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1.
Nature ; 590(7844): 103-110, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361817

RESUMEN

Humans settled the Caribbean about 6,000 years ago, and ceramic use and intensified agriculture mark a shift from the Archaic to the Ceramic Age at around 2,500 years ago1-3. Here we report genome-wide data from 174 ancient individuals from The Bahamas, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (collectively, Hispaniola), Puerto Rico, Curaçao and Venezuela, which we co-analysed with 89 previously published ancient individuals. Stone-tool-using Caribbean people, who first entered the Caribbean during the Archaic Age, derive from a deeply divergent population that is closest to Central and northern South American individuals; contrary to previous work4, we find no support for ancestry contributed by a population related to North American individuals. Archaic-related lineages were >98% replaced by a genetically homogeneous ceramic-using population related to speakers of languages in the Arawak family from northeast South America; these people moved through the Lesser Antilles and into the Greater Antilles at least 1,700 years ago, introducing ancestry that is still present. Ancient Caribbean people avoided close kin unions despite limited mate pools that reflect small effective population sizes, which we estimate to be a minimum of 500-1,500 and a maximum of 1,530-8,150 individuals on the combined islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola in the dozens of generations before the individuals who we analysed lived. Census sizes are unlikely to be more than tenfold larger than effective population sizes, so previous pan-Caribbean estimates of hundreds of thousands of people are too large5,6. Confirming a small and interconnected Ceramic Age population7, we detect 19 pairs of cross-island cousins, close relatives buried around 75 km apart in Hispaniola and low genetic differentiation across islands. Genetic continuity across transitions in pottery styles reveals that cultural changes during the Ceramic Age were not driven by migration of genetically differentiated groups from the mainland, but instead reflected interactions within an interconnected Caribbean world1,8.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0229370, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326416

RESUMEN

The present study applies a dental morphological perspective to the understanding of the complex pre-contact population history of the South Central Andes, through the detection of the underlying dynamics, and the assessment of the biological ties among groups. It presents an analysis of 1591 individuals from 66 sites that date from the Archaic to the Late Intermediate phases from Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The results suggest this area is characterized by significant movement of people and cultures and, at the same time, by long standing population continuity, and highlight the need for wider perspectives capable of taking into account both the different micro-regional realities and the region in its entirety.


Asunto(s)
Migración Humana/historia , Dinámica Poblacional/historia , Arqueología , Bolivia , Chile , Femenino , Fósiles , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Masculino , Perú , Diente
3.
Homo ; 70(2): 147-154, 2019 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486824

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of anatomical variants of maxillary lateral incisors in archaeological and modern populations from the Maya region. Both populations were derived from the state of Yucatan, Mexico. The archaeological sample consisted of human remains representing 122 individuals from the ancient Maya archaeological site of Xcambo (AD 250-700). The modern sample consisted of 475 dental models from the municipality of Tahdziú, Yucatan. The anatomical variants evaluated included microdontia, barrel-shaped incisors, and talon cusp. The prevalence of each anatomical variant for each population was calculated and compared (Fisher p < 0.05). The prevalence of anatomical variants was 15.57% (n = 19) in the archaeological sample and 14.11% (n = 67) in the modern one; the difference was not significant (p = 0.666). When compared by specific anatomical variants, a significant (p = 0.013) association was observed for microdontia: 2.45% (n = 3) in the archaeological population and 9.05% (n = 43) in the modern population. Barrel-shaped incisors (p = 0.522) and talon cusp (p = 0.466) did not exhibit significant associations. The overall prevalence of anatomical variants in the maxillary lateral incisors in this region has not changed. The prevalence of microdontia has increased over the last 1500 years, and different microevolutionary processes may be called into question for such change.


Asunto(s)
Incisivo/anatomía & histología , Incisivo/patología , Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Anomalías Dentarias/patología , Arqueología , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , México , Paleodontología , Anomalías Dentarias/historia
4.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(2): 246-259, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222724

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To increase understanding of the subsistence practices of the first Americans through analysis of the near-complete dentition of a young woman dating to the terminal Pleistocene of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The skeleton is that of "Naia" a 15 to 17-year-old female from the submerged natural trap of Hoyo Negro found in association with remains of numerous extinct species of megafauna. Superbly preserved remains included the skull with 28 teeth, which are analyzed for evidence of caries, periodontal disease, wear patterns, and malocclusion. RESULTS: Naia exhibits a high frequency of dental caries, along with aggressive periodontal disease that threatened all her teeth, particularly her incisors. Dental attrition was extremely light for a hunter-gatherer, reaching to four on the Molnar scale on only one tooth. Lack of wear is associated with severe mandibular retrognathia, and low masticatory forces. DISCUSSION: Naia's dental condition is compared with that of other northern Paleoamericans, mostly females, dating before 11,000 cal BP. These exhibit a high degree of variability in both caries and tooth wear. All, however, exhibit rapid anterior wear owing to technological use of the front teeth. Naia exhibits the highest rate of caries, similar to that of the earliest South Americans, and one of the lowest rates of attrition. This demonstrates that she had a nonabrasive diet that was at least seasonally rich in carbohydrates. This does not mean her diet was low in meat, however, because similarly light dental attrition is seen in the Arch Lake female, a Paleoamerican from a big-game hunting society.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/historia , Indios Norteamericanos/historia , Salud Bucal/historia , Adolescente , Caries Dental/patología , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Humanos , México/etnología , Paleodontología
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1216-1221, Dec. 2018. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-975685

RESUMEN

A successful endodontic treatment requires knowledge of the internal configuration of dental root canals. Most of the people who live in Yucatan are of Maya origin, characterized by a Mongoloid dental pattern. Because of their ethnicity, variations are expected. The purpose of this investigation is to assess the morphological characteristics and variability of this population. One hundred and five extracted first mandibular premolars of Mexican Maya population were analyzed; the sample was obtained from the Oral Surgery Clinic in the School of Dentistry at the Autonomous University of Yucatan with written informed consent. Analyses were performed by means of Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Vertucci´s Type I was the most prevalent configuration with 51.4 %, but 41 cases (39.1 %) presented a radicular groove and a C-shaped canal configuration. Overall, we documented 1, 2, 3, and 4 root canals. Mandibular first premolars are very variable in the Yucatecan population. The variability and frequency of C-shape is similar to mandibular second molars confirming the importance of the ethnic background for the endodontic treatments.


El éxito en el tratamiento endodóntico requiere el conocimiento profundo de la configuración interna del sistema de conductos radiculares. La mayoría de las personas que viven en Yucatán son de origen Maya y poseen el patron dental Mongoloide; por lo tanto, se esperan variaciones debido a su etnicidad. El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar las características morfológicas y la variabilidad del conducto radicular en la población yucateca. Se analizaron ciento cinco primeros premolars mandibulares extraídos de pacientes provenientes de una muestra Maya mexicana; la muestra fue obtenida de la Clínica de Cirugía Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Con consentimiendo informado escrito. Se utilizaron Tomografías Computarizadas para el análisis de la muestra. La configuración más prevalente fue la Tipo I de Vertucci con 51,4 %. Sin embargo, 41 de 105 casos (39,1 %) presentaron un surco radicular y la configuración en forma de "C". Se documentaron casos con 1, 2, 3 y 4 conductos radiculares. Los primeros premolares mandibulares de la población Yucateca son muy variables. La variabilidad y frecuencia de conductos en forma de "C" concuerda con estudios realizados en segundos molars mandibulares en esta zona confirmando la importancia del origen étnico de las poblaciones para los tratamientos endodónticos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Diente Premolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Cavidad Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagen , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagen , Diente Premolar/anatomía & histología , Indios Norteamericanos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Cavidad Pulpar/anatomía & histología , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , México
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(4): 1229-1234, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-975688

RESUMEN

El conocimiento preciso de la morfología radicular dental son claves para el éxito en las terapias endodónticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las distintas variaciones de la morfología radicular y apical en primeros molares superiores e inferiores de una población maya moderna. Se observaron microfotografías provenientes de 80 primeros molares superiores e inferiores, presentadas en cortes transversales a 1 y 2,5 mm del vértice apical, así como de las porciones 1/3, 1⁄2, 2/3 del largo radicular y en la unión amelocementaria. Se determinó el número de raíces, conductos y configuración de Vertucci, así como forma y medidas de diámetro mayor y menor a 1 mm del vértice apical. El 90 % de primeros molares superiores reportó la presencia de 3 raíces y el 10 % mostró 2. En tanto que el total de primeros molares inferiores (100 %) reportó 2 raíces. En general, en las raíces mesiales prevaleció el Tipo II de Vertucci mientras que en las distales y palatinas la Tipo I. En el corte a 1 mm del vértice apical la forma redonda fue la de mayor prevalencia en los conductos de primeros molares superiores (44,5 %), seguida de la irregular (34,1 %) y la oval (21,4 %); mientras que en los primeros molares inferiores la más prevalente fue la irregular (54, 5 %), seguida de la redonda (23,9 %) y oval (21,6 %). Los diámetros mayor y menor de los conductos mesiales a 1 mm apical midieron 0,46 y 0,23 mm y 0,64 y 0,25 mm en molares superiores e inferiores respectivamente. La frecuencia de MB2 en primeros molares superiores fue del 77,8 %. Los conductos con mayor variabilidad fueron los mesiales. Se observó baja frecuencia de conductos ovales. Los diámetros mayores de los conductos mesiales en general, fueron superiores a 0,45 mm.


Accurate knowledge of dental root morphology is a key to success in endodontic therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the different variations of the root and apical morphology in upper and lower first molars of a modern Mayan population. Photomicrographs were taken from 80 upper and lower first molars, presented in cross sections at 1 and 2.5 mm from the apical vertex, as well as from the 1/3, 1⁄2, 2/3 portions of the root length and at the cementoenamel junction. The number of roots, canal and Vertucci`s configuration was determined, as well as the shape and measurements of the major and minor diameters at 1 mm from the apex. In this study 90 % of upper first molars reported the presence of 3 roots and 10 % showed 2, while the total lower first molars (100 %) reported 2 roots. In general, Vertucci`s Type II prevailed in the mesial roots while Type I was prevalent in the distal and palatal ones. In the 1 mm cut of the apical vertex, the round shape was the most prevalent in the canal of the first upper molars (44.5 %), followed by irregular (34.1 %) and oval (21.4 %); while in the first lower molars the most prevalent one was irregular (54.5 %), followed by round (23.9 %) and oval (21.6 %). The major and minor diameters of the mesial canals at 1 mm apical recorded 0.46 and 0.23 mm and 0.64 and 0.25 mm in upper and lower molars respectively. The frequency of MB2 in upper first molars was 77.8 %. The canals with greater variability were the mesial ones. Low frequency of oval canals was observed. The largest diameters of the mesial canal in general were greater than 0.45 mm.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Raíz del Diente/anatomía & histología , Indios Norteamericanos , Diente Molar/anatomía & histología , Ápice del Diente/anatomía & histología
7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 166(4): 824-836, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29603124

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The tropics harbor a large part of the world's biodiversity and have a long history of human habitation. However, paleogenomics research in these climates has been constrained so far by poor ancient DNA yields. Here we compare the performance of two DNA extraction methods on ancient samples of teeth and petrous portions excavated from tropical and semi-tropical sites in Tanzania, Mexico, and Puerto Rico (N = 12). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All samples were extracted twice, built into double-stranded sequencing libraries, and shotgun sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2500. The first extraction protocol, Method D, was previously designed for recovery of ultrashort DNA fragments from skeletal remains. The second, Method H, modifies the first by adding an initial EDTA wash and an extended digestion and decalcification step. RESULTS: No significant difference was found in overall ancient DNA yields or post-mortem damage patterns recovered from samples extracted with either method, irrespective of tissue type. However, Method H samples had higher endogenous content and more mapped reads after quality-filtering, but also higher clonality. In contrast, samples extracted with Method D had shorter average DNA fragments. DISCUSSION: Both methods successfully recovered endogenous ancient DNA. But, since surviving DNA in ancient or historic remains from tropical contexts is extremely fragmented, our results suggest that Method D is the optimal choice for working with samples from warm and humid environments. Additional optimization of extraction conditions and further testing of Method H with different types of samples may allow for improvement of this protocol in the future.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo/análisis , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/métodos , Clima Tropical , Antropología Física , Composición de Base/genética , Daño del ADN/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , México , Puerto Rico , Tanzanía , Diente/química
8.
Am J Hum Biol ; 27(6): 767-78, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26088941

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This article aims to infer population dynamics in the Noh Bec region (Yucatán Peninsula, México) during the Maya Classic period (AD 350-800), based on a combined analysis of dental morphology and (87) Sr/(86) Sr isotopes, and on a comparison of the dental evidence together with archaeological signs of trade and relationships with other regions in the Maya world. METHODS: Twenty-three dental morphological variables were used to estimate affinities between dental collections from Noh Bec and 10 more sites from the region. (87) Sr/(86) Sr isotopes were recorded from the enamel of permanent teeth of 32 individuals from Noh Bec, and compared to the site's local chemical signature. RESULTS: Dental morphology reveals a strong affinity with Kohunlich, in the central Maya lowlands, while some diversity can be noted with the Petén sites (such as Calakmul) as well as sites on the northern coast of the peninsula. The local extent of (87) Sr/(86) Sr variation ranges between 0.7086 and 0.7088. Eight of the 32 Noh Bec individuals analyzed were born elsewhere. Isotopic values indicate different places of origin although apparently none were from the northern coast of the peninsula; instead, the range of variability reflects many locations along the western coast of the peninsula as well as inland sites in the Chenes region in Campeche. CONCLUSIONS: Dental morphology and (87) Sr/(86) Sr ratios indicate intense population dynamics in the peninsula during the Maya Classic period. Despite the different nature of the dental and isotopic indicators, results agree with archaeological evidence and with proposed trade routes in the peninsula.


Asunto(s)
Antropología Física/métodos , Dinámica Poblacional/historia , Diente , Historia Antigua , Humanos , México , Esqueleto , Isótopos de Estroncio
9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 153(2): 190-202, 2014 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24420084

RESUMEN

The relationship between diet and oral health is widely known, yet data on dental caries prevalence is lacking for many indigenous groups with traditional or rapidly modernizing diets. This research documents caries prevalence in two Maya communities from northern Yucatán (Mexico) with significantly different levels of market integration, subsistence, and diet: Yalsihón, with a traditional, maize-based subsistence economy, and Dzilam, with access to globalized food markets. Each sample was subdivided by sex into 15-19, 20-24, and 25-30 years-of-age classes. Caries prevalence was considered separately both when the lesion affected the enamel superficially (grade 1+) and when it reached the dentin (grade 2+). In both villages, females of all age classes manifest more caries than males. Results show higher prevalence of caries at Dzilam than at Yalsihón, except for grade 1+ caries among 15-19-year-old males and grade 2+ caries among 15-19-year-old females. Though differences are not significant, earlier pregnancies among 15-19-year-old females at Yalsihón could be a causative factor. A survey indicated a more balanced diet at Yalsihón despite a heavier intake of maize than at Dzilam. Striking differences were documented in the ingestion of soda and globalized foods; sodas were virtually absent at Yalsihón, while at Dzilam they were ingested daily in great quantities. The decline in oral health at Dzilam is inferred to result from consumption of industrially processed foods and drinks, while a traditional diet leads to less caries despite daily heavy consumption of maize, which must be considered when interpreting caries rates in archaeological samples.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/etnología , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria/etnología , Zea mays , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura/economía , Antropología Física , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , México/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores Socioeconómicos , Verduras , Adulto Joven
10.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 145(4): 560-7, 2011 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21590750

RESUMEN

Patterns of carious lesions were analyzed in the Classic period coastal Maya population of Xcambó, a salt production and administration center in northern Yucatan. To this end, the study investigated caries in the permanent dentitions of 163 adult skeletons, 23 from the Early Classic (AD 250-550) and 140 from the Late Classic period (AD 550-750), equally distributed between sexes. The archaeological and bioarchaeological evidence indicates a wealthy and socially homogeneous population dedicated to salt production and administration in the Early Classic that switched to pure administrative functions in the Late Classic. The results indicate an increase in caries from 7.4% and 21.2% (males and females respectively) from the Early Classic to 14.0% in males and 27.4% in females from the Late Classic period. The rate of caries in the Early and in the Late Classic phases of continuous occupation is not consistent with a simple interpretation of a heavier reliance on maize during the latter phase, characterized by a sedentary lifestyle, particularly for the male segment of the society now dedicated completely to the administration of the salt mines. Rather, the increase in caries rates in both sexes is best explained within a broader context of overall food habits, new cariogenic foods for both sexes, and the changes in lifestyle imposed by the increased socioeconomic role of the site. Our conclusions stress the limitations imposed by interpreting carious lesions solely in terms of single dietary components, such as maize consumption, without taking into account broader aspects of cultural and socioeconomic relevance.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/historia , Dieta/historia , Conducta Alimentaria , Zea mays , Adulto , Antropología Física , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Diente/patología
11.
J Forensic Sci ; 55(2): 473-7, 2010 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20070468

RESUMEN

This study develops new histomorphological algorithms for Maya populations' human ribs and tests the applicability of published algorithms. Thin sections from the fourth rib of 36 individuals of known age were analyzed under polarized light microscopy. Osteon population density (OPD, the concentration of intact and fragmented osteons per mm(2)), cortical area (CA), and osteon size (OS) were recorded. Seven algorithms were calculated, using all combinations of variables, and compared to the performance of published formulas. The OPD-based formulas deviate from the known age 8.7 years on average, while those from OS and CA deviate between 10.7 and 12.8 years. In comparison, our OPD-based algorithms perform better than the one by Stout and Paine and much better than Cho et al. In conclusion, algorithms should be developed using OPD for different ethnic groups; although Stout and Paine's can be used for Maya and maybe Mesoamerican individuals.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Edad por el Esqueleto/métodos , Algoritmos , Costillas/anatomía & histología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Osteón/anatomía & histología , Humanos , Masculino , México , Microscopía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Regresión
12.
Hum Biol ; 81(4): 479-93, 2009 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20067371

RESUMEN

The Copper Age (3rd millennium BC) was characterized by considerable socioeconomic transformations and coincided with the discovery of metallurgy. In this study we reconstruct the peopling of Italy during this period on the basis of dental morphology traits. Dental remains from 41 sites throughout Italy were analyzed; only three of the sites (Laterza and two from Sicily) span from the late Copper Age to the early Bronze Age. To work with adequate samples, we pooled the collections into nine geographically and culturally homogeneous groups. Dental morphological traits were scored on 8,891 teeth from 1,302 individuals using the ASUDAS scale. The correlation between the mean measure of divergence and geographic distances (calculated as air distances) was computed. Multidimensional scaling with the minimum spanning tree and maximum-likelihood methods was applied to assess the relationships between groups. The results revealed a substantial genetic homogeneity among the populations throughout the Italian peninsula during the Copper Age with the exception of Sardinia, which tends to diverge from the continental samples. Phenetic and geographic distances correlate highly significantly only when the southern samples from Sicily and Laterza are removed from the analysis, which indicates that these groups may have experienced genetic admixture with external populations.


Asunto(s)
Dentición , Genética de Población , Diente/anatomía & histología , Femenino , Fósiles , Geografía , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Programas Informáticos
13.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 122(1): 1-10, 2003 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12923899

RESUMEN

Dental caries and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) are investigated in a Classic Maya sample obtained from the sites of Calakmul, Dzibanché, and Kohunlich (Mexico). This study aims at assessing the effect that sex and social status had on the prevalence of oral pathologies. The lack of a direct relationship between caries, AMTL, and age-at-death led us to interpret the results in terms of the biological, socioeconomic, and behavioral conditions prevailing in these ancient Maya settlements. Benefits related to sex and social status are evident in the frequency of carious lesions, which appear less frequently in elite males than in low-status individuals of both sexes and in elite females. Individuals from problematic mortuary contexts and isolated bone assemblages, who could not be ascribed to any status group, showed the highest rates of caries. Sex discrimination in dietary preferences appears in the elite sample, while the homogeneity encountered between sexes in the low-status segment suggests a more uniform access to resources. Tooth loss clearly distinguishes elite individuals from commoners, regardless of sex, with the former bearing a much higher rate of loss. In individuals from the undefined mortuary assemblages and sacrificial contexts, it was even more pronounced than in the other groups, although its interpretation is problematic due to a lack of associated funerary data. The overall evidence from oral pathologies is interpreted to be the result of deficient oral hygiene coupled with a softer and more refined diet in the high-status population, particularly males. Whereas elite males' subsistence was apparently based more on animal proteins and relatively soft and refined foods, a diet relying on carbohydrates may account for the observed rate of oral pathologies in elite females and commoners.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental/epidemiología , Clase Social , Pérdida de Diente/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropología Física , Caries Dental/etiología , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Bucal , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Pérdida de Diente/etiología
14.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 119(3): 283-7, 2002 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12365040

RESUMEN

Linear enamel hypoplasia was scored on Neolithic, Copper Age, and Early Bronze Age samples from the Trentino region, Italy, in order to compare the extent of growth disruption in different biocultural subsistence systems (foragers with little agriculture, to agriculturists and agropastoralists). The Early Bronze Age sample shows a higher frequency of enamel defects and an earlier chronological onset than the early Neolithic sample. The higher frequency of defects in the Bronze Age sample could be linked to less diversified nutrition and, because of increased sedentism, a higher risk of disease.


Asunto(s)
Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental/historia , Paleodontología , Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental/patología , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Italia
15.
Am J Hum Biol ; 9(2): 213-222, 1997.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28561526

RESUMEN

Social differentiation is a characteristic of all societies, and higher social status is often associated with better nutrition and good health. Traditional archeologically inferred social status has been linked with biological evidence such as skeletal robusticity and the incidence of disease. In this regard, linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) is considered a good indicator of health, and individuals with a high status should, at least in theory, not suffer from severe defects. In order to test this hypothesis, the prevalence and occurrence of LEH were assessed in a skeletal sample at the Fort Center, Florida, site. Located near Lake Okeechobee, this site was occupied from about A.D. 200-800, and was considered a mortuary ceremonial center. These archeological findings suggested that individuals buried there belonged to a high class and merited special mortuary rituals. Although 1,835 teeth were found, only 679 maxillary and 393 mandibular teeth were analyzed. The upper I1 and lower C are reported to be most representative for LEH, and were thus selected for further analysis. There were 45 left incisors and 48 left canines. Results indicated that about 95% of incisors and 98% of canines were affected. The occurrence of severe hypoplastic lines was much lower (between 30% and 40%). The minimum number of defects affecting the canine surpassed three, thus showing evidence of repeated stress during childhood. Hypoplasia was first observed between the ages of 1.0 and 1.5 years for incisors and between 2.0 and 2.5 years for canines. Severe defects were first noted to occur at 2.5-3.0 years of age for incisors and 3.0-3.5 years for canines. In conclusion, the high frequency of LEH in this socially elite population seems to prove that in prehistory even privileged classes were severely subjected to stress and the social stratification alone was not sufficient to buffer them from rigorous environments. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 9:213-222, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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