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1.
Aust Health Rev ; 482024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537302

RESUMEN

Objective The study examined emergency department (ED) presentations, unplanned hospitalisations and potentially preventable hospitalisations in older people receiving long-term care by type of care received (i.e. permanent residential aged care or home care packages in the community), in Australia in 2019. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Registry of Senior Australians National Historical Cohort. Individuals were included if they resided in South Australia, Queensland, Victoria or New South Wales, received a home care package or permanent residential aged care in 2019 and were aged ≥65 years. The cumulative incidence of ED presentations, unplanned hospitalisations and potentially preventable hospitalisations in each of the long-term care service types were estimated during the year. Days in hospital per 1000 individuals were also calculated. Results The study included 203,278 individuals accessing permanent residential aged care (209,639 episodes) and 118,999 accessing home care packages in the community (127,893 episodes). A higher proportion of people accessing home care packages had an ED presentation (43.1% [95% confidence interval, 42.8-43.3], vs 37.8% [37.6-38.0]), unplanned hospitalisation (39.8% [39.6-40.1] vs 33.4% [33.2-33.6]) and potentially preventable hospitalisation (11.8% [11.6-12.0] vs 8.2% [8.1-8.4]) than people accessing permanent residential aged care. Individuals with home care packages had more days in hospital due to unplanned hospitalisations than those in residential care (7745 vs 3049 days/1000 individuals). Conclusions While a high proportion of older people in long-term care have ED presentations, unplanned hospitalisations and potentially preventable hospitalisations, people in the community with home care packages experience these events at a higher frequency.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Hospitalización , Anciano , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Australia
2.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 83, 2024 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551712

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in primary, allied health, selected specialists, and mental health service utilisation by older people in the year before and after accessing home care package (HCP) services. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using the Registry of Senior Australians Historical National Cohort (≥ 65 years old), including individuals accessing HCP services between 2017 and 2019 (N = 109,558), was conducted. The utilisation of general practice (GP) attendances, health assessments, chronic disease management plans, allied health services, geriatric, pain, palliative, and mental health services, subsidised by the Australian Government Medicare Benefits Schedule, was assessed in the 12 months before and after HCP access, stratified by HCP level (1-2 vs. 3-4, i.e., lower vs. higher care needs). Relative changes in service utilisation 12 months before and after HCP access were estimated using adjusted risk ratios (aRR) from Generalised Estimating Equation Poisson models. RESULTS: Utilisation of health assessments (7-10.2%), chronic disease management plans (19.7-28.2%), and geriatric, pain, palliative, and mental health services (all ≤ 2.5%) remained low, before and after HCP access. Compared to 12 months prior to HCP access, 12 months after, GP after-hours attendances increased (HCP 1-2 from 6.95 to 7.5%, aRR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11; HCP 3-4 from 7.76 to 9.32%, aRR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.13-1.28) and allied health services decreased (HCP 1-2 from 34.8 to 30.7%, aRR = 0.88, 95%CI 0.87-0.90; HCP levels 3-4 from 30.5 to 24.3%, aRR = 0.80, 95%CI 0.77-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Most MBS subsidised preventive, management and specialist services are underutilised by older people, both before and after HCP access and small changes are observed after they access HCP.


Asunto(s)
Pueblos de Australasia , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Servicios de Salud Mental , Humanos , Anciano , Australia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Dolor
3.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 28(2): 100030, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with dementia have poorer outcomes after hip fracture and this may be due in part to variation in care. We aimed to compare care and outcomes for people with and without cognitive impairment after hip fracture. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using Australian and New Zealand Hip Fracture Registry data for people ≥50 years of age who underwent hip fracture surgery (n = 49,063). Cognitive impairment or known dementia and cognitively healthy groups were defined using preadmission cognitive status. Descriptive statistics and multivariable mixed effects models were used to compare groups. RESULTS: In general, cognitively impaired people had worse care and outcomes compared to cognitively healthy older people. A lower proportion of the cognitively impaired group had timely pain assessment (≤30 min of presentation: 61% vs 68%; p < 0.0001), were given the opportunity to mobilise (89% vs 93%; p < 0.0001) and achieved day-1 mobility (34% vs 58%; p < 0.0001) than the cognitively healthy group. A higher proportion of the cognitively impaired group had delayed pain management (>30 mins of presentation: 26% vs 20%; p < 0.0001), were malnourished (27% vs 15%; p < 0.0001), had delirium (44% vs 13%; p < 0.0001) and developed a new pressure injury (4% vs 3%; p < 0.0001) than the cognitively healthy group. Fewer of the cognitively impaired group received rehabilitation (35% vs 64%; p < 0.0001), particularly patients from RACFs (16% vs 39%; p < 0.0001) and were prescribed bone protection medication on discharge (24% vs 27%; p < 0.0001). Significantly more of the cognitively impaired group had a new transfer to residential care (46% vs 11% from private residence; p < 0.0001) and died at 30-days (7% vs 3% from private residence; 15% vs 10% from RACF; both p < 0.0001). In multivariable models adjusting for covariates with facility as the random effect, the cognitively impaired group had a greater odds of being malnourished, not achieving day-1 walking, having delirium in the week after surgery, dying within 30 days, and in those from private residences, having a new transfer to a residential care facility than the cognitively healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified several aspects of care that could be improved for patients with cognitive impairment - management of pain, mobility, nutrition and bone health, as well as delirium assessment, prevention and management strategies and access to rehabilitation. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in care will reduce hospital complications and improve outcomes for people with dementia after hip fracture.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Delirio , Demencia , Fracturas de Cadera , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Retrospectivos , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Fracturas de Cadera/complicaciones , Fracturas de Cadera/cirugía , Fracturas de Cadera/rehabilitación , Demencia/complicaciones , Sistema de Registros
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 86, 2024 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233921

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a global public health priority. The World Health Organization adopted a Global Action Plan on Dementia, with dementia awareness a priority. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence with skills required for providing dementia care among primary health care providers in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 405 primary health care providers who worked at commune health stations and district health centers in eight provinces across Vietnam. RESULTS: The results showed that primary health care providers had poor knowledge and little confidence but more positive attitudes toward dementia care and management. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the training needs for building capacity amongst primary health care providers, which will be critical as Vietnam's population ages.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Médicos , Humanos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Vietnam , Estudios Transversales , Atención Primaria de Salud , Demencia/terapia
5.
Australas J Ageing ; 2024 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38268230

RESUMEN

Traditional emergency departments (EDs) are overcrowded and sometimes not suitable for older adults with complex needs. Specialised geriatric urgent care pathways for selected patients can alleviate ED demand and improve patient experience. To address urgent care needs for older adults in Southern Adelaide, the Complex And RestorativE (CARE) service was established. CARE offers alternative, geriatrician-led treatment pathways consisting of a ward-based treatment centre and an in-home visiting team called Eyes on Scene (EoS). Both pathways offer medical, nursing and allied health treatment. Routinely collected clinical data were analysed to explore the reach of the service and the incidence and nature of adverse events. Between September 2021 and March 2023, the CARE service attended to 5324 older adults requiring urgent care. A significant proportion of patients were discharged to or remained in their regular place of residence, with few requiring inpatient admissions or referrals to other facilities. A total of 7% of patients required transfer to ED and adverse events were rare. The CARE service demonstrates a feasible and safe alternative model of urgent care for older Australians.

6.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 117: 105210, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37812974

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine utilisation of primary health care services (subsidised by the Australian Government, Medicare Benefits Schedule, MBS) before and after entry into long-term care (LTC) in Australia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of older people (aged ≥65 years) who entered LTC in Australia between 2012 and 2016 using the Historical Cohort of the Registry of Senior Australians. MBS-subsidised general attendances (general practitioner (GP), medical and nurse practitioners), health assessment and management plans, allied health, mental health services and selected specialist attendances accessed in 91-day periods 12 months before and after LTC entry were examined. Adjusted relative changes in utilisation 0-3 months before and after LTC entry were estimated using risk ratios (RR) calculated using Generalised Estimating Equation Poisson models. RESULTS: 235,217 residents were included in the study with a median age of 84 years (interquartile range 79-89) and 61.1% female. In the first 3 months following LTC entry, GP / medical practitioner attendances increased from 86.6% to 95.6% (aRR 1.10 95%CI 1.10-1.11), GP / medical practitioner urgent after hours (from 12.3% to 21.1%; aRR 1.72, 95%CI 1.70-1.74) and after-hours attendances (from 18.5% to 33.8%; aRR 1.83, 95%CI 1.81-1.84) increased almost two-fold. Pain, palliative and geriatric specialist medicine attendances were low in the 3 months prior (<3%) and decreased further following LTC admission. CONCLUSION: There is an opportunity to improve the utilisation of primary health care services following LTC entry to ensure that residents' increasingly complex care needs are adequately met.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Australia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Atención Primaria de Salud
7.
Bone ; 180: 116995, 2024 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38145862

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stratifying residents at increased risk for fractures in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) can potentially improve awareness and facilitate the delivery of targeted interventions to reduce risk. Although several fracture risk assessment tools exist, most are not suitable for individuals entering LTCF. Moreover, existing tools do not examine risk profiles of individuals at key periods in their aged care journey, specifically at entry into LTCFs. PURPOSE: Our objectives were to identify fracture predictors, develop a fracture risk prognostic model for new LTCF residents and compare its performance to the Fracture Risk Assessment in Long term care (FRAiL) model using the Registry of Senior Australians (ROSA) Historical National Cohort, which contains integrated health and aged care information for individuals receiving long term care services. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥65 years old who entered 2079 facilities in three Australian states between 01/01/2009 and 31/12/2016 were examined. Fractures (any) within 365 days of LTCF entry were the outcome of interest. Individual, medication, health care, facility and system-related factors were examined as predictors. A fracture prognostic model was developed using elastic nets penalised regression and Fine-Gray models. Model discrimination was examined using area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) from the 20 % testing dataset. Model performance was compared to an existing risk model (i.e., FRAiL model). RESULTS: Of the 238,782 individuals studied, 62.3 % (N = 148,838) were women, 49.7 % (N = 118,598) had dementia and the median age was 84 (interquartile range 79-89). Within 365 days of LTCF entry, 7.2 % (N = 17,110) of individuals experienced a fracture. The strongest fracture predictors included: complex health care rating (no vs high care needs, sub-distribution hazard ratio (sHR) = 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.39-1.67), nutrition rating (moderate vs worst, sHR = 1.48, 95%CI 1.38-1.59), prior fractures (sHR ranging from 1.24 to 1.41 depending on fracture site/type), one year history of general practitioner attendances (≥16 attendances vs none, sHR = 1.35, 95%CI 1.18-1.54), use of dopa and dopa derivative antiparkinsonian medications (sHR = 1.28, 95%CI 1.19-1.38), history of osteoporosis (sHR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.16-1.27), dementia (sHR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.17-1.28) and falls (sHR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.17-1.25). The model AUC in the testing cohort was 0.62 (95%CI 0.61-0.63) and performed similar to the FRAiL model (AUC = 0.61, 95%CI 0.60-0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Critical information captured during transition into LTCF can be effectively leveraged to inform fracture risk profiling. New fracture predictors including complex health care needs, recent emergency department encounters, general practitioner and consultant physician attendances, were identified.


Asunto(s)
Pueblos de Australasia , Demencia , Fracturas Óseas , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Casas de Salud , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pueblos de Australasia/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia/epidemiología , Demencia/epidemiología , Dihidroxifenilalanina , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Cuidados a Largo Plazo/estadística & datos numéricos , Casas de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo
8.
BMJ Open ; 13(12): e073611, 2023 12 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070926

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of conducting a pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an informal caregiver training programme to support the recovery of people following hip fracture surgery. DESIGN: Two-arm, multicentre, pragmatic, open, feasibility RCT with embedded qualitative study. SETTING: National Health Service (NHS) providers in five English hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults, aged 60 years and over, who undergo hip fracture surgery and their informal caregivers. INTERVENTION: Usual care: usual NHS care. EXPERIMENTAL: usual NHS care plus a caregiver-patient dyad training programme (HIP HELPER). This programme comprised three, 1 hour, one-to-one training sessions for a patient and caregiver, delivered by a nurse, physiotherapist or occupational therapist in the hospital setting predischarge. After discharge, patients and caregivers were supported through three telephone coaching sessions. RANDOMISATION AND BLINDING: Central randomisation was computer generated (1:1), stratified by hospital and level of patient cognitive impairment. There was no blinding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data collected at baseline and 4 months post randomisation included: screening logs, intervention logs, fidelity checklists, acceptability data and clinical outcomes. Interviews were conducted with a subset of participants and health professionals. RESULTS: 102 participants were enrolled (51 patients; 51 caregivers). Thirty-nine per cent (515/1311) of patients screened were eligible. Eleven per cent (56/515) of eligible patients consented to be randomised. Forty-eight per cent (12/25) of the intervention group reached compliance to their allocated intervention. There was no evidence of treatment contamination. Qualitative data demonstrated the trial and HIP HELPER programme was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The HIP HELPER programme was acceptable to patient-caregiver dyads and health professionals. The COVID-19 pandemic impacting on site's ability to deliver the research. Modifications are necessary to the design for a viable definitive RCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13270387.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Fracturas de Cadera , Adulto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Estudios de Factibilidad , Inglaterra , Fracturas de Cadera/cirugía , Hospitales , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Calidad de Vida
9.
BMJ Open ; 13(11): e074095, 2023 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977867

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to illuminate the perspectives of informal caregivers who support people following hip fracture surgery. DESIGN: A qualitative study embedded within a now completed multicentre, feasibility randomised controlled trial (HIP HELPER). SETTING: Five English National Health Service hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 20 participants (10 informal caregivers and 10 people with hip fracture), following hip fracture surgery. This included one male and nine females who experienced a hip fracture; and seven male and three female informal caregivers. The median age was 72.5 years (range: 65-96 years), 71.0 years (range: 43-81 years) for people with hip fracture and informal caregivers, respectively. METHODS: Semistructured, virtual interviews were undertaken between November 2021 and March 2022, with caregiver dyads (person with hip fracture and their informal caregiver). Data were analysed thematically. FINDINGS: We identified two main themes: expectations of the informal caregiver role and reality of being an informal caregiver; and subthemes: expectations of care and services; responsibility and advocacy; profile of people with hip fracture; decision to be a caregiver; transition from hospital to home. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest informal caregivers do not feel empowered to advocate for a person's recovery or navigate the care system, leading to increased and unnecessary stress, anxiety and frustration when supporting the person with hip fracture. We suggest that a tailored information giving on the recovery pathway, which is responsive to the caregiving population (ie, considering the needs of male, younger and more active informal caregivers and people with hip fracture) would smooth the transition from hospital to home. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13270387.Cite Now.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Fracturas de Cadera , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios de Factibilidad , Fracturas de Cadera/cirugía , Investigación Cualitativa , Medicina Estatal
10.
Age Ageing ; 52(11)2023 11 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37993405

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multifactorial fall prevention trials providing interventions based on individual risk factors have variable success in aged care facilities. To determine configurations of trial features that reduce falls, intervention component analysis (ICA) and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) were undertaken. METHODS: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from a Cochrane Collaboration review (Cameron, 2018) with meta-analysis data, plus trials identified in a systematic search update to December 2021 were included. Meta-analyses were updated. A theory developed through ICA of English publications of trialist's perspectives was assessed through QCA and a subgroup meta-analysis. RESULTS: Pooled effectiveness of multifactorial interventions indicated a falls rate ratio of 0.85 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.65-1.10; I2 = 85%; 11 trials). All tested interventions targeted both environmental and personal risk factors by including assessment of environmental hazards, a medical or medication review and exercise intervention. ICA emphasised the importance of co-design involving facility staff and managers and tailored intervention delivery to resident's intrinsic factors for successful outcomes. QCA of facility engagement plus tailored delivery was consistent with greater reduction in falls, supported by high consistency (0.91) and coverage (0.85). An associated subgroup meta-analysis demonstrated strong falls reduction without heterogeneity (rate ratio 0.61, 95%CI 0.54-0.69, I2 = 0%; 7 trials). CONCLUSION: Multifactorial falls prevention interventions should engage aged care staff and managers to implement strategies which include tailored intervention delivery according to each resident's intrinsic factors. Such approaches are consistently associated with a successful reduction in falls, as demonstrated by QCA and subgroup meta-analyses. Co-design approaches may also enhance intervention success.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Anciano , Humanos , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Hogares para Ancianos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 96(4): 1747-1758, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a need for clinical quality indicators (CQIs) that can be applied to dementia quality registries to monitor care outcomes for people with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. OBJECTIVE: To develop tertiary and primary care-based dementia CQIs for application to clinical registries for individuals with dementia accessing aged care services and determine 1) annual trends in CQI incidence between 2011-2012 and 2015-2016, 2) associated factors, and 3) geographic and facility variation in CQI incidence. METHODS: This retrospective repeated cross-sectional study included non-Indigenous individuals aged 65-105 years who lived with dementia between July 2008-June 2016, were assessed for government-funded aged care services, and resided in New South Wales or Victoria (n = 180,675). Poisson or negative binomial regression models estimated trends in annual CQI incidence and associated factors. Funnel plots examined CQI variation. RESULTS: Between 2011-2012 and 2015-2016, CQI incidence increased for falls (11.0% to 13.9%, adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.06)) and delirium (4.7% to 6.7%, aIRR 1.09 (95% CI 1.07-1.10)), decreased for unplanned hospitalizations (28.7% to 27.9%, aIRR 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99)) and remained steady for fracture (6.2% to 6.5%, aIRR 1.01 (95% CI 0.99-1.01)) and pressure injuries (0.5% to 0.4%, aIRR 0.99 (95% CI 0.96-1.02)). Being male, older, having more comorbidities and living in a major city were associated with higher CQI incidence. Considerable geographical and facility variation was observed for unplanned hospitalizations and delirium CQIs. CONCLUSIONS: The CQI results highlighted considerable morbidity. The CQIs tested should be considered for application in clinical quality registries to monitor dementia care quality.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Delirio , Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Hospitalización , Delirio/epidemiología
12.
Arch Rehabil Res Clin Transl ; 5(3): 100275, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37744205

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess sleep quality of patients on a rehabilitation ward and to identify staff practices and beliefs about management of sleep disturbance. Design: Mixed-methods design including patient surveys and staff interviews. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation ward in a tertiary teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia. Participants: Of the 345 screened inpatients who had been in a mixed post-acute rehabilitation ward for at least 5 days, 120 (43% women) were included. The mean age was 67.7 years and the main admission reason was functional decline (40%). Patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury were excluded. Eleven (n = 11) staff (a mix of doctors, nurses, and allied health) were interviewed. Main Outcome Measures: The surveys comprised of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Flinders Fatigue Scale, and the Sleep Inertia Questionnaire. The survey results were compared with functional outcomes using the functional independence measure (FIM). Staff interviews delved into barriers to good sleep, ward practices, and knowledge about sleep hygiene. Results: 43% of the surveyed patients reported having healthy amount of sleep. Sleep quality was not significantly correlated with rehabilitation outcomes (assessed using FIM). Staff reported having a good awareness of sleep hygiene; however, acknowledged limitations about the environment and routine which were not conducive to healthy sleep. They identified several actions which could be taken to improve patients' sleep hygiene. Conclusions: Sleep disturbance is common for patients in rehabilitation. Rehabilitation wards should address this often-neglected critical component of rehabilitation to improve patient experience and potential participation in therapy. Introducing a systematic approach for assessing sleep during admission, establishing clear roles regarding sleep assessment and intervention among staff, and ensuring that patients and staff are aware of good sleep hygiene practices may promote better sleep during inpatient rehabilitation.

13.
Dementia (London) ; 22(7): 1372-1391, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37621009

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess Vietnam's dementia service delivery. METHODS: Using WHO methodology, website searches of key organisations focused on three aspects of Vietnam's healthcare system: (1) Health and social workforce; (2) Services, supports and treatment programs; and (3) Promotion of awareness and understanding. Data were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: While key members of the healthcare workforce receive some education in dementia competencies during their training, the skill-mix of staff in the current workforce appears inadequate to address the complex needs of people with dementia. Although Vietnam's general healthcare system comprises a good variety of service types, there is a lack of dementia-specific services. Available diagnosis and treatment services are concentrated in the hospital system and are mainly located in metropolitan areas, impacting their accessibility. While both community-based and institutional long-term care is available, institutional care is not universally accessible and home-based care is mainly provided by family carers who don't have access to dementia care training. There is no active dementia prevention or public awareness campaign. CONCLUSIONS: To improve the ability of Vietnam's service delivery to meet the needs of people with dementia and their carers, the skill-mix of the healthcare workforce should be strengthened by ensuring that dementia core competencies are embedded within undergraduate and graduate education programs and making post-qualification dementia care training available. The capacity of existing community-level health and social services should be expanded to ensure that integrated, specialised and comprehensive health and social services are accessible to all people with dementia. Expanding access to institutional long-term care and making dementia education available to family and other informal carers could increase choice and improve quality of care. Finally, Vietnam could look to other countries in the region with regards to the development of a dementia prevention and public awareness campaign.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Humanos , Vietnam , Demencia/terapia , Atención a la Salud , Cuidadores , Personal de Salud
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 521, 2023 08 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37641010

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria represents a considerable threat to human health, particularly for vulnerable populations such as those living in residential aged care. However, antimicrobial resistance carriage and modes of transmission remain incompletely understood. The Generating evidence on antimicrobial Resistance in the Aged Care Environment (GRACE) study was established to determine principal risk factors of antimicrobial resistance carriage and transmission in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). This article describes the cohort characteristics, national representation, and planned analyses for this study. METHODS: Between March 2019 and March 2020, 279 participants were recruited from five South Australian RACFs. The median age was 88.6 years, the median period in residence was 681 days, and 71.7% were female. A dementia diagnosis was recorded in 54.5% and more than two thirds had moderate to severe cognitive impairment (68.8%). 61% had received at least one course of antibiotics in the 12 months prior to enrolment. RESULTS: To investigate the representation of the GRACE cohort to Australians in residential aged care, its characteristics were compared to a subset of the historical cohort of the Registry of Senior Australians (ROSA). This included 142,923 individuals who were permanent residents of RACFs on June 30th, 2017. GRACE and ROSA cohorts were similar in age, sex, and duration of residential care, prevalence of health conditions, and recorded dementia diagnoses. Differences were observed in care requirements and antibiotic exposure (both higher for GRACE participants). GRACE participants had fewer hospital visits compared to the ROSA cohort, and a smaller proportion were prescribed psycholeptic medications. CONCLUSIONS: We have assembled a cohort of aged care residents that is representative of the Australian aged care population, and which provides a basis for future analyses. Metagenomic data isolated from participants and built environments will be used to determine microbiome and resistome characteristics of an individual and the facility. Individual and facility risk exposures will be aligned with metagenomic data to identify principal determinants for antimicrobial resistance carriage. Ultimately, this analysis will inform measures aimed at reducing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistant pathogens in this high-risk population.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Demencia , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Australia , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Factores de Edad , Demencia/diagnóstico , Demencia/tratamiento farmacológico , Demencia/epidemiología
15.
Emerg Med J ; 40(9): 641-645, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37400224

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High emergency department (ED) usage by older individuals for non-emergencies is a global concern. ED avoidance initiatives have proven effective in addressing this issue. To specifically cater to individuals aged 65 and above, the Southern Adelaide Local Health Network introduced an innovative ED avoidance service. This study assessed the acceptability of the service among its users. METHOD: The Complex And RestorativE (CARE) Centre is a six-bed unit staffed by a multidisciplinary geriatric team. Patients are transported directly to CARE after calling for an ambulance and being triaged by a paramedic. The evaluation took place between September 2021 and September 2022. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients and relatives who had accessed the service. Data analysis was performed using a six-step thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen patients and 15 relatives were interviewed, who described the experience of 32 attendances to the urgent CARE centre between them. Patients accessed the service for several reasons but over half were associated with falls. There was a hesitation to call emergency services for several reasons, the primary being long wait times in ED and/or the prospect of an overnight stay in hospital. Some individuals attempted to contact their General Practitioner (GP) for the presenting problem but were unable to get a timely appointment. Most participants had previously attended a local ED and had a negative experience. All individuals reported favouring the CARE centre over the traditional ED for numerous reasons including a quieter and safer environment and specially trained geriatric staff who were less rushed than ED staff. Several participants would have appreciated a standardised follow-up process after discharge. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that ED admission avoidance programmes may be an acceptable alternative treatment for older people requiring urgent care, potentially benefiting both public health systems and user experience.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Humanos , Anciano , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Hospitalización , Alta del Paciente , Triaje
16.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e070267, 2023 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37295839

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Frailty in Older people: Rehabilitation, Treatment, Research Examining Separate Settings (the FORTRESS study) is a multisite, hybrid type II, stepped wedge, cluster, randomised trial examining the uptake and outcomes of a frailty intervention. The intervention is based on the 2017 Asia Pacific Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Frailty and begins in the acute hospital setting and transitions to the community. The success of the intervention will require individual and organisational behaviour change within a dynamic health system. This process evaluation will examine the multiple variables at play in the context and mechanism of the frailty intervention to enhance understanding of the outcomes of the FORTRESS study and how the outcomes can be translated from the trial into broader practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The FORTRESS intervention will recruit participants from six wards in New South Wales and South Australia, Australia. Participants of the process evaluation will include trial investigators, ward-based clinicians, FORTRESS implementation clinicians, general practitioners and FORTRESS participants. The process evaluation has been designed using realist methodology and will occur in parallel to the FORTRESS trial. A mixed-method approach will be used with qualitative and quantitative data collected from interviews, questionnaires, checklists and outcome assessments. Qualitative and quantitative data will be examined for CMOCs (Context, Mechanism, Outcome Configurations) and programme theories will be developed, tested and refined. This will facilitate development of more generalisable theories to inform translation of frailty intervention within complex healthcare systems. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for the FORTRESS trial, inclusive of the process evaluation, has been obtained from the Northern Sydney Local Health District Human Research Ethics Committees reference number 2020/ETH01057. Recruitment for the FORTRESS trial uses opt-out consent. Dissemination will be via publications, conferences and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000760976p (FORTRESS trial).


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Anciano , Humanos , Australia , Atención a la Salud , Fragilidad/terapia , Transición del Hospital al Hogar , Hospitales
17.
Health Serv Manage Res ; : 9514848231179176, 2023 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37247254

RESUMEN

Objectives: Typologies are frequently utilised in analyses of the quality, funding, and efficiency of aged care systems. This review aims to provide a comprehensive resource identifying and critiquing existing aged care typologies. Methods: Systematic search of MEDLINE, Econlit, Google Scholar, greylit.org and Open Grey databases from inception to July 2020, including typologies of national, regional or provider aged care systems. Article screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal were conducted in duplicate. Results: 14 aged care typologies were identified; five applied to residential care, two to home care and seven to mixed settings; eight examined national systems and seven regional or provider systems. Five typologies classifying national financing or home care services, provider financing of staff and services and quality of residential care were considered high quality. The schematic provided summarises the focus area and aids in typology selection. Discussion: The aged care typologies identified cover a wide range of areas and contexts of aged care provision. This schematic, summary and critique will aid researchers, providers, and aged care policy makers to examine their own setting, compare it to other approaches to aged care provision and assist in identifying alternatives and important considerations, when undertaking aged care reform.

18.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 104(7): 1115-1123, 2023 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37024005

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study characterized substance use (alcohol, illicit drugs, amphetamines) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) receiving rehabilitation to determine potential benefit of rehabilitation and whether substance use influenced outcomes in moderate-severe TBI. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study of adults with moderate or severe TBI receiving inpatient rehabilitation. SETTING: Specialist-staffed acquired brain injury rehabilitation center in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 153 consecutive inpatients with TBI admitted between January 2016 and December 2017 (24 months). INTERVENTIONS: All inpatients with TBI (n=153) received specialist-provided brain injury rehabilitation in accordance with evidence-based guideline care at one 42-bed rehabilitation center. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected at time of TBI, upon rehabilitation admission, and discharge and 12 months' post-TBI. Recovery was measured by posttraumatic amnesia posttraumatic amnesia length-days and change in Glasgow Coma Scale (admission-discharge). Functional independence was measured on the FIM, Functional Assessment Measure, and Mayo Portland Adaptability Index. Quality of life (QOL) was measured on the EuroQOL-5D-5L and Quality of Life After Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) instruments. RESULTS: Inpatients with history of illicit drug use (n=54) reported lower QOL and adjustment at 12 months' post-TBI compared with those with no history (QOLIBRI social relationships: ratio of means=0.808, P=.028; Mayo Portland Adaptability Index adjustment: incidence rate ratio, 1.273; P=.032). Amphetamine use at time of injury (n=10) was associated with quicker recovery (posttraumatic amnesia length-days: incidence rate ratio, 0.173; P<.01); however, lower QOL at 12 months post-TBI was noted in those with a history of amphetamine use (n=34) compared with those without (QOLIBRI bothered feelings: ratio of means, 0.489, P=.036). CONCLUSIONS: All participants made improvements with rehabilitation post-TBI; however, a history of substance use was associated with lower reported 12-month QOL. These findings add insight to the associations between substance use and acute recovery, potentially suggestive of a short-term recovery-promoting effect of amphetamines but highlighting the importance of rehabilitation to address long-term sequalae.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Lesiones Encefálicas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Recuperación de la Función , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/rehabilitación , Lesiones Encefálicas/rehabilitación , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Amnesia , Anfetamina
19.
Australas J Ageing ; 42(3): 564-576, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37070244

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence and trends in primary care, allied health, geriatric, pain and palliative care service use by permanent residential aged care (PRAC) residents and the older Australian population. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional analyses on PRAC residents (N = 318,484) and the older (≥65 years) Australian population (N ~ 3.5 million). Outcomes were Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) subsidised primary care, allied health, geriatric, pain and palliative services between 2012-13 and 2016-17. GEE Poisson models estimated incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: In 2016-17, PRAC residents had a median of 13 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-19) regular general medical practitioner (GP) attendances, 3 (IQR 1-6) after-hours attendances and 5% saw a geriatrician. Highlights of utilisation changes from 2012-13 to 2016-17 include the following: GP attendances increased by 5%/year (IRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.05) for residents compared to 1%/year (IRR = 1.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.01) for the general population. GP after-hours attendances increased by 15%/year (IRR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.14-1.15) for residents and 9%/year (IRR = 1.08, 95%CI 1.07-1.20) for the general population. GP management plans increased by 12%/year (IRR = 1.12, 95%CI 1.11-1.12) for residents and 10%/year (IRR = 1.10, 95%CI 1.09-1.11) for the general population. Geriatrician consultations increased by 28%/year (IRR = 1.28, 95%CI 1.27-1.29) for residents compared to 14%/year (IRR = 1.14, 95%CI 1.14-1.15) in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The utilisation of most examined services increased in both cohorts over time. Preventive and management care, by primary care and allied health care providers, was low and likely influences the utilisation of other attendances. PRAC residents' access to pain, palliative and geriatric medicine services is low and may not address the residents' needs.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Australia/epidemiología , Dolor/diagnóstico , Dolor/epidemiología
20.
Intern Med J ; 53(11): 2073-2078, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36878881

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Australia, 243 000 individuals live in approximately 2700 residential aged care facilities yearly. In 2019, a National Aged Care Mandatory Quality Indicator programme (QI programme) was implemented to monitor the quality and safety of care in facilities. AIM: To examine the validity of the QI programme indicators using explicit measure review criteria. METHODS: The QI programme manual and reports were reviewed. A modified American College of Physicians Measure Review Criteria was employed to examine the QI programme's eight indicators. Five authors rated each indicator on importance, appropriateness, clinical evidence, specifications and feasibility using a nine-point scale. A median score of 1-3 was considered to not meet criteria, 4-6 to meet some criteria and 7-9 to meet criteria. RESULTS: All indicators, except polypharmacy, met criteria (median scores = 7-9) for importance, appropriateness and clinical evidence. Polypharmacy met some criteria for importance (median = 6, range 2-8), appropriateness (median = 5, range 2-8) and clinical evidence (median = 6, range 3-8). Pressure injury, physical restraints, significant unplanned weight loss, consecutive unplanned weight loss, falls and polypharmacy indicators met some criteria for specifications validity (all median scores = 5) and feasibility and applicability (median scores = 4 to 6). Antipsychotic use and falls resulting in major injury met some criteria for specifications (median = 6-7, range 4-8) and met criteria for feasibility and applicability (median = 7, range 4-8). CONCLUSIONS: Australia's National QI programme is a major stride towards a culture of quality promotion, improvement and transparency. Measures' specifications, feasibility and applicability could be improved to ensure the programme delivers on its intended purposes.


Asunto(s)
Hogares para Ancianos , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Australia , Polifarmacia , Pérdida de Peso
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