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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100425], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230367

RESUMEN

Background: Executive Function (EF) is a potential mechanism linking physical activity (PA) and mental health. However, evidence regarding the association between free-living PA and EF is limited with mixed results. Across two studies, we examined associations between accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and facets of EF in different age groups (Study 1) and at different times of day (Study 2). Method: In Study 1, we tested the association between MVPA and verbal fluency across seven days in 285 participants (children, adults, older adults). In Study 2, we tested between- and within-person associations between MVPA and working memory (afternoon, evening, next morning) across three 18-day bursts in 64 preadolescents. Results: Study 1 showed no association between MVPA and verbal fluency overall, but there was an interaction by age group: a positive association was evident in older adults only. In Study 2, we observed a positive between-person association between MVPA and subsequent afternoon and next morning working memory, but not within-person. In the evening, MVPA was not related to working memory. Conclusions: The association between free-living PA and EF differs between age groups and times of day. Future research should consider these factors when examining the association and its role for mental health.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Cognición , Ejercicio Físico , Salud Mental , Psicología , Psicología Clínica , Neurología
2.
Appetite ; 196: 107259, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341037

RESUMEN

The role of ghrelin metabolism in anorexia of ageing is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine acyl-ghrelin, total ghrelin, and ghrelin O-acyltransferase concentrations when fasted and in responses to feeding in older adults exhibiting anorexia of ageing. Twenty-five older adults (OA; 15f, 74 ± 7 years, 24.5 kg·m-2) and twelve younger adults (YA; 6f, 21 ± 2 years, 24.4 kg·m-2) provided a fasted measure of subjective appetite and fasted blood sample (0 min) before consuming a standardised porridge breakfast meal (450 kcal). Appetite was measured every 30 min for 240 min and blood was sampled at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min while participants rested. At 240 min, an ad libitum pasta-based lunch meal was consumed. Older adults were identified as those with healthy appetite (HA-OA) or low appetite (LA-OA), based on habitual energy intake, self-report appetite, BMI, and ad libitum lunch intake. YA ate more at lunch (1108 ± 235 kcal) than HA-OA (653 ± 133 kcal, p = 0.007) and LA-OA (369 ± 168 kcal; p < 0.001). LA-OA, but not HA-OA, had higher fasted concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin than YA (acyl-ghrelin: 621 ± 307 pg·mL-1 vs. 353 ± 166 pg·mL-1, p = 0.047; total ghrelin: 1333 ± 702 pg·mL-1 vs. 636 ± 251 pg·mL-1, p = 0.006). Acyl-ghrelin (60 min and 90 min) and total ghrelin (90 min) were suppressed to a greater extent for LA-OA than for YA (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in subjective appetite, acyl-to-total ghrelin ratio, or plasma GOAT content (p > 0.1). Higher fasting ghrelin and an augmented ghrelin response to feeding in LA-OA, but not HA-OA, suggests that alterations to ghrelin metabolism are not functions of ageing per se and may be independent causal mechanisms of anorexia of ageing.


Asunto(s)
Anorexia , Ghrelina , Humanos , Anciano , Glucemia/metabolismo , Apetito/fisiología , Ayuno/fisiología , Envejecimiento , Ingestión de Energía , Aciltransferasas , Estudios Cruzados
3.
Int J Sports Med ; 45(4): 323-221, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272040

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the self-reported frequency and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) at rest and around rugby training and match play in male and female rugby union players. An online questionnaire was sent to registered rugby union players (sevens or fifteens). Thirteen GIS were assessed alongside perceptions of appetite around rugby and rest using Likert and visual analog scales. Questions investigating a range of medical and dietary factors were included. Three hundred and twenty-five players (male n=271, female n=54) participated in the study. More frequent GIS (at least one GIS experienced weekly/more often) was reported by players at rest (n=203; 62%) compared to around rugby (n=154; 47%). The overall severity of GIS was low (mild discomfort), but a portion of players (33%) did report symptoms of moderate severity around rugby. Female players reported more frequent and severe symptoms compared to male counterparts (p<0.001). Self-reported appetite was significantly lower after matches compared to training. There were no dietary or medical factors associated with GIS severity scores. This study describes GIS characteristics in male and female rugby union players. Half of the players assessed experienced some form of GIS that may affect nutrition, training, or performance, and should thus be a consideration for practitioners supporting this cohort.


Asunto(s)
Fútbol Americano , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Rugby , Estado Nutricional
4.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 24(1): 100425, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38089542

RESUMEN

Background: Executive Function (EF) is a potential mechanism linking physical activity (PA) and mental health. However, evidence regarding the association between free-living PA and EF is limited with mixed results. Across two studies, we examined associations between accelerometer-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and facets of EF in different age groups (Study 1) and at different times of day (Study 2). Method: In Study 1, we tested the association between MVPA and verbal fluency across seven days in 285 participants (children, adults, older adults). In Study 2, we tested between- and within-person associations between MVPA and working memory (afternoon, evening, next morning) across three 18-day bursts in 64 preadolescents. Results: Study 1 showed no association between MVPA and verbal fluency overall, but there was an interaction by age group: a positive association was evident in older adults only. In Study 2, we observed a positive between-person association between MVPA and subsequent afternoon and next morning working memory, but not within-person. In the evening, MVPA was not related to working memory. Conclusions: The association between free-living PA and EF differs between age groups and times of day. Future research should consider these factors when examining the association and its role for mental health.

5.
Ageing Res Rev ; 91: 102082, 2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797723

RESUMEN

Frailty is an age-related clinical condition characterised by an increased susceptibility to stressors and an elevated risk of adverse outcomes such as mortality. In the light of global population ageing, the prevalence of frailty is expected to soar in coming decades. This narrative review provides critical insights into recent developments and emerging practices in frailty research regarding identification, management, risk factors, and prevention. We searched journals in the top two quartiles of geriatrics and gerontology (from Clarivate Journal Citation Reports) for articles published between 01 January 2018 and 20 December 2022. Several recent developments were identified, including new biomarkers and biomarker panels for frailty screening and diagnosis, using artificial intelligence to identify frailty, and investigating the altered response to medications by older adults with frailty. Other areas with novel developments included exercise (including technology-based exercise), multidimensional interventions, person-centred and integrated care, assistive technologies, analysis of frailty transitions, risk-factors, clinical guidelines, COVID-19, and potential future treatments. This review identified a strong need for the implementation and evaluation of cost-effective, community-based interventions to manage and prevent frailty. Our findings highlight the need to better identify and support older adults with frailty and involve those with frailty in shared decision-making regarding their care.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Geriatría , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Humanos , Anciano , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/prevención & control , Inteligencia Artificial , Gestión de Riesgos , Anciano Frágil , Evaluación Geriátrica
6.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 204: 252-265, 2023 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37192685

RESUMEN

The antibody-linked oxi-state assay (ALISA) for quantifying target-specific cysteine oxidation can benefit specialist and non-specialist users. Specialists can benefit from time-efficient analysis and high-throughput target and/or sample n-plex capacities. The simple and accessible "off-the-shelf" nature of ALISA brings the benefits of oxidative damage assays to non-specialists studying redox-regulation. Until performance benchmarking establishes confidence in the "unseen" microplate results, ALISA is unlikely to be widely adopted. Here, we implemented pre-set pass/fail criteria to benchmark ALISA by robustly evaluating immunoassay performance in diverse biological contexts. ELISA-mode ALISA assays were accurate, reliable, and sensitive. For example, the average inter-assay CV for detecting 20%- and 40%-oxidised PRDX2 or GAPDH standards was 4.6% (range: 3.6-7.4%). ALISA displayed target-specificity. Immunodepleting the target decreased the signal by ∼75%. Single-antibody formatted ALISA failed to quantify the matrix-facing alpha subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. However, RedoxiFluor quantified the alpha subunit displaying exceptional performance in the single-antibody format. ALISA discovered that (1) monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation amplified PRDX2-specific cysteine oxidation in THP-1 cells and (2) exercise increased GAPDH-specific cysteine oxidation in human erythrocytes. The "unseen" microplate data were "seen-to-be-believed" via orthogonal visually displayed immunoassays like the dimer method. Finally, we established target (n = 3) and sample (n = 100) n-plex capacities in ∼4 h with 50-70 min hands-on time. Our work showcases the potential of ALISA to advance our understanding of redox-regulation and oxidative stress.


Asunto(s)
Benchmarking , Cisteína , Humanos , Cisteína/metabolismo , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Oxidación-Reducción , Estrés Oxidativo
8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 44(2): 418-428, 2023 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056618

RESUMEN

The neural underpinnings of the integration of internal and external cues that reflect nutritional status are poorly understood in humans. The hypothalamus is a key integrative area involved in short- and long-term energy intake regulation. Hence, we examined the effect of hunger state on the hypothalamus network using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In a multicenter study, participants performed a food cue viewing task either fasted or sated on two separate days. We evaluated hypothalamic functional connectivity (FC) using psychophysiological interactions during high versus low caloric food cue viewing in 107 adults (divided into four groups based on age and body mass index [BMI]; age range 24-76 years; BMI range 19.5-41.5 kg/m2 ). In the sated compared to the fasted condition, the hypothalamus showed significantly higher FC with the bilateral caudate, the left insula and parts of the left inferior frontal cortex. Interestingly, we observed a significant interaction between hunger state and BMI group in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Participants with normal weight compared to overweight and obesity showed higher FC between the hypothalamus and DLPFC in the fasted condition. The current study showed that task-based FC of the hypothalamus can be modulated by internal (hunger state) and external cues (i.e., food cues with varying caloric content) with a general enhanced communication in the sated state and obesity-associated differences in hypothalamus to DLPFC communication. This could potentially promote overeating in persons with obesity.


Asunto(s)
Señales (Psicología) , Hambre , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Hambre/fisiología , Obesidad , Alimentos , Hipotálamo/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipotálamo/fisiología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos
9.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(9): e34280, 2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048505

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Wrist-worn devices that incorporate photoplethysmography (PPG) sensing represent an exciting means of measuring heart rate (HR). A number of studies have evaluated the accuracy of HR measurements produced by these devices in controlled laboratory environments. However, it is also important to establish the accuracy of measurements produced by these devices outside the laboratory, in real-world, consumer use conditions. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the accuracy of HR measurements produced by the Withings ScanWatch during free-living activities. METHODS: A sample of convenience of 7 participants volunteered (3 male and 4 female; mean age 64, SD 10 years; mean height 164, SD 4 cm; mean weight 77, SD 16 kg) to take part in this real-world validation study. Participants were instructed to wear the ScanWatch for a 12-hour period on their nondominant wrist as they went about their day-to-day activities. A Polar H10 heart rate sensor was used as the criterion measure of HR. Participants used a study diary to document activities undertaken during the 12-hour study period. These activities were classified according to the 11 following domains: desk work, eat or drink, exercise, gardening, household activities, self-care, shopping, sitting, sleep, travel, and walking. Validity was assessed using the Bland-Altman analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). RESULTS: Across all activity domains, the ScanWatch measured HR with MAPE values <10%, except for the shopping activity domain (MAPE=10.8%). The activity domains that were more sedentary in nature (eg, desk work, eat or drink, and sitting) produced the most accurate HR measurements with a small mean bias and MAPE values <5%. Moderate to strong correlations (CCC=0.526-0.783) were observed between devices for all activity domains, except during the walking activity domain, which demonstrated a weak correlation (CCC=0.164) between devices. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the ScanWatch measures HR with a degree of accuracy that is acceptable for general consumer use; however, it would not be suitable in circumstances where more accurate measurements of HR are required, such as in health care or in clinical trials. Overall, the ScanWatch was less accurate at measuring HR during ambulatory activities (eg, walking, gardening, and household activities) compared to more sedentary activities (eg, desk work, eat or drink, and sitting). Further larger-scale studies examining this device in different populations and during different activities are required.

10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206493

RESUMEN

Individuals living in rural areas are more likely to experience cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and have increased barriers to regular physical activity in comparison to those in urban areas. This systematic review aimed to understand the types and effects of home-based connected health technologies, used by individuals living in rural areas with CVD. The inclusion criteria included technology deployed at the participant's home and could be an mHealth (smart device, fitness tracker or app) or telehealth intervention. Nine electronic databases were searched across the date range January 1990-June 2021. A total of 207 full texts were screened, of which five studies were included, consisting of 603 participants. Of the five studies, four used a telehealth intervention and one used a form of wearable technology. All interventions which used a form of telehealth found a reduction in overall healthcare utilisation, and one study found improvements in CVD risk factors. Acceptability of the technologies was mixed, in some studies barriers and challenges were cited. Based on the findings, there is great potential for implementing connected health technologies, but due to the low number of studies which met the inclusion criteria, further research is required within rural areas for those living with cardiovascular disease.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural , Telemedicina , Tecnología Biomédica , Atención a la Salud , Monitores de Ejercicio , Humanos
11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 182: 73-78, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217176

RESUMEN

New readily accessible systemic redox biomarkers are needed to understand the biological roles reactive oxygen species (ROS) play in humans because overtly flawed, technically fraught, and unspecific assays severely hamper translational progress. The antibody-linked oxi-state assay (ALISA) makes it possible to develop valid ROS-sensitive target-specific protein thiol redox state biomarkers in a readily accessible microplate format. Here, we used a maximal exercise bout to disrupt redox homeostasis in a physiologically meaningful way to determine whether the catalytic core of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A is a candidate systemic redox biomarker in human erythrocytes. We reasoned that: constitutive oxidative stress (e.g., haemoglobin autoxidation) would sensitise erythrocytes to disrupted ion homeostasis as manifested by increased oxidation of the ion regulatory phosphatase PP2A. Unexpectedly, an acute bout of maximal exercise lasting ~16 min decreased PP2A-specific reversible thiol oxidation (redox ratio, rest: 0.46; exercise: 0.33) without changing PP2A content (rest: 193 pg/ml; exercise: 191 pg/ml). The need for only 3-4 µl of sample to perform ALISA means PP2A-specific reversible thiol oxidation is a capillary-fingertip blood-compatible candidate redox biomarker. Consistent with biologically meaningful redox regulation, thiol reductant-inducible PP2A activity was significantly greater (+10%) at rest compared to exercise. We establish a route to developing new readily measurable protein thiol redox biomarkers for understanding the biological roles ROS play in humans.


Asunto(s)
Estrés Oxidativo , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Eritrocitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxidación-Reducción , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/metabolismo
12.
Geriatrics (Basel) ; 7(1)2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200521

RESUMEN

Proposed strategies for preventing protein deficiencies in older patients include increasing protein intake at breakfast. However, protein is highly satiating and the effects of very high protein intakes at breakfast on subsequent appetite and free-living energy intake (EI) in older adults are unclear. This study compared the acute effects of two breakfast drinks varying in protein and energy contents on appetite and free-living EI in healthy older adults using a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design. Participants (n = 48 (20 men, 28 women); mean ± SD age: 69 ± 3 years; BMI: 22.2 ± 2.0 kg·m-2; fat-free mass: 45.5 ± 8.0 kg) consumed two drinks for breakfast (high-protein (30.4 ± 5.3 g), low-energy (211.2 ± 37.1 kcal) content (HPLE) and very high-protein (61.8 ± 9.9 g), fed to energy requirements (428.0 ± 68.9 kcal) (VHPER)) one week apart. Appetite perceptions were assessed for 3 h post-drink and free-living EI was measured for the remainder of the day. Appetite was lower in VHPER than HPLE from 30 min onwards (p < 0.01). Free-living energy and protein intake did not differ between conditions (p = 0.814). However, 24 h EI (breakfast drink intake + free-living intake) was greater in VHPER than HPLE (1937 ± 568 kcal vs. 1705 ± 490 kcal; p = 0.001), as was 24 h protein intake (123.0 ± 26.0 g vs. 88.6 ± 20.9 g; p < 0.001). Consuming a very high-protein breakfast drink acutely suppressed appetite more than a low-energy, high-protein drink in older adults, though free-living EI was unaffected. The long-term effects of adopting such a breakfast strategy in older adults at high risk of energy and protein malnutrition warrants exploration.

13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 6970-6973, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34892707

RESUMEN

This study compared heart rate (HR) measurements taken from two wrist-worn devices; the Empatica E4 and the Apple Watch Series 5, to that taken from a Polar H10 chest strap. Ten healthy adult volunteers took part in a laboratory validation study and performed a treadmill exercise protocol. A single-subject validity study was also conducted to evaluate the accuracy of continuous HR measurements obtained during free-living activities. The participant wore both wrist devices, as well as the Polar H10 for 12-hours, as she continued her habitual daily activities. The key findings of the laboratory study were that the Apple Watch was accurate at assessing HR compared to the Polar H10 with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) values < 5% during treadmill exercise. The accuracy of the E4 however was generally poor with MAPE values > 15%. Findings from the single-subject validity study indicate that the Apple Watch produces accurate measurements of HR, whereas the E4 device overestimated HR, except for during the more strenuous activities undertaken where HR was underestimated.Clinical Relevance- The Apple Watch has acceptable accuracy in measuring HR during treadmill exercise and during free-living activities in healthy adult volunteers.


Asunto(s)
Fotopletismografía , Muñeca , Adulto , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Laboratorios , Articulación de la Muñeca
14.
Physiol Behav ; 242: 113622, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653498

RESUMEN

Salivary hormone analysis is a non-invasive alternative to blood-borne hormone analysis. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has been detected in human saliva, though the relationship between salivary and blood-borne ghrelin and salivary ghrelin's association with energy intake (EI) and appetite remains unclear. The primary aim of this study was to compare salivary and plasma ghrelin responses to dairy breakfast drinks varying in protein content and quantity, and to determine the relationship between salivary ghrelin and EI and appetite. Participants (n = 25) consumed four test drinks, varying in protein content and quantity, on four separate days in a double-blind randomized controlled study. Salivary and plasma total ghrelin were measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min and appetite perceptions at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. A buffet-style test meal was presented at 120 min to measure ad libitum EI. There was no correlation between the sample means for fasted salivary and plasma ghrelin (r = 0.099, p = 0.637). Furthermore, there was no within-participant association between fasted salivary and plasma ghrelin (r = -0.041, p = 0.725). Mean bias between fasted salivary and plasma ghrelin was -448 pg/ml (95% confidence intervals (CI) = -623 - -273 pg/ml) and upper and lower limits of agreement (LOA) were 427 pg/ml and -1324 pg/ml, respectively. Variation in postprandial levels of salivary and plasma ghrelin within-participants were not associated (r = -0.004, p = 0.943). There was no significant association between EI and salivary (r = 0.003, p = 0.979) or plasma (r = -0.080, p = 0.492) ghrelin. Salivary ghrelin was not significantly correlated with composite appetite score (r = 0.023; p = 0.654), though plasma ghrelin was (r = 0.225, p < 0.001). Mean bias between postprandial salivary and plasma ghrelin was -210 pg/ml (95% CI = -380 - -40 pg/ml) and upper and lower LOA were 641 pg/ml and -1061 pg/ml, respectively. These findings suggest that salivary and plasma ghrelin responses to drinks varying in protein content and quantity are unrelated and that salivary ghrelin is not associated with EI or appetite perceptions in healthy non-obese adults. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov (NCT01597024).


Asunto(s)
Apetito , Ghrelina , Adulto , Estudios Cruzados , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Comidas , Periodo Posprandial
15.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-30, 2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503591

RESUMEN

This study determined the validity, reproducibility and usability of a smartphone app - APPetite - for the measure of free-living, subjective appetite. Validity was assessed compared with the criterion tool of pen-and-paper visual analogue scale (VAS) (n=22). Appetite was recorded using APPetite and VAS, one immediately after the other, upon waking and every hour thereafter for twelve hours. This was repeated the next day with the order of tool reversed. Agreement between tools was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Reproducibility and usability were assessed in a separate experiment (n=22) of two trials (APPetite vs. VAS), separated by seven days. Appetite was recorded in duplicate upon waking and every hour for twelve hours using APPetite or VAS. Agreement between duplicate measures was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and coefficient of variation (CV) was compared between tools. Usability was assessed by comparing compliance and by qualitative evaluation. APPetite demonstrated good criterion validity with trivial bias of 1.65 units/mm·hr-1 between APPetite- and VAS-derived AUC appetite scores. Limits of agreement were within a maximum allowed difference of 10%. However, proportional bias was observed. APPetite demonstrated high reproducibility, with minimal bias (-0.578 units·hr-1) and no difference in CV between APPetite and VAS (1.29±1.42% vs 1.54±2.36%, p = 0.64). Compliance was high with APPetite (92.7±8.0%) and VAS (91.6±20.4%, p = 0.81). Ninety percent of participants preferred APPetite, citing greater accessibility, simplified process and easier/quicker use. While proportional bias precludes using APPetite and VAS interchangeably, APPetite appears a valid, reproducible and highly usable tool for measuring free-living appetite in young-to-middle-aged adults.

16.
Neuroimage ; 240: 118374, 2021 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245869

RESUMEN

Food cue exposure can trigger eating. Food cue reactivity (FCR) is a conditioned response to food cues and includes physiological responses and activation of reward-related brain areas. FCR can be affected by hunger and weight status. The appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin and leptin play a pivotal role in homeostatic as well as hedonic eating. We examined the association between ghrelin and leptin levels and neural FCR in the fasted and sated state and the association between meal-induced changes in ghrelin and neural FCR, and in how far these associations are related to BMI and HOMA-IR. Data from 109 participants from three European centers (age 50±18 y, BMI 27±5 kg/m2) who performed a food viewing task during fMRI after an overnight fast and after a standardized meal were analyzed. Blood samples were drawn prior to the viewing task in which high-caloric, low-caloric and non-food images were shown. Fasting ghrelin was positively associated with neural FCR in the inferior and superior occipital gyrus in the fasted state. This was partly attributable to BMI and HOMA-IR. These brain regions are involved in visual attention, suggesting that individuals with higher fasting ghrelin have heightened attention to food cues. Leptin was positively associated with high calorie FCR in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the fasted state and to neural FCR in the left supramarginal gyrus in the fasted versus sated state, when correcting for BMI and HOMA-IR, respectively. This PFC region is involved in assessing anticipated reward value, suggesting that for individuals with higher leptin levels high-caloric foods are more salient than low-caloric foods, but foods in general are not more salient than non-foods. There were no associations between ghrelin and leptin and neural FCR in the sated state, nor between meal-induced changes in ghrelin and neural FCR. In conclusion, we show modest associations between ghrelin and leptin and neural FCR in a relatively large sample of European adults with a broad age and BMI range. Our findings indicate that people with higher leptin levels for their weight status and people with higher ghrelin levels may be more attracted to high caloric foods when hungry. The results of the present study form a foundation for future studies to test whether food intake and (changes in) weight status can be predicted by the association between (mainly fasting) ghrelin and leptin levels and neural FCR.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Señales (Psicología) , Ayuno/sangre , Alimentos , Ghrelina/sangre , Leptina/sangre , Respuesta de Saciedad/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Apetito/fisiología , Biomarcadores/sangre , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Ayuno/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Hambre/fisiología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/sangre , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico por imagen , Sobrepeso/psicología
17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(3): e25313, 2021 03 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Accurate, continuous heart rate measurements are important for health assessment, physical activity, and sporting performance, and the integration of heart rate measurements into wearable devices has extended its accessibility. Although the use of photoplethysmography technology is not new, the available data relating to the validity of measurement are limited, and the range of activities being performed is often restricted to one exercise domain and/or limited intensities. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Polar OH1 and Fitbit Charge 3 devices for measuring heart rate during rest, light, moderate, vigorous, and sprint-type exercise. METHODS: A total of 20 healthy adults (9 female; height: mean 1.73 [SD 0.1] m; body mass: mean 71.6 [SD 11.0] kg; and age: mean 40 [SD 10] years) volunteered and provided written informed consent to participate in the study consisting of 2 trials. Trial 1 was split into 3 components: 15-minute sedentary activities, 10-minute cycling on a bicycle ergometer, and incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a motorized treadmill (18-42 minutes). Trial 2 was split into 2 components: 4 × 15-second maximal sprints on a cycle ergometer and 4 × 30- to 50-m sprints on a nonmotorized resistance treadmill. Data from the 3 devices were time-aligned, and the validity of Polar OH1 and Fitbit Charge 3 was assessed against Polar H10 (criterion device). Validity was evaluated using the Bland and Altman analysis, Pearson moment correlation coefficient, and mean absolute percentage error. RESULTS: Overall, there was a very good correlation between the Polar OH1 and Polar H10 devices (r=0.95), with a mean bias of -1 beats·min-1 and limits of agreement of -20 to 19 beats·min-1. The Fitbit Charge 3 device underestimated heart rate by 7 beats·min-1 compared with Polar H10, with a limit of agreement of -46 to 33 beats·min-1 and poor correlation (r=0.8). The mean absolute percentage error for both devices was deemed acceptable (<5%). Polar OH1 performed well across each phase of trial 1; however, validity was worse for trial 2 activities. Fitbit Charge 3 performed well only during rest and nonsprint-based treadmill activities. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with our criterion device, Polar OH1 was accurate at assessing heart rate, but the accuracy of Fitbit Charge 3 was generally poor. Polar OH1 performed worse during trial 2 compared with the activities in trial 1, and the validity of the Fitbit Charge 3 device was particularly poor during our cycling exercises.


Asunto(s)
Monitores de Ejercicio , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Adulto , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Determinación de la Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos
18.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266325

RESUMEN

Understanding the mechanisms of hunger, satiety and how nutrients affect appetite control is important for successful weight management across the lifecourse. The primary aim of this study was to describe acute appetite control across the lifecourse, comparing age groups (children, adolescents, adults, elderly), weight categories, genders and European sites (Scotland and Greece). Participants (n = 391) consumed four test drinks, varying in composition (15% (normal protein, NP) and 30% (high protein, HP) of energy from protein) and quantity (based on 100% basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 140% BMR), on four separate days in a double-blind randomized controlled study. Ad libitum energy intake (EI), subjective appetite and biomarkers of appetite and metabolism (adults and elderly only) were measured. The adults' appetite was significantly greater than that of the elderly across all drink types (p < 0.004) and in response to drink quantities (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in EI between age groups, weight categories, genders or sites. Concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were significantly greater in the elderly than the adults (p < 0.001). Ghrelin and fasting leptin concentrations differed significantly between weight categories, genders and sites (p < 0.05), while GLP-1 and PYY concentrations differed significantly between genders only (p < 0.05). Compared to NP drinks, HP drinks significantly increased postprandial GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.001). Advanced age was concomitant with reduced appetite and elevated anorectic hormone release, which may contribute to the development of malnutrition. In addition, appetite hormone concentrations differed between weight categories, genders and geographical locations.


Asunto(s)
Apetito/fisiología , Desayuno/psicología , Hambre/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores/sangre , Niño , Método Doble Ciego , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Femenino , Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/metabolismo , Glucosa/metabolismo , Homeostasis , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Péptido YY , Saciedad/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Br J Nutr ; 119(12): 1355-1365, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845905

RESUMEN

Nighttime eating is often associated with a negative impact on weight management and cardiometabolic health. However, data from recent acute metabolic studies have implicated a benefit of ingesting a bedtime snack for weight management. The present study compared the impact of ingesting a milk snack containing either 10 (BS10) or 30 g (BS30) protein with a non-energetic placebo (BS0) 30 min before bedtime on next morning metabolism, appetite and energy intake in mildly overweight males (age: 24·3 (sem 0·8) years; BMI: 27·4 (sem 1·1) kg/m2). Next morning measurements of RMR, appetite and energy intake were measured using indirect calorimetry, visual analogue scales and an ad libitum breakfast, respectively. Bedtime milk ingestion did not alter next morning RMR (BS0: 7822 (sem 276) kJ/d, BS10: 7482 (sem 262) kJ/d, BS30: 7851 (sem 261) kJ/d, P=0·19) or substrate utilisation as measured by RER (P=0·64). Bedtime milk ingestion reduced hunger (P=0·01) and increased fullness (P=0·04) during the evening immediately after snack ingestion, but elicited no effect the next morning. Next morning breakfast (BS0: 2187 (sem 365) kJ, BS10: 2070 (sem 336) kJ, BS30: 2582 (sem 384) kJ, P=0·21) and 24 h post-trial (P=0·95) energy intake was similar between conditions. To conclude, in mildly overweight adults, compared with a non-energetic placebo, a bedtime milk snack containing 10 or 30 g of protein does not confer changes in next morning whole-body metabolism and appetite that may favour weight management.


Asunto(s)
Apetito/fisiología , Leche , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Bocadillos/fisiología , Adulto , Animales , Metabolismo Basal , Estudios Cruzados , Dieta Reductora , Método Doble Ciego , Ingestión de Energía , Humanos , Masculino , Leche/efectos adversos , Sobrepeso/sangre , Sueño , Programas de Reducción de Peso , Adulto Joven
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