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1.
J Nurs Res ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524646

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with dementia need culturally sensitive, person-centered care to promote their health and well-being. Therefore, healthcare professionals should be able to provide culturally competent care, of which an element is the understanding of their own cultural heritage and how this impacts on their beliefs regarding dementia, as cultural norms and values provide meanings and understanding of chronic conditions such as dementia. This study used focus groups to explore the cultural beliefs of student nurses regarding dementia, generating a large set of qualitative data that required structure and a framework to analyze. PURPOSE: One purpose of this article was to present the methodological analysis, which encompasses the analytical framework. The second purpose was to apply the framework to elicit the cultural beliefs regarding dementia among student nurses from multiple national backgrounds. METHODS: Focus groups with student nurses from five higher education institutes in England, the Philippines, Slovenia, and New Zealand were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim. The qualitative data were analyzed using the framework method of analysis. Data from the focus groups conducted at the two higher education institutes in England were analyzed by encompassed synthesizing, refining, and agreeing on the codes, categories, and themes that were established separately by four researchers. The developed analytical framework was then tested on the qualitative data obtained from the focus groups conducted in Slovenia, the Philippines, and New Zealand. RESULTS: The results were presented in three parts: the cultural analytical framework, the process of developing the initial categories/themes, and the final themes that emerged from the data obtained from the focus groups. CONCLUSIONS: An analytical framework was developed and applied to understand student nurses' cultural values and beliefs of dementia.

2.
Nurs Older People ; 31(3): 29-38, 2019 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468788

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The global population is ageing and this trend is expected to continue. Attitudes towards older people differ worldwide. Ageism is a complex, multifaceted concept that includes attitudes and behaviours. In the UK, ageism and discriminatory practices exist in nursing, and educationalists and clinicians need to address ageist attitudes and promote the care of older people. In nursing there is a lack of synthesised evidence measuring ageism among nursing students. AIM: To explore the use of the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) questionnaire in different student populations in higher education, including nursing students. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted for articles written in English describing the use of ROPE, published between 2007 and 2017. Six quantitative studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was not possible and a thematic analysis of these studies was completed. FINDINGS: Two themes emerged: attitudes predict behaviour and socialisation to ageism in higher education. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviours and the socialisation of nursing students in clinical practice increased ageist attitudes. CONCLUSION: Ageism and the ageist attitudes of nursing students must continue to be explored. ROPE is a suitable tool to measure nursing students' ageist attitudes and behaviours.


Asunto(s)
Ageísmo , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Educación de Postgrado en Enfermería , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Anciano , Humanos , Investigación en Educación de Enfermería , Investigación en Evaluación de Enfermería , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Reino Unido
3.
Nurs Older People ; 2019 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468875

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The global population is ageing and this trend is expected to continue. Attitudes towards older people differ worldwide. Ageism is a complex, multifaceted concept that includes attitudes and behaviours. In the UK, ageism and discriminatory practices exist in nursing, and educationalists and clinicians need to address ageist attitudes and promote the care of older people. In nursing there is a lack of synthesised evidence measuring ageism among nursing students. AIM: To explore the use of the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) questionnaire in different student populations in higher education, including nursing students. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted for articles written in English describing the use of ROPE, published between 2007 and 2017. Six quantitative studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis was not possible and a thematic analysis of these studies was completed. FINDINGS: Two themes emerged: attitudes predict behaviour and socialisation to ageism in higher education. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviours and the socialisation of nursing students in clinical practice increased ageist attitudes. CONCLUSION: Ageism and the ageist attitudes of nursing students must continue to be explored. ROPE is a suitable tool to measure nursing students' ageist attitudes and behaviours.

4.
Nurse Educ Today ; 77: 6-11, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878702

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Migrant nurses have reported difficulties adapting to their new culture and providing culturally sensitive care for people with dementia. However, to date no studies have explored the impact of student nurse's cultural heritage on their beliefs and understanding of dementia. OBJECTIVES: To explore the cultural beliefs of dementia of student nurses studying in England, Slovenia, Philippines and New Zealand. DESIGN: An explorative hermeneutic phenomenology design. SETTINGS: Higher Education Institutes delivering undergraduate nursing education in England (University of Greenwich and University of Essex), Slovenia (Angela Boskin Faculty of Health Care), New Zealand (University of Auckland), and the Philippines (University of Silliman). PARTICIPANTS: Student nurses studying nursing in England (n = 81), Slovenia (n = 41), Philippines (n = 53) and New Zealand (n = 6). Participants from England and New Zealand were from diverse cultural backgrounds. Student nurses at the beginning of their studies (n = 100) and towards the end of their studies (n = 81) participated. METHODS: Completion of focus groups (n = 23), in England (n = 10), Slovenia (n = 6), Philippines (n = 6), and New Zealand (n = 1). All focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data was analysed by applying an inductive theoretical approach of the Framework Method, which supports the generation of themes through open unhindered coding, pinpointing, examining, and recording patterns within the data. RESULTS: Two major themes were identified in the data: familial piety and dementia discourse. Familial piety emerged from the importance of family and caring for family members with dementia, subthemes included: 'my granddad': familial experience, and 'better to be with her': familial home. Dementia discourse emerged from the terminology student nurses applied, such as: 'preconceptions and misconceptions' of aggression, and 'considered crazy' stigma of dementia due to a lack of awareness. CONCLUSIONS: The cultural heritage of student nurses impacted on their beliefs of dementia; however their understanding of the needs, care and support of a person with dementia changed and developed through clinical experience and education.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Demencia/psicología , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Demencia/complicaciones , Bachillerato en Enfermería/métodos , Inglaterra , Grupos Focales/métodos , Hermenéutica , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Filipinas , Investigación Cualitativa , Eslovenia
5.
Nurse Educ Today ; 76: 73-77, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771613

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-traditional students entering nursing programmes at university often experience difficulties with the academic literacy requirements of their courses, in particular academic and reflective writing. Levels of student anxiety may also be affected by other issues including the pressures of managing work, family and study commitments. OBJECTIVES: To explore how classroom-based poetry writing activities might support students in developing their skills as student-writers and reflective practitioners. DESIGN: A qualitative approach was employed to explore emergent themes in students' poems and students' reactions to creative writing teaching strategies. SETTING: A university based in the South East of England. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 25 students undertaking a Health Science Foundation Degree. METHODS: Data collected from student poems were analysed thematically using the framework of Braun and Clarke (2006). RESULTS: Students found the experience of writing poetry challenging at first, but ultimately rewarding. Compared with writing more formal academic reflections, many students valued the opportunity to express their emotions and experiences more freely. Analysis of the student poems also revealed a rich bank of data relating to key professional themes and students' lived experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Poetry writing helps students to develop writing craft and reflective skills. It encourages students to articulate often complex emotions associated with their professional worlds, thereby providing invaluable insights into the everyday lives of healthcare workers. This paper should provide others working in nursing education with a deeper understanding of possible benefits of incorporating poetry writing into the curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Poesía como Asunto , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Escritura , Adulto , Creatividad , Curriculum , Bachillerato en Enfermería , Inglaterra , Humanos
6.
J Clin Nurs ; 27(17-18): 3241-3253, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793378

RESUMEN

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To understand the intersection of healthcare professionals' and care workers' culture and their provision of person-centred care for people with dementia. BACKGROUND: Due to the nature of global immigration and recruitment strategies, health care is provided by a culturally diverse workforce. Consequently, there is a need to understand healthcare professionals' and care workers' cultural values of illness, disease and dementia. Cultural values and beliefs regarding dementia and care of the older person differ, and currently, there is a lack of clarity regarding the intersection of culture in the provision of person-centred dementia care. METHOD: A search of the following databases was completed: Medline, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, PsycINFO and PubMed for papers published from 1st January 2006 to 31st July 2016. RESULTS: A total of seven qualitative studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, all explored the impact of healthcare professionals' and care workers' culture in relation to their provision of person-centred dementia care. A meta-synthesis of the data from these studies identified four themes: cultural perceptions of dementia, illness and older people; impact of cultural perceptions on service use; acculturation of the workforce; and cross-cultural communication. CONCLUSION: Limited evidence was found on the impact of healthcare professionals' and care workers' culture on their provision of person-centred dementia care. The intersection of culture and dementia included the understanding of dementia, care and family roles. Acculturation of migrant healthcare workers to the culture of the host country, workplace, and support with the communication was identified as necessary for the provision of person-centred dementia care. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Open access education and training to support communication is required, alongside the development of robust interventions to support the process of acculturation of migrant healthcare professionals and care workers to provide culturally competent person-centred dementia care.


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Demencia/terapia , Personal de Salud/psicología , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Humanos , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/métodos , Investigación Cualitativa
8.
Nurse Res ; 21(5): 19-27, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24877907

RESUMEN

AIM: To describe how case study research (CSR) was used inductively as an all-encompassing theoretical framework to examine learning in the workplace. BACKGROUND: Case study research is a method with strong philosophical underpinnings which provides a framework for exploratory research in real-life settings ( Yin 2009 ). DATA SOURCES: A study of five students' experiences of learning in healthcare environments to explore real-life contexts over the course of two years. The study was rich with empirical data, offering a pragmatic framework for learning in the workplace. REVIEW METHODS: Observations, interviews and documents were used. DISCUSSION: As a result of using CSR, the findings were analysed systematically and rigorously. Using multiple methods verified data and strengthened the significance of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: This paper focuses on the strengths of using the CSR methodology. CSR embraces qualitative research methods in a rigorous and systematic manner. CSR has been applied to one example of research, addressing each step of the research protocol to use CSR to its full potential. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE/RESEARCH: CSR enables real-life settings to be studied systematically and rigorously, offering examples of practice in nursing and education.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Investigación en Educación de Enfermería/métodos , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Emociones , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Investigación Cualitativa
11.
Accid Emerg Nurs ; 14(2): 71-7, 2006 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16464593

RESUMEN

Workforce planning is a particular buzzword that nurse managers must grapple with and now must understand. They must develop strategies to ensure the life and growth of a department while incorporating numerous government targets to ensure the service reaches quality, achieves and meets predetermined goals. To do all this that manager needs a workforce. The recruitment of nursing staff to a specialist area such as Accident & Emergency (A&E) requires a level of creativity and sustained effort. Newly qualified registered nurse working in A&E have, in the past, been considered to be an unusual group of staff to apply to work in A&E. However, many health service managers receive applications from staff in this category and are often encouraged to recruit newly qualified registered nurse's rather than pay for agency workers. Using a qualitative approach this paper explores the key reasons why newly qualified registered nurses choose to work in an Accident & Emergency environment. Data was collected from a sample of 25 newly qualified registered nurses and analysed thematically. Five themes are presented: challenge, teamwork, diversity, support, and learning. These themes have implications for Accident and Emergency units and human resource and workforce planning departments.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Profesión , Enfermería de Urgencia , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Educación Continua en Enfermería , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Motivación , Rol de la Enfermera , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Investigación Cualitativa , Reino Unido
12.
J Clin Nurs ; 12(2): 260-7, 2003 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12603559

RESUMEN

The aim of this research was to identify needs, perceptions and experiences of first-time mothers in the postnatal period. Data were collected through focus groups and in-depth interviews from a sample of 13 women, 61% were aged 20 years or less, from an urban city area in Southern Ireland. Through content analysis, key themes were identified relating to birth and hospitalization, support, motherhood and psychological issues. Attendance at antenatal classes was variable and perceptions of being unprepared for birth and motherhood prevailed. Participants appeared shocked at the amount of pain experienced during birth and had little rest during hospitalization. They received physical and emotional support and preparation for childcare from midwives. Breastfeeding, while promoted, by midwives was not acceptable. The 'maternal mother' was key in providing direct childcare, advice and emotional help, support for attendance at school and 'time out' to socialize. Support was reciprocal if the maternal mother had young children. Professional support by public health nurses was well-established. However, emphasis was perceived to be on 'baby's development'. Maternal depression, loneliness, living in homes with limited space and difficulty in 'letting go' of baby care to return to school or work were reported. Implications for antenatal preparation, national policies, motherhood, and the need for further research are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Materna/psicología , Madres/psicología , Evaluación de Necesidades , Embarazo/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Irlanda , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Satisfacción del Paciente , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Arthritis Rheum ; 46(1): 92-9, 2002 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11817613

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Investigators performing cross-sectional studies have reported small increases in bone mineral density (BMD) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA). This study was undertaken to examine the association of bone mass with incident and progressive disease and to determine whether prior fractures influence the development of OA. METHODS: Eight hundred thirty women had repeat knee radiographs 48 months from baseline. All radiographs were graded on the presence or absence of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN). Incident knee OA was defined as new disease in the 715 women without knee OA at baseline. Progression was a change of at least one grade in the 115 women with baseline knee OA. All women underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip. Rates of subsequent incident OA were compared between fracture groups. RESULTS: The 95 women with incident knee osteophytes had significantly higher baseline spine BMD (1.01 gm/cm2 versus 0.95 gm/cm2, or 6.3%; P = 0.002) and significantly higher hip BMD (0.79 gm/cm2 versus 0.76 gm/cm2, or 3.9%; P = 0.02) than those without incident disease. For the 33 women whose osteophytes progressed, no difference was seen compared with nonprogressors in spine BMD, but hip BMD was modestly reduced (-2.5%). The 81 women who had incident JSN had nonsignificantly higher baseline spine BMD (3.0%), while no difference was seen for the 30 women whose JSN had progressed. For hip BMD, a nonsignificant increase was seen in those with incident JSN (1.3%), and a nonsignificant reduction was seen in those whose JSN progressed (-2.7%). One hundred forty-five women sustained peripheral fractures, mainly in the distal forearm (27.6%) and vertebrae (28.3%). Women with a peripheral fracture had a reduced risk of subsequently developing incident knee OA (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.11-0.84). Although numbers were smaller, nonsignificant reductions in rates of incident OA were seen for those with distal forearm (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.11-1.49) and vertebral (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-1.61) fractures. CONCLUSION: These results confirm that for women who develop incident knee OA, defined by osteophytes, BMD is higher and of a magnitude similar to that shown in cross-sectional studies. Low BMD at the hip appears weakly related to progression. Women with previous fractures have less chance of developing OA, independent of BMD status. Although the mechanism for this action is unclear, these results suggest a possible common role of bone turnover and repair in the early manifestations of OA.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Fracturas Óseas/diagnóstico por imagen , Fracturas Óseas/fisiopatología , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/fisiopatología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Articulación de la Cadera/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Incidencia , Articulación de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Articulación de la Rodilla/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/epidemiología , Radiografía , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen
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