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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3245, 2022 02 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228565

RESUMEN

We tested the ability of human observers to discriminate distinct profiles of spatially dependant geometric phases when directly viewing stationary structured light beams. Participants viewed polarization coupled orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, or "spin-orbit" states, in which the OAM was induced through Pancharatnam-Berry phases. The coupling between polarization and OAM in these beams manifests as spatially dependant polarization. Regions of uniform polarization are perceived as specifically oriented Haidinger's brushes, and study participants discriminated between two spin-orbit states based on the rotational symmetry in the spatial orientations of these brushes. Participants used self-generated eye movements to prevent adaptation to the visual stimuli. After initial training, the participants were able to correctly discriminate between two spin-orbit states, differentiated by OAM [Formula: see text], with an average success probability of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). These results support our previous observation that human observers can directly perceive spin-orbit states, and extend this finding to non-rotating beams, OAM modes induced via Pancharatnam-Berry phases, and the discrimination of states that are differentiated by OAM.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Refracción Ocular , Movimientos Oculares , Humanos , Matemática , Movimiento (Física)
2.
IUCrJ ; 7(Pt 5): 893-900, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939281

RESUMEN

Neutrons are valuable probes for various material samples across many areas of research. Neutron imaging typically has a spatial resolution of larger than 20 µm, whereas neutron scattering is sensitive to smaller features but does not provide a real-space image of the sample. A computed-tomography technique is demonstrated that uses neutron-scattering data to generate an image of a periodic sample with a spatial resolution of ∼300 nm. The achieved resolution is over an order of magnitude smaller than the resolution of other forms of neutron tomography. This method consists of measuring neutron diffraction using a double-crystal diffractometer as a function of sample rotation and then using a phase-retrieval algorithm followed by tomographic reconstruction to generate a map of the sample's scattering-length density. Topological features found in the reconstructions are confirmed with scanning electron micrographs. This technique should be applicable to any sample that generates clear neutron-diffraction patterns, including nanofabricated samples, biological membranes and magnetic materials, such as skyrmion lattices.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(18): 183602, 2018 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444408

RESUMEN

We describe a highly robust method, applicable to both electromagnetic and matter-wave beams, that can produce a beam consisting of a lattice of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states coupled to a two-level system. We also define efficient protocols for controlling and manipulating the lattice characteristics. These protocols are applied in an experimental realization of a lattice of optical spin-orbit beams. The novel passive devices we demonstrate here are also a natural alternative to existing methods for producing single-axis OAM and spin-orbit beams. Our techniques provide new tools for investigations of chiral and topological materials with light and particle beams.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(11): 113201, 2018 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601748

RESUMEN

We demonstrate a three phase-grating moiré neutron interferometer in a highly intense neutron beam as a robust candidate for large area interferometry applications and for the characterization of materials. This novel far-field moiré technique allows for broad wavelength acceptance and relaxed requirements related to fabrication and alignment, thus circumventing the main obstacles associated with perfect crystal neutron interferometry. We observed interference fringes with an interferometer length of 4 m and examined the effects of an aluminum 6061 alloy sample on the coherence of the system. Experiments to measure the autocorrelation length of samples and the universal gravitational constant are proposed and discussed.

5.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(2): 023502, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495801

RESUMEN

We find that annealing a previously chemically etched interferometer at 800 °C dramatically increased the interference fringe visibility from 23% to 90%. The Bragg plane misalignments were also measured before and after annealing using neutron rocking curves, showing that Bragg plane alignment was improved across the interferometer after annealing. This suggests that current interferometers with low fringe visibility may be salvageable and that annealing may become an important step in the fabrication process of future neutron interferometers, leading to less need for chemical etching and larger more exotic neutron interferometers.

6.
J Magn Reson ; 289: 72-78, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476928

RESUMEN

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments are typically performed with predetermined pulse sequences and acquisition parameters, and are oftentimes sub-optimal for individual samples under investigation. Here we explore a class of real-time optimization methods that conducts stochastic analyses on the acquired data and in turn updates and optimizes the subsequent measurements. We show superiority of the method to static approaches, both in the efficiency and quality of data acquisition, for a wide range of experiments.

7.
New J Phys ; 20(10)2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858077

RESUMEN

The generation and control of neutron orbital angular momentum (OAM) states and spin correlated OAM (spin-orbit) states provides a powerful probe of materials with unique penetrating abilities and magnetic sensitivity. We describe techniques to prepare and characterize neutron spin-orbit states, and provide a quantitative comparison to known procedures. The proposed detection method directly measures the correlations of spin state and transverse momentum, and overcomes the major challenges associated with neutrons, which are low flux and small spatial coherence length. Our preparation techniques, utilizing special geometries of magnetic fields, are based on coherent averaging and spatial control methods borrowed from nuclear magnetic resonance. The described procedures may be extended to other probes such as electrons and electromagnetic waves.

8.
J Appl Phys ; 122(5)2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916709

RESUMEN

We provide a quantum information description of a proposed five-blade neutron interferometer geometry and show that it is robust against low-frequency mechanical vibrations and dephasing due to the dynamical phase. The extent to which the dynamical phase affects the contrast in a neutron interferometer is experimentally shown. In our model, we consider the coherent evolution of a neutron wavepacket in an interferometer crystal blade and simulate the effect of mechanical vibrations and momentum spread of the neutron through the interferometer. The standard three-blade neutron interferometer is shown to be immune to dynamical phase noise but prone to noise from mechanical vibrations, and the decoherence free subspace four-blade neutron interferometer is shown to be immune to mechanical vibration noise but prone to noise from the dynamical phase. Here, we propose a five-blade neutron interferometer and show that it is immune to both low-frequency mechanical vibration noise and dynamical phase noise.

9.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(12): 123507, 2016 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040910

RESUMEN

Neutron interferometry enables precision measurements that are typically operated within elaborate, multi-layered facilities which provide substantial shielding from environmental noise. These facilities are necessary to maintain the coherence requirements in a perfect crystal neutron interferometer which is extremely sensitive to local environmental conditions such as temperature gradients across the interferometer, external vibrations, and acoustic waves. The ease of operation and breadth of applications of perfect crystal neutron interferometry would greatly benefit from a mode of operation which relaxes these stringent isolation requirements. Here, the INDEX Collaboration and National Institute of Standards and Technology demonstrates the functionality of a neutron interferometer in vacuum and characterize the use of a compact vacuum chamber enclosure as a means to isolate the interferometer from spatial temperature gradients and time-dependent temperature fluctuations. The vacuum chamber is found to have no depreciable effect on the performance of the interferometer (contrast) while improving system stability, thereby showing that it is feasible to replace large temperature isolation and control systems with a compact vacuum enclosure for perfect crystal neutron interferometry.

10.
Phys Rev D ; 93(6)2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859165

RESUMEN

The physical origin of the dark energy that causes the accelerated expansion rate of the Universe is one of the major open questions of cosmology. One set of theories postulates the existence of a self-interacting scalar field for dark energy coupling to matter. In the chameleon dark energy theory, this coupling induces a screening mechanism such that the field amplitude is nonzero in empty space but is greatly suppressed in regions of terrestrial matter density. However measurements performed under appropriate vacuum conditions can enable the chameleon field to appear in the apparatus, where it can be subjected to laboratory experiments. Here we report the most stringent upper bound on the free neutron-chameleon coupling in the strongly coupled limit of the chameleon theory using neutron interferometric techniques. Our experiment sought the chameleon field through the relative phase shift it would induce along one of the neutron paths inside a perfect crystal neutron interferometer. The amplitude of the chameleon field was actively modulated by varying the millibar pressures inside a dual-chamber aluminum cell. We report a 95% confidence level upper bound on the neutron-chameleon coupling ß ranging from ß < 4.7 × 106 for a Ratra-Peebles index of n = 1 in the nonlinear scalar field potential to ß < 2.4 × 107 for n = 6, one order of magnitude more sensitive than the most recent free neutron limit for intermediate n. Similar experiments can explore the full parameter range for chameleon dark energy in the foreseeable future.

11.
J Magn Reson ; 252: 94-102, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25681801

RESUMEN

Any ensemble of quantum particles exhibits statistical fluctuations known as spin noise. Here, we provide a description of spin noise in the language of open quantum systems. The description unifies the signatures of spin noise under both strong and weak measurements. Further, the model accounts for arbitrary spin dynamics from an arbitrary initial state. In all cases we can find both the spin noise and its time correlation function.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 112(19): 190501, 2014 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24877920

RESUMEN

In recent years quantum simulation has made great strides, culminating in experiments that existing supercomputers cannot easily simulate. Although this raises the possibility that special purpose analog quantum simulators may be able to perform computational tasks that existing computers cannot, it also introduces a major challenge: certifying that the quantum simulator is in fact simulating the correct quantum dynamics. We provide an algorithm that, under relatively weak assumptions, can be used to efficiently infer the Hamiltonian of a large but untrusted quantum simulator using a trusted quantum simulator. We illustrate the power of this approach by showing numerically that it can inexpensively learn the Hamiltonians for large frustrated Ising models, demonstrating that quantum resources can make certifying analog quantum simulators tractable.

13.
J Magn Reson ; 242: 113-25, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24632101

RESUMEN

MR probes commonly employ resonant circuits for efficient RF transmission and low-noise reception. These circuits are narrow-band analog devices that are inflexible for broadband and multi-frequency operation at low Larmor frequencies. We have addressed this issue by developing an ultra-broadband MR probe that operates in the 0.1-3MHz frequency range without using conventional resonant circuits for either transmission or reception. This "non-resonant" approach significantly simplifies the probe circuit and allows robust operation without probe tuning while retaining efficient power transmission and low-noise reception. We also demonstrate the utility of the technique through a variety of NMR and NQR experiments in this frequency range.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(26): 267604, 2014 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25615386

RESUMEN

We experimentally demonstrate the first inductive readout of optically hyperpolarized phosphorus-31 donor nuclear spins in an isotopically enriched silicon-28 crystal. The concentration of phosphorus donors in the crystal was 1.5×10(15) cm(-3), 3 orders of magnitude lower than has previously been detected via direct inductive detection. The signal-to-noise ratio measured in a single free induction decay from a 1 cm(3) sample (≈10(15) spins) was 113. By transferring the sample to an X-band ESR spectrometer, we were able to obtain a lower bound for the nuclear spin polarization at 1.7 K of ∼64%. The (31)P-T2 measured with a Hahn echo sequence was 420 ms at 1.7 K, which was extended to 1.2 s with a Carr Purcell cycle. The T1 of the (31)P nuclear spins at 1.7 K is extremely long and could not be determined, as no decay was observed even on a time scale of 4.5 h. Optical excitation was performed with a 1047 nm laser, which provided above-band-gap excitation of the silicon. The buildup of the hyperpolarization at 4.2 K followed a single exponential with a characteristic time of 577 s, while the buildup at 1.7 K showed biexponential behavior with characteristic time constants of 578 and 5670 s.

15.
J Magn Reson ; 230: 84-7, 2013 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23454577

RESUMEN

This article describes a superconducting microstrip resonator operating at 9.5 GHz (X-band) that is specially designed for pulsed ESR on thin films. A novel configuration consisting of an array of half-wave length microstrip transmission lines generates a uniform magnetic field over a 2-D region of 100×1000 µm(2) with field homogeneity better than 5×10(-2). Using the device, we demonstrate strong coupling of the resonator to an electron spin ensemble and pulsed ESR on Si:P.


Asunto(s)
Espectroscopía de Resonancia por Spin del Electrón/instrumentación , Magnetismo/instrumentación , Ensayo de Materiales/instrumentación , Membranas Artificiales , Procesamiento de Señales Asistido por Computador/instrumentación , Transductores , Conductividad Eléctrica , Diseño de Equipo , Análisis de Falla de Equipo , Miniaturización
16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(17): 170503, 2012 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22680846

RESUMEN

We have investigated the driven dynamics of a superconducting flux qubit that is tunably coupled to a microwave resonator. We find that the qubit experiences an oscillating field mediated by off-resonant driving of the resonator, leading to strong modifications of the qubit Rabi frequency. This opens an additional noise channel, and we find that low-frequency noise in the coupling parameter causes a reduction of the coherence time during driven evolution. The noise can be mitigated with the rotary-echo pulse sequence, which, for driven systems, is analogous to the Hahn-echo sequence.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(14): 140502, 2012 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22540778

RESUMEN

We describe a method for coupling disjoint quantum bits (qubits) in different local processing nodes of a distributed node quantum information processor. An effective channel for information transfer between nodes is obtained by moving the system into an interaction frame where all pairs of cross-node qubits are effectively coupled via an exchange interaction between actuator elements of each node. All control is achieved via actuator-only modulation, leading to fast implementations of a universal set of internode quantum gates. The method is expected to be nearly independent of actuator decoherence and may be made insensitive to experimental variations of system parameters by appropriate design of control sequences. We show, in particular, how the induced cross-node coupling channel may be used to swap the complete quantum states of the local processors in parallel.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(15): 150401, 2011 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22107271

RESUMEN

A decoherence-free subspace (DFS) is an important class of quantum-error-correcting (QEC) codes that have been proposed for fault-tolerant quantum computation. The applications of QEC techniques, however, are not limited to quantum-information processing (QIP). Here we demonstrate how QEC codes may be used to improve experimental designs of quantum devices to achieve noise suppression. In particular, neutron interferometry is used as a test bed to show the potential for adding quantum error correction to quantum measurements. We built a five-blade neutron interferometer that incorporates both a standard Mach-Zender configuration and a configuration based on a DFS. Experiments verify that the DFS interferometer is protected against low-frequency mechanical vibrations. We anticipate these improvements will increase the range of applications for matter-wave interferometry.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(20): 200402, 2010 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21231211

RESUMEN

We experimentally demonstrate over 2 orders of magnitude increase in the room-temperature coherence time of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by implementing decoupling techniques. We show that equal pulse spacing decoupling performs just as well as nonperiodic Uhrig decoupling and also allows us to take advantage of revivals in the echo to explore the longest coherence times. At short times, we can extend the coherence of particular quantum states out from T2*=2.7 µs out to an effective T2>340 µs. For preserving arbitrary states we show the experimental importance of using pulse sequences that compensate the imperfections of individual pulses for all input states through judicious choice of the phase of the pulses. We use these compensated sequences to enhance the echo revivals and show a coherence time of over 1.6 ms in ultrapure natural abundance 13C diamond.

20.
Science ; 326(5950): 267-72, 2009 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19745117

RESUMEN

Robust measurement of single quantum bits plays a key role in the realization of quantum computation and communication as well as in quantum metrology and sensing. We have implemented a method for the improved readout of single electronic spin qubits in solid-state systems. The method makes use of quantum logic operations on a system consisting of a single electronic spin and several proximal nuclear spin ancillae in order to repetitively readout the state of the electronic spin. Using coherent manipulation of a single nitrogen vacancy center in room-temperature diamond, full quantum control of an electronic-nuclear system consisting of up to three spins was achieved. We took advantage of a single nuclear-spin memory in order to obtain a 10-fold enhancement in the signal amplitude of the electronic spin readout. We also present a two-level, concatenated procedure to improve the readout by use of a pair of nuclear spin ancillae, an important step toward the realization of robust quantum information processors using electronic- and nuclear-spin qubits. Our technique can be used to improve the sensitivity and speed of spin-based nanoscale diamond magnetometers.

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