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Bioscience ; 70(9): 794-803, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973409


Threats to biodiversity are well documented. However, to effectively conserve species and their habitats, we need to know which conservation interventions do (or do not) work. Evidence-based conservation evaluates interventions within a scientific framework. The Conservation Evidence project has summarized thousands of studies testing conservation interventions and compiled these as synopses for various habitats and taxa. In the present article, we analyzed the interventions assessed in the primate synopsis and compared these with other taxa. We found that despite intensive efforts to study primates and the extensive threats they face, less than 1% of primate studies evaluated conservation effectiveness. The studies often lacked quantitative data, failed to undertake postimplementation monitoring of populations or individuals, or implemented several interventions at once. Furthermore, the studies were biased toward specific taxa, geographic regions, and interventions. We describe barriers for testing primate conservation interventions and propose actions to improve the conservation evidence base to protect this endangered and globally important taxon.

Science ; 368(6487): 194-197, 2020 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273470


Phylogenetic evidence suggests that platyrrhine (or New World) monkeys and caviomorph rodents of the Western Hemisphere derive from source groups from the Eocene of Afro-Arabia, a landmass that was ~1500 to 2000 kilometers east of South America during the late Paleogene. Here, we report evidence for a third mammalian lineage of African origin in the Paleogene of South America-a newly discovered genus and species of parapithecid anthropoid primate from Santa Rosa in Amazonian Perú. Bayesian clock-based phylogenetic analysis nests this genus (Ucayalipithecus) deep within the otherwise Afro-Arabian clade Parapithecoidea and indicates that transatlantic rafting of the lineage leading to Ucayalipithecus likely took place between ~35 and ~32 million years ago, a dispersal window that includes the major worldwide drop in sea level that occurred near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary.

Filogenia , Platirrinos/clasificación , Roedores/clasificación , África , Animales , Perú
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 82 Pt B: 495-510, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24751996


Using complete mitochondrial genome sequences, we provide the first molecular analysis of the phylogenetic position of the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, Lagothrix flavicauda (a.k.a. Oreonax flavicauda), a critically endangered neotropical primate endemic to northern Perú. The taxonomic status and phylogenetic position of yellow-tailed woolly monkeys have been debated for many years, but in this study both Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstructions unequivocally support a monophyletic woolly monkey clade that includes L. flavicauda as the basal taxon within the radiation. Bayesian dating analyses using several alternative calibrations suggest that the divergence of yellow-tailed woolly monkeys from other Lagothrix occurred in the Pleistocene, ∼2.1Ma, roughly 6.5 my after the divergence of woolly monkeys from their sister genus, Brachyteles. Additionally, comparative analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (COX2) gene shows that genetic distances between yellow-tailed woolly monkeys and other Lagothrix from across the genus' geographic distribution fall well within the range of between-species divergences seen in a large number of other platyrrhine primate genera at the same locus and outside the range of between-genus divergences. Our results thus confirm a position within Lagothrix for the yellow-tailed woolly monkey and strongly suggest that the name Oreonax be formally considered a synonym for this genus. This revision in taxonomic status does not change the dire conservation threats facing the yellow-tailed woolly monkey in Perú, where the remaining wild population is estimated at only ∼10,000 individuals living in a highly fragmented landscape.

Atelidae/clasificación , Evolución Biológica , Filogenia , Animales , Atelidae/genética , Teorema de Bayes , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Funciones de Verosimilitud , Modelos Genéticos , Perú , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , América del Sur
Primates ; 54(4): 377-83, 2013 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23661029


We report information on population density, group size, and habitat preferences of primates along the lower Río Urubamba and in the Río Urubamba-Río Tambo interfluvium, in central-eastern Peruvian Amazonia, an area that has been little explored with regard to its primate fauna. During 425 km of transect walks in October-November 2008 and April-May 2009 totally 174 groups of nine primate species were encountered, the most common being Callicebus brunneus (45 groups), Saguinus imperator (41 groups), and Aotus nigriceps (26 groups). Group sizes were smallest for A. nigriceps and C. brunneus (mean of 2.8 and 2.9, respectively) and largest for Saimiri boliviensis (mean 15.6). Population densities were lowest for Lagothrix cana (3.3 individuals/km(2)) and highest for A. nigriceps (31.1 individuals/km(2)). Groups of C. brunneus, S. imperator, S. boliviensis, Cebus albifrons, and Cebus apella were most frequently (83 % of sightings) encountered in semi-dense or in open primary forest that included stands of bamboo (Guadua sarcocarpa) or where bamboo was a very common species.

Ecosistema , Platirrinos/fisiología , Animales , Perú , Densidad de Población , Especificidad de la Especie
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 84(1): 1-10, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23296267


The white-fronted spider monkey, Ateles belzebuth, is listed as 'Endangered' according to the IUCN classification. In Peru it is found in the departments of Loreto, San Martín, Amazonas and Cajamarca, but detailed data on its geographic distribution, population densities and conservation status are scarce. In order to obtain such information, we conducted transect censuses on the Río Aushiri and Río San Antonio (right bank of Río Napo), and between the Río Curaray and the Río Arabela and Río Nashiño, respectively, and made additional explorations on the northern and southern banks of the Río Marañón. We obtained 48 sightings along 761 km of census transect. Group size and population densities were lower in an area with high hunting pressure compared to areas with medium or low hunting pressure. Besides hunting, increasing deforestation is a major threat to the survival of A. belzebuth in Peruvian Amazonia.

Atelinae/fisiología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Demografía , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Perú
Am J Primatol ; 71(12): 964-8, 2009 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19691127


To study the geographic distribution and demographic characteristics of Pithecia aequatorialis in Peruvian Amazonia, we undertook surveys and transect census in three river basins (Río Itaya, Río Tigre and Río Curaray) between 2004 and 2008. A total of 123 groups of P. aequatorialis was encountered during 1623 km of transect walks. Group size was uniform among the three areas (3.4-3.6 individuals), but surprisingly, population densities were higher in the area with strong hunting pressure (Río Itaya: 7.8 ind./km(2), vs. 5.6 and 5.9 km(2) in the Río Tigre and Río Curaray basins, respectively). The most common group composition included an adult pair with one offspring. Groups with more than one adult male and/or female accounted for 35% of sightings. Our observations extend P. aequatorialis range in Peru further south to the area between the Río Tigre and Río Corrientes, but exclude the area to the north between the Río Curaray and Río Napo. These findings are in contrast to previous distribution maps. P. aequatorialis was rarely seen in interspecific association during our censuses.

Geografía , Pitheciidae/fisiología , Animales , Conducta Animal , Ambiente , Femenino , Masculino , Perú , Densidad de Población , Ríos , Conducta Social , Especificidad de la Especie
Rev. peru. biol. (Impr.) ; 15(2): 33-40, feb. 2009. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LIPECS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1111235


Este reporte contiene información relacionada a la diversidad e impacto de la caza de los primates, así como las amenazas potenciales para sus poblaciones que habitan en la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. Está basado en censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Como resultado de los censos, fueron registrados 384 grupos pertenecientes a 9 de las 11 especies que habitan en el área de estudio, correspondiendo los mayores registros al pichico pardo (Saguinus fuscicollis Spix ) con 25,3%, huapo negro (Pithecia aequatorialis Hershkovitz) con 20,6% y mono choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Humboldt) con 15,9%. La densidad poblacional fue estimada para nueve especies, siendo Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus la más abundante con 18,2 individuos/km2, seguido por L. poeppigii con 15,5 individuos/km2 y S. fuscicollis con 10,5 individuos/km2; lo contrario ocurrió en Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus, cuya densidad fue estimada en 0,15 individuos/ km2. Del área de caza estimada en 600 km2 fueron extraídos un promedio anual de 262 ejemplares y cuya biomasa fue calculada en 1677,9. kg. Del total, 119 individuos equivalente al 45% correspondió a L. poeppigii, cuya presión de caza fue calculada en 0,19 individuos/km2. La aplicación del modelo de cosecha sugiere sobre caza en poblaciones de A. seniculus, L. poeppigii y C. apella. La caza y la deforestación con fines agrícolas son las amenazas potenciales para las poblaciones de primates.

This report contains information related to the diversity and hunting impact of the primates, as well as the potential threats for the populations that inhabit the upper Itaya river basin. It is based on census by transect and hunting records carried out in six communities. During the census 384 groups belonging to 9 were observed of the 11 species that inhabit the study area. Most records corresponded to Saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis Spix) with 25,3%, saki monkey (Pithecia aequatorialis Hershkovitz) with 20,6% and woolly monky (Lagothrix poeppigii Humboldt) with 15,9%. Population density was estimated for nine species, being the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus) the most abundant with 18,2 individuals/km2, followed by woolly monkey (L. Poeppigii) with 15,5 individuals/km2 and saddle-back tamarin (S. fuscicollis) with 10,5 individuos/km2; the opposite occured in red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus) whose density was estimated in 0,15 individuals/km2. Of the hunting area estimated in 600 km2 were harvested an annual average of 262 individuals, whose biomass was estimated in 1677,9 kg. Of them, 119 individuals equivalent to 45% corresponded towoolly monkey (L. poeppigii) whose hunting pressure was calculated in 0,19 individuos/km2. The application of the harvest model suggests overhunting in populations of red howler monkey (A. Seniculus), woolly monkey (L. Poeppigii) and brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Hunting and deforestation with agricultural purpose are the potential threats for the primates populations.

Animales , Caza , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Primates , Ríos