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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493034

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Breast cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer in women in the US, so it is important to provide these women with good therapies. However, there are adverse effects to these therapies. Physical activity plays an important role in alleviating these adverse effects of breast cancer therapy. However, the effectiveness of home-based physical activity interventions such as walking programs has not been detailed by prior reviews. METHODS: This article reviews articles published to date to examine whether home-based physical activity interventions are effective in improving physical activity and other outcomes among breast cancer patients who are undergoing primary therapy for the disease. The present review is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed and CINAHL and relevant search terms. Articles published in English from 1980 through February 28, 2019 were identified. A total of 360 article citations were identified in PubMed and non-duplicates in CINAHL. RESULTS: After screening the abstracts or full texts of these articles and reviewing the references of previous review articles, we found 15 studies that met the eligibility criteria. Four of the studies were pre/post-test trials, 10 were randomized controlled trials, and one study was an observational study. CONCLUSION: Results from studies published to date indicate that among women receiving primary breast cancer therapy, home-based physical activity programs have positive effects on physical functioning and symptoms such as fatigue. Among women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy, home-based physical activity programs are effective in reducing symptoms and improving physical functioning. Additional studies are needed to clarify the impact of home-based physical therapy interventions on other outcomes including quality-of-life, bone mineral density, cognitive functioning, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1152: 9-29, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456177

RESUMEN

Epidemiologic studies have contributed importantly to current knowledge of environmental and genetic risk factors for breast cancer. Worldwide, breast cancer is an important cause of human suffering and premature mortality among women. In the United States, breast cancer accounts for more cancer deaths in women than any site other than lung cancer. A variety of risk factors for breast cancer have been well-established by epidemiologic studies including race, ethnicity, family history of cancer, and genetic traits, as well as modifiable exposures such as increased alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, exogenous hormones, and certain female reproductive factors. Younger age at menarche, parity, and older age at first full-term pregnancy may influence breast cancer risk through long-term effects on sex hormone levels or by other biological mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that triple negative breast cancers may have a distinct etiology. Genetic variants and mutations in genes that code for proteins having a role in DNA repair pathways and the homologous recombination of DNA double stranded breaks (APEX1, BRCA1, BRCA2, XRCC2, XRCC3, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51, XPD), have been implicated in some cases of breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Roturas del ADN de Doble Cadena , Reparación del ADN , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Recombinación Homóloga , Humanos , Mutación , Embarazo , Neoplasias de la Mama Triple Negativas/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama Triple Negativas/etiología
3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282939

RESUMEN

The rate of cardiovascular disease among cancer survivors is higher than in the general population. This difference is due to traditional CVD risk factors and also to the cardiotoxicity of cancer treatment. In a population-based cohort study of 3,512 men and women who were free of CVD at visit 5, Florido et al. evaluated the association of cancer survivorship with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by elevated high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT). Cancer survivors had significantly higher odds of elevated hs-cTnT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.53). Results were similar for survivors of non-sex-related and colorectal cancers. There was no association between survivorship from breast and prostate cancers and elevated hs-cTnT. The findings of Florido et al. indicate that survivors of some cancers may be more likely to have elevated hs-cTnT than patients without prior cancer. These findings have important implications because identifying cancer survivors who have elevated CVD risk is of paramount importance in order to prevent CVD manifestations such as heart attack, congestive heart failure, or stroke. Additional research is needed to clarify the association of elevated hs-cTnT levels among survivors of specific cancer sites, stage at diagnosis, and histologic types.

5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 537-548, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270761

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Social determinants of health that have been examined in relation to breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, and survival include socioeconomic status (income, education), neighborhood disadvantage, unemployment, racial discrimination, social support, and social network. Other social determinants of health include medical distrust, immigration, status, inadequate housing, food insecurity, and geographic factors such as neighborhood access to health services. Socioeconomic factors influence risk of breast cancer. For all racial/ethnic groups, breast cancer incidence rates tend to be positively associated with socioeconomic status. On the other hand, low socioeconomic status is associated with increased risk of aggressive premenopausal breast cancers as well as late stage of diagnosis and poorer survival. There are well-documented disparities in breast cancer survival by socioeconomic status, race, education, census-tract-level poverty, and access to health insurance and preventive care. Poverty is associated with other factors related to late stage at breast cancer diagnosis and poorer survival such as inadequate health insurance, lack of a primary care physician and poor access to health care. RESULTS: The results of this review indicate that social determinants such as poverty, lack of education, neighborhood disadvantage, residential segregation by race, racial discrimination, lack of social support, and social isolation play an important role in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival. CONCLUSION: To address these social determinants and eliminate cancer disparities, effective interventions are needed that account for the social and environmental contexts in which cancer patients live and are treated.

6.
J Occup Environ Med ; 61(7): 610-616, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090678

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Estimate and compare the prevalence of Gulf War Illness (GWI) in male and female Gulf War veterans using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and modified Kansas case definitions. METHODS: Data from the landmark CDC Air Force Study of GW Air Force veterans is used. RESULTS: Nearly half of the deployed veterans met the GWI CDC case definition compared with 14% of non-deployed veterans. Only 29% met the definition using the modified Kansas criteria compared with 8% of non-deployed veterans. Deployed veterans and female veterans exhibited significantly higher GWI risk. Female GW veterans had higher rates of severe and mild-to-moderate cases of GWI. CONCLUSION: Results suggest increased GWI rates based on CDC and modified Kansas criteria among deployed and female veterans. Further research is needed to examine the chronic health outcomes of female GW veterans independently.

7.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 105(2): 161-172, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115639

RESUMEN

In 5187 persons from the Cardiovascular Health Study, there was no significant association of dietary intakes of aromatic amino acids (AAA) with areal BMD of the hip or body composition. However, those who had the lowest dietary intakes of AAA were at increased risk for incident hip fractures. Prior studies of the association of protein intake with osteoporosis are conflicting and have not directly examined the relationship of aromatic amino acids (AAA) with fractures, areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and body composition. We sought to determine the relationship of dietary intakes of AAA with osteoporosis parameters in elderly men and women. 5187 men and women aged ≥ 65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) with dietary intakes of AAA (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine) estimated by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were included. We examined the relationship between a one-time estimate of daily dietary AAA intake with risk of incident hip fractures over a median of 13.2 years of fracture follow-up. A subset (n = 1336) who had dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed were included in a cross-sectional analysis of the association of dietary AAA intake with aBMD of the total hip and measurements of body composition. In multivariable models adjusted for demographic and clinical variables, medication use, and diet, higher dietary AAA intake was not significantly associated with incident hip fractures. All hazard ratios (HR) were less than one (tryptophan, HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.89; phenylalanine, HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.55; tyrosine, HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.32), but confidence intervals were wide and included no difference. However, in post hoc analyses, the lowest quartile of intake for each AAA was associated with an increased risk for hip fracture compared to higher quartiles (p ≤ 0.047 for all). Dietary AAA intakes were not significantly associated with total hip aBMD or any measurements of body composition. Overall, there was no significant association of dietary AAA intake with hip fractures, aBMD of the hip, or body composition. However, there may be a subset of elderly individuals with low dietary intakes of AAA who are at increased for hip fractures.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884809

RESUMEN

Prevalence of nine chronic medical conditions in the population-based Ft. Devens Cohort (FDC) of GW veterans were compared with the population-based 2013⁻2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohort. Excess prevalence was calculated as the difference in prevalence estimates from the Ft. Devens and NHANES cohorts; and confidence intervals and p-values are based on the standard errors for the two prevalence estimates. FDC males were at increased risk for reporting seven chronic medical conditions compared with NHANES males. FDC females were at decreased risk for high blood pressure and increased risk for diabetes when compared with NHANES females. FDC veterans reporting war-related chemical weapons exposure showed higher risk of high blood pressure; diabetes; arthritis and chronic bronchitis while those reporting taking anti-nerve gas pills had increased risk of heart attack and diabetes. GW veterans are at higher risk of chronic conditions than the general population and these risks are associated with self-reported toxicant exposures.


Asunto(s)
Guerra del Golfo , Encuestas Nutricionales , Veteranos , Adulto , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome del Golfo Pérsico/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme
9.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(6): 1969-1971, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796520

RESUMEN

Concomitant with the increasing use of cancer care plans has been an increasing awareness of the potential for oncology care to result in long-term financial burdens and financial toxicity. Cancer survivors can benefit from information on support and resources to help them navigate the challenges after acute cancer treatment. While cancer survivorship plans could be a vehicle for patients to receive information on how to mitigate financial toxicity, cancer survivorship plans have typically not dealt with the financial impact of cancer treatment or follow-up care. Embedding information into cancer survivorship plans on how to reduce or avoid financial toxicity presents an opportunity to address a highly prevalent patient need. Patient-centered qualitative studies are needed to assess the type, format, and level of detail of the information provided.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Neoplasias/economía , Planificación de Atención al Paciente/economía , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidad , Neoplasias/terapia , Planificación de Atención al Paciente/normas , Supervivencia
10.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(4): 643-652, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659655

RESUMEN

Interest in niacin has increased in the setting of reports suggesting that niacin plays a role in diseases of aging. No study to date has examined the association of dietary niacin intake with multiple skeletal health parameters including bone mineral density (BMD), hip fractures, and body composition, and none have included both African American and white men and women. Participants included 5187 men and women ≥65 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Mean daily dietary niacin intake was 32.6 mg, with quartiles 1 through 4 defined as 3.6 to 21.8 mg/day, 21.9 to 30.2 mg/day, 30.3 to 40.9 mg/day, and 41.0 to 102.4 mg/day, respectively. Risk of incident hip fracture per 10 mg increment of daily dietary niacin intake was estimated using proportional hazards models. During a median follow-up of 13 years, 725 participants had an incident hip fracture. In models adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics and diet, dietary niacin intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of hip fractures (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24) with spline models suggesting a U-shaped association. In post hoc analyses, both the lowest (HR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.66) and highest (HR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.95) quartiles of niacin intake were associated with an increased risk of incident hip fracture versus quartiles 2 and 3. There was a trend for a significant inverse association of dietary niacin intake with hip BMD (p = 0.06), but no significant association with total body BMD or any body composition measures. In this cohort of elderly, community-dwelling African American and white men and women, both high and low dietary niacin intakes were associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent hip fracture, suggesting a possible U-shaped association. By comparison, dietary niacin may have an inverse linear association with hip BMD. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506112

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Almost half of breast cancer survivors are aged ≥ 65 years and the proportion is likely to increase due to the aging of the population. The objectives of this article were to review studies of health outcomes among older breast cancer survivors ≥ 65 years to identify gaps in the published literature and offer suggestions for future research. METHODS: The present review is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed and CINAHL and relevant search terms. Articles published in English from January 1, 1970 through October 1, 2018 were identified using the following MeSH search terms and Boolean algebra commands. RESULTS: This review has revealed that older breast cancer survivors cope with health issues related to cancer treatment and the aging process, including comorbidities, osteoporosis, symptoms, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, nutrition, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Additional research is needed to examine therapeutic interventions to address the health conditions older breast cancer survivors are coping with. Particular focus of further research should be on the nutritional status and physical activity levels of older breast cancer survivors. Individualized nutrition plans and tailored physical activity programs for older survivors are needed that meet people where they are and that form habits.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345424

RESUMEN

Introduction: Despite the large numbers of women who served during the 1990-1991 Gulf War or post 9/11, many studies of the health of U.S. veterans have been limited to men or have not included adequate numbers of women veterans for separate analyses. As the number of women in the military increases particularly in the Southern U.S., there is a pressing need for additional health research involving women veterans including women who reside in rural areas and small towns and cities. Studies are also needed of women who do or do not receive VA health care services. Objectives: The objectives of this study are: 1) To obtain information about the physical and mental health of women who served in the U.S. military during various eras (e.g., Vietnam War, 1991 Gulf War, and post 9/11) and who currently reside in Georgia, 2) To establish a cohort of women veterans who complete a baseline postal questionnaire and are then followed longitudinally and invited to participate in a follow-up survey in 4 to 5 years, and 3) To establish a cohort of women veterans who can be invited to participate in IRB-approved clinical research studies that include subsets of women surveyed as part of the Southern Women Veteran's Health Study. Methods: This study consists of a postal survey of up to 1,000 women veterans in Georgia and a repeat survey in 4 to 5 years to obtain longitudinal data. The follow-up survey in 4 to 5 years will allow for longitudinal changes in health to be assessed. Conclusion: The survey will provide a comprehensive picture of women veteran's health across the lifespan. This will address the need for a comprehensive surveillance of health outcomes of women veterans with diverse residence (rural areas, larger cities in the southern U.S.) and VA health care service utilization. A broad range of women's health issues will be addressed including not only reproductive outcomes but also chronic health outcomes in endocrine, cardiac, neurological, immunological and mental health systems that may differ from their male counterparts. Through its longitudinal design, the study will also provide important information about changes in physical and mental health as women veterans advance in age.

13.
J Cancer Treatment Diagn ; 2(3): 10-15, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320304

RESUMEN

Introduction: Several studies have provided important information about health conditions and other challenges faced by women diagnosed with breast cancer and how they can improve their quality of life and reduce their risk of cancer recurrence. Although African American and Hispanic breast cancer patients have a poorer survival than their white counterparts, few studies have compared the experiences of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors. Objectives: To facilitate collaborative studies on breast cancer survivorship in a multicultural population, including future intervention research on nutrition, and physical activity, and clinical substudies. Methods: This cohort study consists of a postal survey of up to 1,000 women with a history of a breast cancer diagnosis who reside in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia, USA, and a repeat survey in 4 to 5 years to obtain longitudinal data. The follow-up survey in 4 to 5 years will allow for longitudinal changes in health to be assessed. Conclusion: The survey will provide a comprehensive picture of the health of breast cancer survivors, across the lifespan, in a large Southern city. A broad range of health issues will be addressed including physical activity, diet, nutrition, personal and family history of cancer, quality-of-life, psychosocial concerns, and beliefs about cancer recurrence risk reduction through lifestyle changes. Through its longitudinal design, the study will also provide important information about changes in physical and mental health as breast cancer survivors advance in age.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198018

RESUMEN

Many Veterans Affairs (VA) patients with the complications of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) use both VA and community providers and facilities outside of VA. Although dual health care systems increase care options, dual use also increases coordination needs. The fragmentation and duplication of health care due to the use of multiple facilities and providers may hinder effective care coordination, result in less efficient and more costly care, and lead to poorer outcomes. This article, which is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed, reviews the evidence on dual use of VA and community health care by Veterans for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and diabetes mellitus, the most common CMS complications requiring acute care and post-acute care services. A total of 179 articles were identified. After screening the full texts or abstracts of the 179 articles, 11 studies met the criteria, including two qualitative studies and 9 quantitative using administrative and Medicare records for veterans with AMI, CHF, or diabetes. Among the analytic studies, 3 had a cross-sectional design and 6 were cohort studies. The results of studies completed to date suggest that dual healthcare system use by older male veterans with cardiometabolic conditions is not associated with improved outcomes and may lead to unnecessary tests or procedures and increased healthcare costs. Additional research is warranted to examine the prevalence of dual health care system use by male and female veterans during recent time periods and to compare outcomes among patients who receive only VA care, only community care, or both VA and community care.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101216

RESUMEN

The fragmentation and lack of coordination of health care may result in less efficient and more costly care and lead to poorer outcomes. There has been increasing interest in examining cancer outcomes among persons who are dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid. Previous studies have identified disparities in the quality of cancer treatment according to race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and source of health insurance. This article, which is based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed, reviews the literature on dual enrollment in Medicare and Medicaid and cancer survival and quality of cancer treatment. A total of 65 articles were identified. Of the 65 articles that were screened using the full texts or abstracts, 13 studies met the eligibility criteria, one cross-sectional study and 12 cohort studies. The results of this systematic review indicate that there is only limited evidence that dual enrollment in Medicare and Medicaid is associated with poorer survival or quality of cancer care. The number of studies that have looked for associations between dual Medicare-Medicaid status and survival and quality of cancer treatment is still small. Outcomes and cancer site(s) varied among the studies. Additional studies are needed to determine the replicability of findings reported to date. Of particular interest are studies of major forms of cancer (breast, prostate, lung, colorectal) that include adequate numbers of patients described by insurance status, race, comorbidity, stage, receipt of appropriate cancer therapy, and survival.

16.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 110(4): 391-395, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126566

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined health behavior interventions for African American women who are uterine cancer survivors. Black-white differences in uterine cancer survival suggest that there are unmet needs among these survivors. METHODS: This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in uterine corpus cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase uterine cancer survivorship among African American women. RESULTS: For cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, lymphedema, and difficulty sleeping. A variety of interventions have been evaluated to address physical and mental health concerns, including exercise and dietary interventions. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a uterine corpus cancer diagnosis. Research-tested culturally tailored lifestyle interventions are lacking. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for a better understanding of uterine cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American uterine cancer survivors are needed.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863176

RESUMEN

Background: There has been increasing interest in the use of web portals by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies of web portal use by patients with pre-diabetes have not been reported. To plan studies of web portal use by adult clinic patients seen for pre-diabetes and T2DM at an academic medical center, we examined characteristics of those who had or had not registered for a web portal. Methods: Electronic records were reviewed to identify web portal registration by patients treated for pre-diabetes or T2DM by age, sex, race and ethnicity. Results: A total of 866 patients with pre-diabetes and 2,376 patients with T2DM were seen in a family medicine outpatient clinic. About 41.5% of patients with pre-diabetes and 34.7% of those with T2DM had registered for the web portal. In logistic regression analysis, web portal registration among patients with T2DM was significantly associated with age 41-45 years, and with Hispanic ethnicity. Similar results were obtained for pre-diabetes except that the positive association with age 41-45 years and inverse association with Hispanic ethnicity were not statistically significant. Among patients with pre-diabetes or T2DM, Black men and Black women were less likely to have registered than their white counterparts. Patients who were aged 18-25 and >65 years were less likely to have registered for the web portal than those 26-65 years. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to identify portal design features that improve health outcomes for patients with pre-diabetes and T2DM and interventions that will increase use of patient portals by pre-diabetic and diabetic patients, especially among Black patients and older patients.

18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(10): 2263, 2018 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893774
19.
Int J Med Inform ; 113: 43-48, 2018 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602432

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: There is limited evidence about the association between health literacy and use of patient web portals in patients with chronic illnesses. The objective of this review was to learn more about health literacy and use of patient web portals. METHODS: Bibliographic searches were conducted in PubMed and CINAHL using relevant MeSH search terms and Boolean algebra commands. RESULTS: Qualitative studies and studies with a cross-sectional, cohort, or pre-/post-test design have shown that persons with limited health literacy are less likely to use patient web portals, although there is inconsistency in the association across studies. CONCLUSIONS: The conflicting findings may be partially due to racial and ethnic differences in health literacy or level of comfort in sharing private health information using mobile technologies. Several opportunities exist to improve the usability and acceptability of web portals for patients with limited health literacy including enhancements in the design of the portals, patient and provider education and training, and engagement of proxies such as caregivers and close family members.

20.
J Clin Med ; 7(2)2018 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385768

RESUMEN

Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates have declined in recent years for people of all races/ethnicities; however, the extent to which the decrease varies annually by demographic and disease-related characteristics is largely unknown. This study examines trends and annual percent change (APC) in the incidence among persons diagnosed with CRC in the United States of America from 2000-2014. The data obtained from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program were analyzed, and all persons (N = 577,708) with malignant CRC recorded in the SEER 18 database from 2000 to 2014 were characterized according to sex, race, age at diagnosis, disease site and stage. Incidence rates and APC were calculated for the entire study period. Overall, the incidence rate of CRC decreased from 54.5 in 2000 to 38.6 per 100,000 in 2014, with APC = -2.66 (p < 0.0001). Decline in rates was most profound between 2008 and 2011 from 46.0 to 40.7 per 100,000 (APC = -4.04; p < 0.0001). Rates were higher for males (vs. females; rate ratio (RR) = 1.33) and for blacks (vs. whites; RR = 1.23). Proximal colon cancers at the localized stage were the predominant cancers. An increase in rate was observed among people younger than 50 years (6.6 per 100,000, APC= 1.5). The annual rate of CRC has decreased over time. However, the development and implementation of interventions that further reduce the disparities among demographic and disease-related subgroups are warranted.

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