review has shown that most of the studies establish a relationship between risk perception measurement. A broad spectrum of concepts and notions related to perception also emerged, which is undoubtedly an indicator of the wealth of available knowledge and is promising for future research.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Material Particulado , Riesgo , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Opinión Pública
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365710

RESUMEN

The call for articles for the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Special Issue "Research about risk perception in the Environmental Health domain" was proposed at the beginning of 2020 as part of multidisciplinary efforts to understand the complex interactions between people and the environment [...].


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Neumonía Viral , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e036160, 2020 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393613

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Environmental pollution has been progressively becoming one of the main risk factors to human diseases. In particular, populations living in high-contaminated sites are particularly exposed to environmental toxicants, with consequent increased risks to human health. In Italy, there are currently ongoing three epidemiological etiological studies aimed at evaluating the association between exposure to inorganic and organic chemicals and presence of biological markers of early effects in population living in three National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs). Specifically, the correlations concern preclinical indicators of liver disease in Priolo NPCS, thyroid diseases in Milazzo-Valle del Mela NPCS and cardiovascular risk and kidney damage in Crotone NPCS. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Overall, approximately 1300 subjects of both sexes will be enrolled in the three NPCSs according to specific inclusion criteria. For each subject, serum and urine specimens are collected, on which the determination of biological markers of exposure and early effects for the selected outcomes are performed. Individual information on environmental and occupational exposure, medical history, diet and life habits is obtained through questionnaires provided by web platform. In Milazzo-Valle del Mela and Crotone NPCSs, not invasive instrumental and imaging examinations are performed in order to evaluate further risk factors of thyroid carcinoma and cardiovascular disease, respectively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol studies have been approved by the Ethics Committees responsible for the three involved NPCSs: the Ethics Committee 'Catania 2' for the NPCS of Priolo (21 July 2017, n. 500/2017/CECT2), the Ethics Committee of the University Hospitals of Messina for the NPCS of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (19 February 2018, n.2/2018); the Ethics Committee of the Region of Calabria for the NPCS of Crotone (20 July 2017, n. 174). Results will be disseminated among policy-makers, citizens, stakeholders and scientific community through the organisation of conferences and events, and the publication on international peer/reviewed journals.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Contaminación Ambiental , Biomarcadores , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 135998, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862594

RESUMEN

Since the 1990s, in areas with natural geothermal manifestations studies on the association between exposure to pollutants and health effect have become increasingly relevant. These emissions consist of water vapor mixed with carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methane and, to a lesser extent, rare gases and trace elements in volatile forms. Considering the indications of the World Health Organization and the growth in the use of geothermal energy for energy production, this review aims to report studies exploring the health status of the populations living in areas where geothermal energy is used to produce heat and electricity. Studies on the health effects of the general population exposed to emissions from both natural geothermal events and plants using geothermal energy at domestic or commercial level have been considered between 1999 and 2019. Studies were classified into those based on health indicators and those based on proxy-individual level exposure metrics. Both statistically significant results (p<0.05) and interesting signals were commented. The 19 studies selected (New Zealand, Iceland and Italy) provide heterogeneous results, with an increased risk for several tumor sites. Exposure to H2S low concentrations is positively associated with an increment of respiratory symptoms, anti-asthma drugs use, mortality for respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to H2S high levels is inversely related to cancer mortality but associated with an increase in hospitalization for respiratory diseases, central nervous system disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The results indicate that the health of populations residing in areas rich in geothermal emissions presents some critical elements to be explored. The two major limitations of the studies are the ecological design and the inadequate exposure assessment. The authors suggested the prosecution and the systematization of health surveillance and human biomonitoring activities associated with permanent control of atmospheric emissions from both industrial and natural plants.


Asunto(s)
Electricidad , Calor , Humanos , Islandia , Italia , Nueva Zelanda
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717268

RESUMEN

In past years, communication activities have become increasingly important in the environment and health domain, considering the concurrent developments of social media and scientific citizenship that contributed changes in legislation and culture. Communication is particularly crucial where an environmental hazard is present, as in the case of high risk environmental and health risk areas. The project "International Center of Advanced Study in Environment, Ecosystem and Human Health" (CISAS), carried out by the Italian National Research Council, covers multiple research activities, from ecology to biology and medical sciences, from epidemiology to social sciences and communication. Three different studies based on human biomonitoring and a birth cohort study are currently in progress in the project locations, together with studies on the environmental fate of pollutants. A clear, accurate and respectful communication of study protocols and results represents a priority to produce comprehensible information available for policy makers, citizens, and stakeholders. This paper describes the multiple external and internal communication activities planned in the framework of the CISAS project as an example of promotion of knowledge in the society at large and improvement of risk management in the environmental health domain.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Participación de la Comunidad , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Estudios de Cohortes , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Italia , Gestión de Riesgos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133757, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756804

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coal-fired thermal power plants represent a significant source of air pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide (SO2) that has been associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity for respiratory and cardiovascular disease. A coal power plant in Vado Ligure (Italy) (CPPVL) started in 1970 was stopped in 2014 by the Prosecutor's Office on the grounds of environmental and health culpable disaster. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the exposure of residents to atmospheric pollutants emitted by CPPVL and the risk of mortality and hospitalization, considering both cancer and non-cancer causes in a population-based cohort study. METHODS: SO2 and nitrogen oxides (NOx), estimated using the ABLE-MOLOCH-ADMS-Urban dispersion model, were selected as representative surrogates of exposure to CPPVL emissions (SO2-CPPVL) and cumulative emissions from other sources of pollution (NOx-MS), respectively. The relationship between each health outcome and categories of exposure to SO2-CPPVL was estimated by the Hazard Ratio (HR) using multiple sex-specific Cox regression models, adjusted for age, exposure to NOx-MS, and socio-economic deprivation index using SO2-CPPVL first quartile as a reference. RESULTS: 144,019 individuals were recruited (follow-up 2001-2013). An excess of mortality was found for all natural causes (men: 1.49; 95% CI 1.38-1.60; women: 1.49; 95% CI 1.39-1.59), diseases of the circulatory system (men: 1.41; 95% CI 1.24-1.56; women: 1.59; 95% CI 1.44-1.77), of the respiratory system (men: 1.90; 95% CI 1.47-2.45; women: 1.62; 95% CI 1.25-2.09), and of the nervous system and sense organs (men: 1.34; 95% CI 0.97-1.86; women: 1.38; 95% CI 1.03-1.83), and in men for trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (1.59; 95% CI 1.26-2.00). Results of hospitalization analysis were consistent with those of mortality. CONCLUSION: Results obtained, also when considering multiple sources of exposure, indicate that exposure to CPP emissions represents a risk factor for selected health outcomes as well as the urgently adoption of primary prevention measures and of a specific surveillance programme.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Centrales Eléctricas , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Enfermedades Respiratorias/mortalidad
10.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(2): 98-104, 2019.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377755

RESUMEN

In 2008, some general practitioners (GPs) in the area of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), reported to the Local Health Authority (LHA), an unusually high frequency of leukemia deaths among their patients residing in a one of the municipalities of the area. The LHA decided to carry out an epidemiological investigation. An interdepartmental working group was set up, led by the Department of Prevention of the LHA, and made up of representatives of the Institute for Study, Prevention and Cancer Network (ISPRO, Florence), the G. Monasterio Foundation/ Institute of Clinical Physiology of the National Council for Research (CNR) of Pisa, the University of Pisa, the Regional Environmental Protection Agency and community members. Several epidemiological analyses were carried out (namely incidence and mortality analysis, assessment of the residential history of all cases and micro-geographical incidence evaluation, assessment and quantification of local environmental pressures, evaluation of congenital abnormalities). The investigation took over two years to be completed. The work agenda was shared with community members, who contributed to decision-making, study design and the communication plan. Thanks to the interaction with community members, researchers had the chance to become aware of their information needs and of local knowledge concerning the research issues. The final report was published online and presented to citizens in several public meetings. Direct involvement of the local community during project development was found to be useful to reduce the perceived distance between public authorities and the local population, as highlighted in the guidelines on cancer cluster investigations.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidad , Salud Pública , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Italia/epidemiología , Leucemia/mortalidad , Linfoma/mortalidad
11.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(1): 79-82, 2019.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111718

RESUMEN

In the period 2015-2017 a Health Impact Assessment, HIA, was carried out in the Municipalities of Viggiano and Grumento Nova, in Val D'Agri, where since 2001 the oil first treatment plant, COVA, has been active. HIA envisaged the constant involvement of local communities and a multidisciplinary scientific group. Seven scientific articles have been published on: review of evidence on non-methane hydrocarbons; diffusion model of air pollutants emitted by the COVA; characteristics of the HIA process; investigation on volatile organic compounds, odorous substances and citizens' reports; sample study on respiratory function using spirometry and questionnaire; residential cohort study on mortality and hospitalization; analysis of media outputs in a critical period. The results showed environmental and health impacts related to the population's area of residence. In addition to environmental-health surveillance activities, the preventive HIA approach emerges as a preferential way for reducing communities' exposure to recognized pollutants and sustaining environmental justice options.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Italia
12.
Epidemiol Prev ; 42(5-6): 356-363, 2018.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370738

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: understanding how selected media conveyed the news about the presentation of the results of the Health Impact Assessment study (HIA) in Val D'Agri (Southern Italy): what conceptual frames are used and their variation over time, the association of topics covered (issues), frames and actors. DESIGN: content analysis of the CNR press review in the period between the presentation of HIA results (06.09.2017-02.01.2018). Descriptive statistics analysis and multiple regression models, with stepwise selection of the most significant variables. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 138 articles read by two authors independently, with analysis of the goodness of concordance. The articles are coded with 6 characteristics; 7 actors, 4 issues, 2 general frames, 4 specific frames. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: associations among issues, frames, actors. RESULTS: the «alarmist tone¼ is associated with interviews to politicians while the citation of the study is associated with the «assertive tone¼. The statement «there are no problems¼ is related to interviews to «non-independent researchers¼ and «companies¼. The «trivialization of research¼ is associated with citations or interviews of «non-independent researchers¼ and interviews with «companies¼. The characterization of «propaganda¼ frame is done by the presence of interviews to «politicians¼ and the citation of «public administration¼, which plays a protective role. The «conflict¼ is associated with interviews to «public administration¼ and «politicians¼, as well as with the appearance in opening articles. The presence in the articles of «evidence-based measures¼, «governance measures¼ and «legal measures¼ has increased following the presentation of HIA results. CONCLUSION: the main frames (mutually exclusive) were useful for the analysis. The specific frames help to articulate the analysis, while the issues illustrate the contents. The observations of media in this limited period may be repeated and applied in other cases, and used to monitor the impact of existing risk prevention actions, and to better analyze risk perception at the local level.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Humanos , Italia
13.
Epidemiol Prev ; 42(2): 167-170, 2018.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774714

RESUMEN

Eleven projects within the LIFE programme (through which the Directorate-General for Environment of the European Commission provides funding for projects aim at protecting environment and nature) addressing environmental-health-related issues have been involved in a collaborative network called KTE LIFE EnvHealth Network. The shared issues tackled by that projects are knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE). The objective of the LIFE programme is to support the implementation of the environmental legislation in the European Union, to provide new tools and knowledge that will help to better protect both the territory and the communities. Transferring knowledge to decision makers, at the appropriate and effective level, is therefore a central function of the projects. The Network promotes national and international networking, which intends to involve other projects, to provide methodological support, to make information and successful practices circulate, with the aim of multiplying the energies of each project involved.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Salud Ambiental/organización & administración , Difusión de la Información , Toma de Decisiones , Unión Europea , Intercambio de Información en Salud , Política de Salud , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Gestión de Riesgos
14.
Epidemiol Prev ; 42(1): 15-19, 2018.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506357

RESUMEN

In Europe, Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a consolidated practice aimed at predicting health impacts supporting the predisposition of plans and projects subjected to authorization procedures. In Italy, further developments are needed to harmonize the practice and consolidate methodologies in order to extend the HIA application in different fields. The recent HIA conducted in Val d'Agri (Basilicata) on the impacts of a first crude oil treatment plant represents an opportunity to illustrate its tools, methods and fields of application. In this experience, participation methods in impact assessment have been adapted to the context, emphasizing aspects of ethics, equity and democracy. Environmental and epidemiological studies were included in the HIA Val d'Agri in order to characterize the environment and assess the health status of the resident population. On the basis of the results public health recommendations have been elaborated, shared with the stakeholders and shared with local and regional administrators. The experience in Val d'Agri introduces elements of reflection on the potential of HIA at local level in order to support the public health and the environmental control systems in the area, as well as planning based on preventive environment and HIA.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Petróleo/toxicidad , Participación de la Comunidad , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Italia , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Salud Pública , Participación de los Interesados
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29373506

RESUMEN

The effects of noise on students' health, well-being, and learning are of growing concern among both the general public and policy-makers in Europe. Several studies have highlighted the consequences of noise on children's learning and performance at school. This study investigates the relationship between noise judgment in school goers aged 11-18 and noise measurements aimed at evaluating their exposure at school. For this purpose, a questionnaire was administered to 521 individuals in 28 classrooms in eight schools of four cities in Italy, with different environmental characteristics. Using a Likert-type scale, a selected set of responses related to noise generated an Annoyance Index (AI) score for each student and a classroom median score (MAI). From the noise data acquired, a global noise score (GNS) was assigned to each classroom. A higher AI was found in industrialized areas and among younger students. No significant differences in noise judgment were found by gender. A significant inverse correlation was described between MAI and GNS, thus the better the acoustic quality of the classrooms, the less the perceived noise and annoyance. The results show that noise perception and consequent disturbance are highly correlated with classroom acoustics, and confirm that annoyance represents the most widespread subjective response to noise.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva , Emociones , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Ruido/efectos adversos , Instituciones Académicas , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Acústica , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Juicio , Masculino , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Health Econ ; 27(2): e55-e68, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28901604

RESUMEN

Despite the importance of including children's preferences in the valuation of their own health benefits, no study has investigated the ability of children to understand willingness-to-pay (WTP) questions. Using a contingent valuation method, we elicit children's and parents' WTP to reduce children's risk of an asthma attack. Our results suggest that children are able to understand and value their own health risk reductions, and their ability to do so improves with age. Child age was found to be inversely related to parents' and children's WTP. The results also suggest that non-paternalistic altruism is predictive of children's WTP. For parents, care for their own health was found to be inversely related with their WTP for children's risk reductions. Comparison of parents' and children's WTP suggests that parents are willing to sacrifice for their child's health risk reduction an amount that is approximately twice that of their children. The analysis of matched pairs of parents and children suggest that there are within-household similarities as the child's WTP is positively related to parents' WTP.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Financiación Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Padres/psicología , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adolescente , Asma/economía , Niño , Femenino , Financiación Personal/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prioridad del Paciente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 14(1): 33, 2016 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27129850

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The cooperation of actors across policy fields and the need for cross-sector cooperation as well as recommendations on how to implement cross-sector cooperation have been addressed in many national and international policies that seek to solve complex issues within societies. For such a purpose, the relevant governance structure between policy sectors is cross-sector cooperation. Therefore, cross-sector cooperation and its structures need to be better understood for improved implementation. This article reports on the governance structures and processes of cross-sector cooperation in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies in six European Union (EU) member states. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis of HEPA policies and semi-structured interviews with key policymakers in six European countries. RESULTS: Cross-sector cooperation varied between EU member states within HEPA policies. The main issues of the cross-sector policy process can be divided into stakeholder involvement, governance structures and coordination structures and processes. Stakeholder involvement included citizen hearings and gatherings of stakeholders from various non-governmental organisations and citizen groups. Governance structures with policy and political discussions included committees, working groups and consultations for HEPA policymaking. Coordination structures and processes included administrative processes with various stakeholders, such as ministerial departments, research institutes and private actors for HEPA policymaking. Successful cross-sector cooperation required joint planning and evaluation, financial frameworks, mandates based on laws or agreed methods of work, communication lines, and valued processes of cross-sector cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sector cooperation required participation with the co-production of goals and sharing of resources between stakeholders, which could, for example, provide mechanisms for collaborative decision-making through citizen hearing. Clearly stated responsibilities, goals, communication, learning and adaptation for cross-sector cooperation improve success. Specific resources allocated for cross-sector cooperation could enhance the empowerment of stakeholders, management of processes and outcomes of cross-sector cooperation.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Ejercicio Físico , Política de Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Formulación de Políticas , Sector Privado , Sector Público , Europa (Continente) , Unión Europea , Gobierno , Humanos , Organizaciones , Salud Pública , Opinión Pública
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 123(3): 201-9, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25499717

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. RESULTS: Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children's health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change. The mix of traditional and modern hazards varies greatly across and within countries reflecting industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic forces. CONCLUSIONS: To control environmental threats to children's health in Latin America, WHO, including PAHO, will focus on the most highly prevalent and serious hazards-indoor and outdoor air pollution, water pollution, and toxic chemicals. Strategies for controlling these hazards include developing tracking data on regional trends in children's environmental health (CEH), building a network of Collaborating Centres, promoting biomedical research in CEH, building regional capacity, supporting development of evidence-based prevention policies, studying the economic costs of chronic diseases in children, and developing platforms for dialogue with relevant stakeholders.


Asunto(s)
Protección a la Infancia , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Ambiental , Contaminación Ambiental/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Enfermedad Crónica/prevención & control , Países en Desarrollo , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/prevención & control , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Humanos , Industrias , América Latina/epidemiología , Organización Panamericana de la Salud , Urbanización , Organización Mundial de la Salud
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 11(12): 12683-99, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25493391

RESUMEN

Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population's health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA andSEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health,significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection ofthe environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Salud Ambiental/métodos , Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud/métodos , Salud Pública/métodos , Humanos , Italia , Modelos Teóricos
20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 38(3-4 Suppl 1): 27-94, 2014.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25115552

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Arsenic and its inorganic compounds are classified as carcinogenic to humans. Exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water are associated with both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. The risk assessment of exposures to low-moderate levels of environmental arsenic (As) is a challenging objective for research and public health. The SEpiAs study, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health (CCM), was carried out in four areas with arsenic pollution prevalently of natural origin, Amiata and Viterbo areas, or of industrial origin, Taranto and Gela. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 271 subjects (132 men) aged 20-44, were randomly sampled stratifying by area, gender and age classes. Individual data on residential history, socio-economic status, environmental and occupational exposures, lifestyle and dietary habits, were collected through interviews using questionnaire. In urine samples of recruited subjects, the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylated species (MMA, DMA) was measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometer (DRCICP- MS), after chromatographic separation (HPLC). Molecular biomarkers and biomarkers of DNA damage, as well as markers of cardiovascular risk were measured The distributions of iAs and iAs+MMA+DMA were described by area and gender, geometric mean (GM), percentiles and standard deviation (SD). The associations between As species and variables collected by questionnaire were evaluated by multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Results showed a high variability of As species within and among areas. Gela and Taranto samples showed higher iAs concentration compared to Viterbo and Amiata. Subjects with iAs>1,5 µg/L or iAs+MMA+DMA>15 µg/L (thresholds suggested by the Italian Society of Reference Values), are 137 (50,6%) and 68 (25,1%), respectively. A positive association between iAs and use of drinking water emerged in the Viterbo sample, between iAs and occupational exposure in the Gela and Taranto samples. Fish consumption was associated with higher iAs concentration in the whole sample, and particularly in men of the Gela sample. Similar results were observed for iAs+MMA+DMA. Subjects with iAs or iAs+MMA+DMA values higher than the 95th percentile were 15 (6Taranto, 5 Gela, 3Viterbo, 1 Amiata). The relationships between iAs and organic species (methylation efficiency ratios) were different between sex in the four areas. The relevance of polymorphisms AS3MT Met287Thr, GST-T1, GST-M1, OGG1 was confirmed. The analysis of carotid intima-media-thickness showed normal values, but higher among man of Viterbo, Taranto and Gela areas. CONCLUSIONS: Results are informative of exposure to inorganic and organic As in large or at least non-negligible quotas of the samples. The SEpiAs results suggest a further deepening on routes of exposure to arsenic species, and support the recommendation to implement primary prevention measures to reduce population exposure.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/análisis , Adulto , Arsénico/efectos adversos , Biomarcadores/análisis , Carcinógenos/análisis , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Agua Potable/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Polimorfismo Genético , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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